Hyphen (from Greek Ὑφή , tissue ') are branched, row threads of fungi and streptomycetes , by septa cell-like manner can be divided. The entire fungus of hyphae fungi consists of them: the mycelium , the fruiting bodies and the fungal part of the mycorrhizae of the tree fungi . Some normally unicellular yeasts such as B. Saccharomyces cerevisiae can also develop hyphae under certain conditions. The hyphae can be divided into sections by partitions that cross the hyphae. These walls are called septa .
With symbiotic hyphae fungi in or on plants, the direct contact zone between fungus and plant always looks similar, regardless of the structures of the different symbioses : fungus and plant cells always remain separate from one another, even if the fungus grows into individual plant cells. So there are always two membranes between the cytosol of the fungus and that of the plant , one from the fungus and one from the plant. These membranes have special channels that control the transport of various substances. The two membranes of the fungus and plants are also always separated by a layer of extracellular matrix. This layer belongs to the apoplast and can come from both the fungus and the plant. It is often particularly thin and permeable, the substances to be transported easily overcome it by means of diffusion .
- Generative hyphae
- Generative hyphae are relatively undifferentiated and can form reproductive structures. They are usually thin-walled and translucent and more or less often septate. Also buckles may occur. Occasionally the hyphae are bound into a gelatinous matrix.
- Skeletal hyphae
- Skeletal hyphae are thick-walled, not or only slightly branched and mostly buckleless and hardly septate hyphae, which are often very long. The hyphae usually die off very early and are then plasma-free and tubular-hollow. These hyphae give the fruiting body hardness and strength. Fruiting bodies with skeletal hyphae are more or less corky or woody.
- Skelettoid hyphae
- Skelettoid hyphae are thick-walled, generative hyphae with real septa (transverse walls). Buckles can also be used.
- Connective hyphae
- Connective hyphae are more or less thick-walled, highly branched hyphae, which give the hyphae system strength.
- ↑ Hans Otto Schwantes: Biology of the mushrooms. An introduction to applied mycology (= university pocket books. Volume 1871). Ulmer, Stuttgart 1996, ISBN 3-8252-1871-6 , p. 21f.
- ↑ Peter H. Raven, Ray F. Evert, Susan E. Eichhorn: Biology of plants. Volume 4, de Gruyter, Berlin 2006, ISBN 3-11-018531-8 , p. 322. (online)
- ↑ German Josef Krieglsteiner (Ed.): Die Großpilze Baden-Württemberg . Volume 1: General Part. Stand mushrooms: jelly, bark, prick and pore mushrooms. Ulmer, Stuttgart 2000, ISBN 3-8001-3528-0 , p. 53ff.