Norway spruce

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Norway spruce
Picea abies.jpg

Norway spruce ( Picea abies )

Class : Coniferopsida
Order : Conifers (Coniferales)
Family : Pine family (Pinaceae)
Subfamily : Piceoideae
Genre : Spruce trees ( Picea )
Type : Norway spruce
Scientific name
Picea abies
( L. ) H. Karst.

The common spruce ( Picea abies ), also known as common spruce , red spruce or red fir , is a species of the spruce genus ( Picea ). It is native to Europe and far into continental Asia and is the only naturally occurring representative of the genus in Central Europe . It is an important wood supplier in terms of forestry.

The common spruce can live up to 600 years; the forest rotation period , on the other hand, is only 80 to 100 years. In 2008, root wood was found under the Old Tjikko spruce in Fulufjäll in the province of Dalarna in Sweden , which was dated to an age of 9,550 years and is genetically identical to the tree above it.

The Norway spruce is the tree of the year 2017 in Germany.


Shape and stature

The common spruce is an upright evergreen tree that can reach heights of up to about 40 meters; under special conditions 50 to a maximum of 62 meters have been measured. This makes it the largest tree native to Europe, alongside the silver fir ( Abies alba ). The common spruce can reach a trunk diameter of up to 1.5 meters. The average growth of the common spruce in Germany is 15  m³ per hectare and year.

Picea abies

The formation of roots in the common spruce depends on the soil ventilation. On heavy soils, with waterlogging and high groundwater levels, it develops a plate-shaped , flat and extensive root system, which results in an increased risk of wind throws . If the soils are deep and well ventilated, a richly branched root system often several meters deep is formed, but without a taproot .

20 day old seedling
Young spruce

The crown of the common spruce is conical around the trunk that is just growing. The branches are lively arranged. While they are usually upright or straight in the upper half of the trunk, they usually hang down in the lower half of the trunk. The latter can be observed particularly well in older trees. Trees in the open keep their green branches down to the ground for a long time and grow like mantled spruce .

In the case of the common spruce, due to the large distribution area with different location and climatic conditions, so-called ecotypes have developed, which differ in terms of branching and needles. The shape of the crown differs in particular for the first branches, the branches of the 1st order as well as the further branches branching off from them, the branches of the 2nd and higher order. In the so-called panel spruce, the 2nd order branches go off horizontally. In the comb spruce, however, the branches of the 2nd and higher order sag. Up until around 20 years of age, the common spruce shows consistently plate-like branching. Only then does the development of these two main types of crown formation begin. The respective crown shape seems to be primarily influenced by lighting conditions, the quality of the location and the water supply. Comb spruce can be found mainly in well-supplied locations, while slab spruce dominates on bog locations with few nutrients and at extreme altitudes. Slab spruce trees can make better use of scattered light and perpendicular light and are therefore mainly used in shelters and on southern slopes. Combed spruces, which use inclined light more effectively, are more likely to be found on northern slopes and in boreal coniferous forests . The contact surface of the comb spruce is small, which benefits them in snowy regions. In locations that are exposed to strong winds, such as Ireland and Scotland, on the other hand, you will find mainly slab spruce, as their shortened branches offer better rigidity and their flat arrangement offers more wind slippage. The sagging branches of the comb spruce, on the other hand, can be torn off more easily by strong winds in such regions.

Bark of the Norway spruce


The trunk shows a reddish-brown colored, finely scaly bark in lower layers , whereas in mountainous areas the reddish color takes on more gray tones. The striking color of the bark is apparently responsible for the misleading name “red fir”. The gray-brown bark of older trees is a good distinguishing feature from the light gray bark of the silver fir . Spruce bark flakes off in irregular scales, the trunk of the silver fir is much smoother.


Hairless, resinless buds. The needles of the common spruce on a woody leaf cushion, while the needles of the fir tree nestle against the branch.

The needles are only on long shoots. They are sharp-pointed and square in cross-section, somewhat flattened in the shade. In healthy trees, the needles are 4 to 7 years old, and also older in high mountains . The needles of the common spruce are usually one to two centimeters long and one millimeter wide. Except for a narrow seam on the underside of the branch, they are distributed around the branch. They sit on brown stems. When the needles fall, the leaf base ( leaf cushion) that has grown together with the stem axis remains on the branch. The twigs therefore feel raspy and rough. This is also a distinguishing feature on older branches compared to the silver fir.

