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Tanbur or Tambur ( Persian طنبور, DMG ṭanbūr , for some time also Persian تنبور, DMG tanbūr , also pronounced tambur ) is a plucked long-neck lute with frets and two to five strings that is widespread in the Orient , whereby the highest string can be doubled.

The names of many long-necked sounds are derived from the word tanbūr : from the Balkans ( tambura ) to Turkey ( tanbur, tambur , Kurdish tembûr ), Iran to Central Asia ( dombra ), Afghanistan ( dambura ) and to the Indian tanpura and the, which are clearly different in shape tandura . The sound box of today's instruments is glued from wood chips. They are related to the Persian long-necked lute setar and dotar . A lyre on the Red Sea is called tanbura .

Tanbur was created by changing the sound from the old word pandur , from which the European sound Pandora , the Georgian panduri and the Chechen pondur take their name. The tamur in Dagestan is also known as the pandur .

The tanbūr is often played in conjunction with the frame drum daf , in Tajik music with the frame drum daira , and is one of the four basic instruments of Turkish art music . Sufis in western Iran and other Kurdish settlement areas use the instrument in religious invocation ( Dhikr ). In Iraq, long-necked lutes do not occur in the Arab settlement areas, but only in the north, where they are played by Turkmen (known as saz ) and Kurds ( tanbūr ). Arabs in Syria and Lebanon call their long-necked sounds buzuk .

Around 1874 an Uzbek composer introduced a musical notation for the tanbūr , with which the maqam melodies and rhythms played in his region of choresmia could be recorded in writing for the first time.


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Notes and individual references

  1. The letter (ط) indicates the non-Persian origin of the term (see also here ).
  2. Their names are derived from Persian طنبور سه تاره, DMG ṭanbūr-e seh-tāre , "three-stringed tanbur", or Persian طنبور دوتاره, DMG ṭanbūr-e do-tāre , "two-stringed tanbur", from.
  3. Scheherazade Qassim Hassan: The Long Necked Lute in Iraq. In: Asian Music , Vol. 13, No. 2, 1982, pp. 1-18, here pp. 1f
  4. Alexander Djumaev: Central Asia. 1. The Tajik-Uzbek art music. a. Music theory roots. In: Ludwig Finscher (Hrsg.): The music in past and present . (MGG) Volume 9, Bärenreiter, Kassel 1998, Sp. 2366f