Flowers and cones

Male flower
Female cone - green shape
Ripe cones

The Norway spruce develops flower buds and blossoms between May and June, often only three to four years apart. In mountainous areas, the trees usually only bloom every seven years. If the spruce blooms at shorter intervals, this can indicate a lack of nutrients, water scarcity or cold spells (so-called "fear bloom"). The slender, monoecious buds are light brown in color and conical in shape. The one centimeter large male flowers stand individually and are formed in older trees at the tips of the branches of the previous year. Their color gradually changes from carmine to yellow. The female flowers are grouped in cones . In younger trees they are densely packed in the upper branch whorls, in older specimens they are distributed over the entire crown of the tree, resembling small red, upright cones. The single flower consists of a flat carpel and a membranous bract, the cover scale. The carpel later lignifies into a solid seed scale . The cones need a whole year to reach seed maturity. The juicy reddish-green cones gradually change into the familiar brown, downward-hanging, dry and woody cones. These have a length of about 10 to 15 centimeters and a width of 3 to 4 centimeters and are soon discarded as a whole after ripening. The high-fat seeds are winged. The commonly known "pine cones" that can be found on the forest floor are spruce cones because firs do not shed their cones as a whole.

Chromosome number

The number of chromosomes is 2n = 24.

Natural monument of a spruce in South Tyrol

Distribution and location

The homeland of the Norway spruce stretches across almost all of Europe with the exception of the British Isles and the Iberian Peninsula as far as continental Asia. It occurs mainly in Central , Eastern and Northern Europe . It is widespread from the Alps to the Balkans , occurs in the low mountain ranges and the Carpathian Mountains , and further north and east in Poland , Russia and Scandinavia . It prefers a humid and cool climate and is therefore a mountain tree in the southern part of its range. Its upper height limit is between 950 meters in the Harz Mountains and 2200 meters in the Valais up to 2450 meters in the Ortler region ( South Tyrol ) as an 80 cm high wood. In the Allgäu Alps, it rises in the Tyrolean part on the Ellbognerspitze up to 2460 meters above sea level.

It only occurs at lower altitudes due to human planting, for example in afforestation or as an ornamental tree . As a useful tree in forestry , the common spruce has been naturalized in North America, among others .

Between the Urals and Finland one finds hybridization between the Norway spruce and Picea obovata instead. Sometimes this is viewed as a subspecies of the Norway spruce; the resulting hybrids are called Picea × fennica (rule) Kom.

Distribution maps of the Norway spruce

In Germany , the Norway spruce would naturally only be involved in forest development to a small extent. The natural focus of distribution is in the mountain forests of the Alps and the low mountain ranges . Of the near-natural spruce forests in Germany, the mountain spruce forest takes up the largest share with 46 percent of 14,500 hectares. However, the German forest owners and foresters have grown the common spruce far beyond its natural range in the last centuries. Because of its faster growth compared to other tree species and the possibility of harvesting wood cost-covering even in younger stands , the spruce is also known as the “bread tree” of German forestry. Today, with 2.8 million hectares and a 26 percent share of the area, it is the most common tree species in the forests in Germany . In the second half of the 20th century, large areas were afforested with pure spruce stands . Locations that were not particularly suitable, such as soil with varying degrees of moisture, were also planted, as vigor often took precedence over stand security. Today, numerous spruce stands are being converted back into mixed forests appropriate to the location. The spruce area in Germany decreased by 240,000 hectares between 2002 and 2012. On the one hand, local conditions are the reason for this, on the other hand, the competition with the even better growing Douglas fir is also in the economic field .

The spruce only makes high demands with regard to the water supply. The floors must remain well ventilated. The site surveyor describes these soils as fresh to moderately fresh, which means that a sufficient to good water supply is guaranteed all year round (with the exception of the very hot summer months). In terms of nutrient requirements, the spruce is rather undemanding. In terms of climate, the spruce prefers winter-cold continental and mountain climates.

According to Ellenberg , the spruce is a penumbra plant, a cold pointer, with a subcontinental distribution area and a class character of acidic coniferous forests (Vaccinio-Piceetea). The high acid content of the soil is caused by the poorly decomposable needle litter, which breaks down at a pH value of 4.1. In pure spruce stands, for example, moderate humus soils are predominant. Spruce trees need more light as they age.


Characteristic features

The Norway spruce is an evergreen conifer. With a height of up to 50 m, a maximum of 62 m and a trunk diameter of up to 2 m, it is - next to the fir - the largest European tree. It can live up to 600 years, but the forest rotation period is only 80 - 120 years. In order to adapt to the load from snow, its branches are inclined to drooping. The needles are particularly sensitive to air pollution. In damaged trees, the needles often only stay on the branches for 1 to 3 years; they can serve as a bio-indicator for the health of the tree. 400,000 needles were counted on a healthy Christmas tree 1.2 m high.

It has a root system that can reach several meters deep in suitable soil. The widespread opinion that the common spruce only forms a shallow root system stems from the widespread experience that spruces only develop flat root plates in soils that are not well suited for them and that are oxygen-poor due to backwater and groundwater. In a suitable substrate, the spruce is stable and extremely frost hardy. Starting from a plate-like basic structure, deeper-reaching sinker roots form in stable and moderately moist soils, especially between the ages of 60 and 80, and the diameter of the breast height increases. This is often the case with sands, loamy sands, layered sands, layered loams and clays. The countersinks use fissures in backwater-free clay horizons for deep growth. In contrast to beech and larch, as well as pine and oak in particular, soils that are more damp with changes in moisture , for example in the form of fine or silt loam , or damp clay loam, hinder the deep growth of the roots.

A vegetative propagation through the rooting of hanging branches is possible.

The fast-growing Norway spruce has the greatest productivity even below the natural spruce level, but is also more at risk there from red rot and summer drought. Trees that are well supplied with nitrogen show a particularly high uptake of carbon dioxide.

Photosynthesis and breathing are practically stopped during the cold season ( hibernation ). The spruce is very resistant to frost, which increases as the days get shorter. At the time of the first frosts, the spruce trees are already prepared for temperatures of −20 ° C. In deep winter , frost resistance down to below −60 ° C was observed. The antifreeze is caused by accumulation of sugars, whereby a freezing point depression occurs. In spring the frost resistance decreases again with increasing day length, so that the plants are sensitive to late frosts.


Young spruce culture ("Picea abies") on the edge of a windbreak area twelve years after Hurricane Kyrill

The spruce is wind flowering with flowers of the "immobile type". The pollen of the upright male flowers have two "air sacs". During the main flowering period, huge amounts of pollen are released, which is commonly referred to as "sulfur rain". The scales of female flowering cones spread slightly apart to make it easier for the male pollen to gain access to the ovules. Scars of fruit trees in bloom at the same time can be "sterilized" by the spruce pollen. The pollen of the Norway spruce, like that of other conifers, is a hay fever pathogen.

The tree is able to flower at the age of 30 to 40 years. Relatively young plants initially only have female flowers. The high number of these first flowers often goes unnoticed because they are formed at great heights.

The seeds ripen within a year. Every 3 to 4 years there is a particularly rich seed production. The seeds are only 3 to 5 mg in weight. They contain oil as a reserve material , a typical feature of wind propagation. The seed wings are often weakly twisted, which is why the seeds are called rotary and helical fliers. When it is dry, the seed scales spread so that the seeds fall out and can be spread by the wind. Their flight distance can be more than 300 m even when there is no wind. Animals contribute to the spread of the species when they work the cones like woodpeckers or squirrels and thereby release the seeds. Excessive and frequent cone production can be a symptom of excessive pollution . The spruce is a light source .

In order to obtain seeds for targeted sowing, the cones are collected from the tree.

In Alaska, flying squirrels throw the cones to the ground and build up supplies, which causes the seeds to hideaway.

The mycorrhizal fungi of the Norway spruce

The Norway spruce forms a close community with a number of fungi , which is known as mycorrhiza . The mycelium of the fungi supplies the spruce with minerals and water, while the fungus receives the organic substances required for its growth from the plant. Among the fungi that are found spruce in cohabitation of Commons representatives include the genus of Amanita such as the fly agaric , which Spitzhütige Knollenblätterpilz , the blusher , the Yellow Amanita phalloides , the Gray Amanita and daffodils Yellow Amanita . In cohabitation with the Norway spruce but also representatives of the live Dickröhrlingsverwandten such as estimated as Mushroom spruce stone mushroom , which Maronenröhrling , the goat lip , the boletus calopus which Gallenröhrling and very frequently the Rotfußröhrlinge . Of the Täublingen z. B. to find the Ockertäubling in spruce forests.

Diseases and pests

Bile caused by the spruce gall louse.

Growing the spruce outside its natural range is generally associated with the risk of damage from bark beetles . Dry years in particular weaken the defense system of the moisture-loving spruce and lead to severe infestation by the printer ( Ips typographus ), the engraver ( Pityogenes chalcographus ) and possibly also by the northern spruce bark beetle ( Ips duplicatus ), which immigrated from the northeast to Central Europe . After mass reproduction, the printer in particular is able to infect healthy trees and cause them to die. In order to prevent the bark beetles from multiplying excessively, the principle of “clean forest management” applies to spruce cultivation. This means that fresh residual wood or ailing trees must be removed from the forest or made unsuitable for breeding through suitable measures.

Due to its flat root system on waterlogged or compacted locations, which prevent the formation of sinker roots, the spruce is more at risk of wind throws than many other tree species. Freshly thrown trees create breeding opportunities for the printer, so that damage from storm and bark beetle often go "hand in hand".

The needles of the Norway spruce are particularly sensitive to air pollution : In damaged plants, the needles often only stay on the branches for 1 to 3 years (possibility of bioindication ).

A high supply of nitrogen through air pollution or factory farming leads to an increased production of the plant hormone cytokinin . As a result, dormant buds begin to sprout below the tip bud. As a result of the stronger branching, the spruce grows more in width than in height.

Sulfur dioxide (" acid rain " from combustion processes) is a strong plant poison for conifers. Spruce trees in particular are affected when sulfur dioxide from industrial exhaust gases accumulates above the critical concentration in inversion weather conditions on wooded mountain slopes.

Species community in the spruce forest

Spruce asparagus ( Monotropa hypopitys )

Many birds are dependent on well-covered and protected territories for foraging or breeding. The evergreen, dense spruce forests offer z. B. Common crossbill and treecreeper , pine and jay , long-eared owl and tawny owl , sparrowhawk , buzzard and hawk an ideal habitat . The black woodpecker who u. a. Nourished by larvae of the bark beetle and book printer, can be found deep in the forest all year round. Mountain spruce forests are a suitable habitat for the capercaillie . The bird, which has become rare, is mainly dependent on spruce needles for its diet during the cold season. In the bushy transition zone between the forest and the edge of the forest and in clearings, there are other bird species, such as B. the robin or the chaffinch . In large mammals, v. a. represented by the red deer and the wild boar , which the dim light in the spruce forest guarantees the greatest possible protection.

In natural spruce forests, little light penetrates the forest floor. Other trees and shrubs therefore have little chance of developing. The herb layer consists mainly of grasses, ferns and dwarf shrubs. The bilberry , a characteristic dwarf shrub of the spruce forests, contributes to the nutrition of forest animals in winter with its evergreen shoots. The forest floor is often covered by a continuous layer of moss . Here the delicate moss bell finds a suitable place to grow in mountainous areas . The seven-star can be found in the spruce forests of the low mountain range, sometimes also in the lowlands. Where the top soil layer is strongly acidic, the wood sorrel, which is extremely shade-tolerant, usually appears .

The spruce forest offers a suitable biotope above all to plants whose supply is largely independent of photosynthesis. Myco- heterotrophic orchid species grow there , such as the white and red forest bird or the violet stendellum . The chlorophyll-free, pale yellow spruce asparagus , which lives in symbiosis with spruce roots and indirectly taps the nutrients of the spruce via fungal hyphae that grow out of the mycorrhizae of the host tree, is particularly adapted to the location "spruce forest" .

The green, pineapple-shaped galls of the great spruce gall louse can often be observed on the buds of young and immission-damaged spruce trees . The small spruce gall louse tends to attack older, weakened spruces and causes yellow-greenish, strawberry-shaped galls.

Importance as a fodder plant (selection)

The following insect species depend on the plant as a food source. Some, especially the beetles, can become dreaded pests in some years, especially in spruce monocultures . The recently intensified reforestation of mixed forests with healthy fauna (natural enemies of the damaging species) counteracts this and does not also destroy all other species such as the very rare and endangered Alpine ibex ( Rosalia alpina ), which is known as "Bycatch" is attracted by the pheromone traps that are often used for bark beetles and loses its breeding trees (beech trunks or dead or dying beeches that have to remain there for at least 3 - 4 years) due to the "clean forest management".




The first description of the German botanist Gustav Karl Wilhelm Hermann Karsten , which is valid today , was published in 1881. Before that, Carl von Linné had added the species to the pine genus in 1753 under the name Pinus abies . The following synonyms are available for the species:

  • Pinus abies L. 1753
  • Abies picea Mill.
  • Picea abies var. Europaea (Tepl.) Jurkev. & Parv.

The spruce has a high genetic variability, which is reflected in the occurrence of the varieties

  • Picea abies var. Abies (Syn .: Pinus excelsa Lam. 1778, Abies excelsa (Lam.) Poir. , Picea vulgaris Link 1830, Picea montana Schur 1851, Picea rubra A.Dietr. 1824, Picea excelsa (Lam.) Peterm. , Abies alpestris Brügger ): Originally only found in Europe.
  • Picea abies var. Acuminata (Beck) Dallim. & AB Jacks. : It occurs in the Jura, in the Alps and in the Carpathian Mountains.

There are also countless shapes that differ from one another in terms of habit, cone and needle characteristics (of which over 100 varieties have been cultivated). They can also express themselves in the formation of genotypic branching types (comb, brush, plate spruce), but are also expressed in a wealth of ecological variants (growing area races, high-altitude races as ecotypes).

In the north-eastern European sub-area there is a wide transition zone to the Siberian spruce ( Picea obovata ) through hybridization .

Common names

"Snake spruce " ( Picea abies 'Virgata')

For the common spruce there exist or existed various folk names that are often only used regionally. The following names are or were also used: Bachtanne , Dann ( Altmark , Siebenbürgen ), Danne ( Göttingen , Weser ), Dannenboom ( Unterweser , Prussia ), Dannebuhm (Transylvania), Daxen ( Zillertal ), Feicht , Feichte ( Austria , Carinthia , South Tyrol , Augsburg ), Ficht ( Mecklenburg ), Fichte ( Eifel , Saxony , Silesia ), Fichtenbaum ( Alsace ), Fichtentannen (Alsace), Fiechta ( Old High German ), Fiechte (Austria), Fiuchta (Old High German), Gränbaum , Gräne ( Liefland ) , Gränenfichte , Gränenholz , Gran wood , Grein Holt ( Ostfriesland ), unlucky tree , pitch pine (Alsace), Peikabagms , Pickbom ( middle Low German ), Rooddann (Weser), Norway spruce , red spruce (Alsace, Grisons ), fir (Carinthia, Lower Saxony ), taxis ( Salzburg ), Black fir , Viecht , Viechte and weather fir ( Vaud ).

Cultivated forms

Numerous cultivated forms are known; here is a selection:

  • 'Aurea': In this form, the young twigs are light golden yellow in May to June and mostly green until July. Some needles retain yellow stripes all year round.
  • 'Virgata': This is the "snake spruce" known as an unusual ornamental tree. The shape has been known since 1854. It develops an irregular thinned treetop with a few thick and long branches; hardly any side shoots grow. The needles are 2 to 2.5 cm long and thick. The branches are light orange.


Use of the wood

Variety 'Aurea'

The spruce is the most important wood supplier in Germany. For more detailed information see under spruce wood .

The main part of the wood of the common spruce is used as building and construction timber (beams, planks, boards, squared timber, glued beams, solid structural timber, multilayer boards; previously also scaffolding). Spruce wood is also used in the packaging industry (crates, boxes, pallets). For furniture construction (as material for carcasses, doors etc., veneer, glued wood , middle layers for blockboard , substructures ), logs with special wood properties (even tree-ring construction, knot-free) are mainly used. In musical instrument making, old, slowly grown spruce is used for the tops or soundboards of stringed instruments (string instruments, guitars, pianos, harps). Many other constructive purposes (posts, posts, sticks for viticulture ) are becoming less important.

In addition, spruce wood is processed into wood-based materials such as chipboard or strand boards (OSB) . It is an important raw material for the paper production and pulp industry .

Spruce wood by-products from the forestry and wood industry are used for energy as split logs , wood chips or pressed into wood pellets or briquettes .

Use for materials

The common spruce is of great importance as a raw material for the production of brewer's pitch ; the bark is used for the production of Gerberlohe .

The perfume industry extracts spruce needle oil from the tree needles , which is obtained by steam distillation from fresh spruce needles (often misleadingly called “pine needles”), the needle-bearing twigs and small branches. To make 1 kg of spruce needle oil, about 500 kg of spruce needles are needed. The scent is specific, resinous-spicy and powerfully radiating.

Use as a food plant

Shoot of the new needle crop, the so-called May shoot

The light green, young and still dense shoot tips of the picea abies taste sour and tart at the same time (something like resinous lemon) and are suitable as a sour addition to a carrot vegetable as well as for a cream cheese preparation or as an addition to dessert.

Native Americans used spruce shoots to make a long-life drink that would provide a source of vitamin C even in the winter months. The colonial powers adopted this practice to prevent scurvy during long ship passages.

Since then, “Spruce Beer” has been drunk in Anglo-Saxon countries, even if it is not as popular as the soft drinks root and ginger beer .

Wilhelm Haarmann first synthesized vanillin from the juice of local spruce trees in 1874 .

The spruce is the host tree of some honeydew- producing scale and bark lice . Here, in some years, during the budding phase, in which the sap of the conduction pathways of the tree is particularly sugary, these insects multiply on a mass scale. As a result, this can lead to a good honey yield ( forest honey ) from bees set up in the forest .

Use as a ritual object

Until the 1960s, the common spruce was the predominant Christmas tree in Germany. However, since it loses its needles quickly after impact, it has since been largely displaced as such by more robust trees such as the Nordmann fir and the blue spruce .

Medical importance

Spruce needle oil Piceae aetherolium (DAB), which can be obtained from the needles, branch tips or from the branches of fresh spruce shoots, is used as a medicinal drug.

The aqueous extract from fresh sprouts results in the spruce needle extract, Pinus abies (hom).

Active ingredients are: essential oil with bornyl acetate , borneol , pinene , myrcene , santen and u. a. Monoterpenes .

Applications: The essential oil is used similar to that of Abies alba for infections of the respiratory tract and rheumatic complaints.

Rubbing alcohol as well as odor-improving room sprays with a “pine scent” often contain spruce needle oil.

The young shoots are popularly used in a similar way to that of Pinus sylvestris .


  • Dietrich Böhlmann: Why trees don't grow into the sky - An introduction to the life of our woody plants , Quelle & Meyer Verlag, Wiebelsheim 2009, ISBN 978-3-494-01420-3
  • Ulrich Hecker: Conifers: wild and frequently planted species , spectrum of nature, Munich; Vienna; Zurich, 1985, ISBN 978-3-405-12966-8
  • Helmut Schmidt-Vogt et al .: The spruce
    • Volume 1: Taxonomy, Distribution, Morphology, Ecology, Forest Societies . 2nd, revised edition. Parey, Hamburg 1986, 647 (XVII) S., ISBN 3-490-09916-8
    • Volume 2, Part 1: Growth, Breeding, Soil, Environment, Wood . Parey, Hamburg 1986, 563 (XVI) S., ISBN 3-490-08416-0
    • Volume 2, Part 2: Diseases, Damage, Spruce Dying . Parey, Hamburg 1989, 607 (XX) S., ISBN 3-490-09516-2
    • Volume 2, Part 3: Silviculture - Ecosystems - Primeval Forests - Commercial Forests - Nutrition - Fertilization - Outlook . Parey, Hamburg 1991, 781 (XXIII) S., ISBN 3-490-09716-5
  • Helmut Schmidt-Vogt : Spruce farming close to nature. The forest tree spruce, mistakes in spruce management, conversion of pure spruce stands, avoid pure spruce cultivation, strive for species-rich and natural mixed forest. Contributions to quality of life, forest conservation and environmental protection, health, hiking and home care (Issue 31). Wilhelm Münker Foundation, Siegen 1991, 56 pp.
  • Alan Mitchell: The forest and park trees of Europe: An identification book for dendrologists and nature lovers . Paul Parey, Hamburg and Berlin 1975, ISBN 3-490-05918-2 (translated and edited by Gerd Krüssmann).
  • Helga Menzel-Tettenborn , Prof. HF Neubaur, The Kingdom of Plants , Bertelsmann-Lexikon-Verlag, ISBN 3-570-08942-8
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  • Information at Archived from the original on September 26, 2008 ; Retrieved September 26, 2008 .
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  • Kurt Harz, trees and bushes , BLV-Verlag, ISBN 978-3-8354-0242-3
  • Heiko Bellmann : The new Kosmos butterfly guide. Butterflies, caterpillars and forage plants. 2nd Edition. Franckh-Kosmos, Stuttgart 2009, ISBN 978-3-440-11965-5 .
  • Ruprecht Düll , Herfried Kutzelnigg : Pocket dictionary of plants in Germany and neighboring countries. The most common Central European species in portrait. 7th, corrected and enlarged edition. Quelle & Meyer, Wiebelsheim 2011, ISBN 978-3-494-01424-1 .
  • Ingrid and Peter Schönfelder : The New Handbook of Medicinal Plants, Botany Medicinal Drugs, Active Ingredients Applications . Franckh-Kosmos Verlags GmbH & Co. KG, Stuttgart, 2011, ISBN 978-3-440-12932-6

Web links

Commons : Norway spruce  album with pictures, videos and audio files

Single references

  1. ^ TU Dresden: Plant combinations, Topic 1: Red spruce - Picea abies
  2. Press release Umeå University: World's oldest living tree discovered in Sweden ( Memento of the original from April 20, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , accessed April 17, 2008. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  3. ↑ National Forest Inventory 3, 2012 . Retrieved March 12, 2015.
  4. a b Hans-Jürgen Gulder: The root system of the spruce - LWF Wissen 80 , lettering of the Bavarian State Institute for Forests and Forestry (LWF) of the Bavarian State Ministry for Food, Agriculture and Forests (StMELF)
  5. Stinglwagner, Haseder, Erlbeck: Das Kosmos Wald- und Forstlexikon , Kosmos-Verlag, ISBN 978-3-440-10375-3 , pages 264 ff.
  6. Böhlmann, p. 10
  7. Böhlmann, p. 11
  8. Böhlmann, p. 12
  9. ^ Tropicos. [1]
  10. Böhlmann, p. 8
  11. Hecker, p. 45
  12. Erhard Dörr, Wolfgang Lippert : Flora of the Allgäu and its surroundings. Volume 1, IHW, Eching 2001, ISBN 3-930167-50-6 , p. 108.
  13. Farjon, A. 2017. Picea abies . The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T42318A71233492. doi : 10.2305 / IUCN.UK.2017-2.RLTS.T42318A71233492.en .
  14. ↑ National Forest Inventory 3, 2012 . Retrieved March 12, 2015.
  15. ↑ National Forest Inventory 3, 2012 . Retrieved March 12, 2015.
  16. ^ Ministry for Rural Development, Environment and Consumer Protection Brandenburg, Nature Conservation and Landscape Management in Brandenburg 11 (1, 2) 2002, page 86
  17. Campbell, Rice, Biologie, p. 935, Form and Function of the Plant
  18. Deut. Fl. 324,1881; see the entry at GRIN Taxonomy for Plants.
  19. a b Rafaël Govaerts (Ed.): Picea. In: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP) - The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew . Retrieved April 15, 2019.
  20. ^ Carl Jessen , The German folk names of plants , published by Philipp Cohen Hannover 1882, page 1
  21. Archived copy ( memento of the original from July 20, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  22. HAMBURGER STADTPARK: Snake spruce ( Memento of the original from September 24, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  23. The Julian Alps - SNAKE SPRUCE
  24. Snake spruce (Picea abies 'Virgata') in the Old Botanical Garden in Marburg
  25. Federal Statistical Office: Forestry land use - Logging statistics -
  26. Meret Bissegger. My wild vegetable kitchen. Photos by Hans-Peter Siffert. Aarau and Munich: AT Verlag, 3rd edition 2011, ISBN 978-3-03800-552-0 , pp. 31-34.