|coat of arms||Germany map|
|State :||Lower Saxony|
|Height :||150 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||116.89 km 2|
|Residents:||118,911 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||1017 inhabitants per km 2|
|Area code :||0551|
|License plate :||GÖ|
|Community key :||03 1 59 016|
|LOCODE :||DE GOE|
|City structure:||18 districts
and 9 localities
City administration address :
|Lord Mayor :||Rolf-Georg Koehler ( SPD )|
|Location of the city of Göttingen in the district of Göttingen|
Göttingen ( Chöttingen in Low German ) is a university town in southern Lower Saxony . With a share of around 20 percent students in the population, urban life is heavily influenced by the educational and research activities of the Georg-August University , the oldest and largest university in Lower Saxony, and two other universities.,
The village on the river Leine , first mentioned in a document as Gutingi in 953 , was built in the vicinity of today's St. Albani Church . The market town of Gotingen, which was founded later, was granted town charter around 1230 , while the original village of Gutingi was left out for a long time and lived a shadowy existence. Göttingen became a major city in 1964 and is today one of the nine regional centers of Lower Saxony. The district town and largest city of the district of Göttingen was integrated into the district of the same name in 1964 as a previously independent city by the Göttingen law passed by the Lower Saxony state parliament , but is still on an equal footing with the independent cities.
According to the city, the population in 2019 was 134,632, of which 121,150 had their main residence in Göttingen.
Göttingen is located on the Leinegraben on the border of the Leine-Ilme-Senke and the Göttingen Forest and is traversed by the Leine in a south-north direction , the northern district of Weende von der Weende , several northeastern urban areas of the Lutter and several western urban areas of the Grone . A few kilometers further north is the Nörten Forest . On the southern outskirts of Göttingen is the Göttingen Kiessee , which is fed by the water from the Leine, and three kilometers south of it is the Rosdorf Baggersee .
The area belonging to Göttingen is 138 to 427 m above sea level. NN west of the mountains Kleperberg (332 m) and Hainberg (315 m), whereby the Mackenröder peak (427 m) on the eastern border of the Göttingen Forest is the highest mountain in Göttingen. In the urban area as well as west of the Leine lie the Hagenberg (also called Kleiner Hagen; 174 m) with districts of the same name, and about 2 km south of it the gentle elevation of the Egelsberg. At the western city limits, Knutberg (363 m) and Kuhberg (288 m) rise.
Göttingen, located directly west of the Göttingen Forest, lies between Solling (about 34 km northwest), Harz (about 60 km northeast), Kaufunger Wald (about 27 km south-southwest), Dransfelder Stadtwald (13 km southwest) and Bramwald (19 km west ); the distances, measured as the crow flies, relate to the distance between Göttingen and the city center to the centers and high elevations of the respective low mountain ranges.
In the area of the city of Göttingen, two nature reserves have been designated to preserve valuable and endangered habitats : The nature reserve Stadtwald Göttingen and Kerstlingeröder Feld was designated in May 2007 and covers an area of 1193 hectares , the nature reserve Bratental in the districts of Nikolausberg and Roringen has existed since September 1982 and covers 115 hectares in three spatially separated areas.
The city of Göttingen lies within the temperate latitudes in the transition area between oceanic and continental areas. The annual mean temperature is 9.2 ° C, the average annual rainfall is 644 mm. The warmest months are July with an average of 17.8 ° C and August with 17.6 ° C and the coldest January with 0.9 ° C and February with 1.8 ° C on average. Most of the precipitation falls in May to July with an average of 65–66 mm, the lowest in February with an average of 39 mm. In July, the most sunshine can be expected with 6.6 hours a day.
The urban area of Göttingen is divided into 18 districts and districts . Some districts are localities alone or together with neighboring districts within the meaning of the Lower Saxony Municipal Constitutional Act (NKomVG). They have a local council elected by the people , which has between 9 and 13 members, depending on the number of inhabitants. its chairman is a local mayor . The local councils are to be heard on important matters affecting the locality. However, the final decision on a measure rests with the Göttingen City Council.
The following communities border the city of Göttingen. They are named clockwise starting in the north and all belong to the district of Göttingen : Flecken Bovenden , Waake and Landolfshausen (both joint municipality Radolfshausen ), Gleichen , Friedland , Rosdorf , Stadt Dransfeld ( joint municipality Dransfeld ) and Flecken Adelebsen .
Osterode am Harz
* Distances are rounded road kilometers to the town center.
The history of Göttingen:
Prehistory and early history
The urban area of Göttingen has been settled since the early Neolithic , as numerous sites of the band ceramic culture show. One of these sites was extensively excavated by city archeology during the construction of today's Kauf Park shopping center in Grone in the 1990s. In addition, there are traces of settlement from the Bronze and Iron Ages .
Göttingen goes back to a village that can be archaeologically proven to date back to the 7th century. This village was first mentioned in 953 under the name Gutingi in a document by King Otto I - with the deed the later emperor donated property in what was then Gutingi to the St. Moritz monastery in Magdeburg - and was located on the eastern edge of the Leinetalgraben in the vicinity of today's St. Albani Church on a hill. This church was consecrated to Saint Albanus at the latest at the beginning of the 11th century and is thus the oldest church in Göttingen, although the current building is a successor from the 14th and 15th centuries. More recent archaeological finds in the area of the old village indicate a skilled craft and suggest extensive trade relationships. A small stream flowed through the village, the Goth, from which the village took its name (" -ing " = "residents with").
While - apart from the archaeological finds - not much is known about the fate of the village Gutingi in the early Middle Ages, the Palatinate Grona (Eng. Grone) two kilometers northwest of the village emerges more clearly from history. Mentioned in a document in 915 as a newly built castle, it was later expanded to become a Palatinate. This Palatinate , located across the opposite bank of the Leine on the southern spur of the Hagenberg, is a specifically Middle-class Ottonian Palatinate with a total of 18 documented royal and imperial stays between 941 and 1025 . Especially for Heinrich II. And his wife Kunigunde , Grone was a popular place to stay. Heinrich II withdrew here seriously ill in the summer of 1024, where he died on July 13, 1024.
The castle later lost its function as a palace and was converted into the castle of the Lords of Grone in the 13th century . Between 1323 and 1329 it was destroyed by the citizens of the city of Göttingen. The remains were in 1387 by Duke Otto III. demolished because of his feud with the city of Göttingen.
On the road leading to the ford over the Leine , west of the village, a wik (a commercial settlement) developed over time , which continued the place name as "gotingi" and later received town charter in 1230 as "Gotingen".
The now so-called Old Village , which gave the city its name, was not the actual nucleus of the new city; it was outside the first city wall and is still recognizable today as a separate area around the Albanikirche and today's Lange-Geismar-Straße. Under what circumstances the actual city of Göttingen came into being cannot be precisely determined. It is believed that Henry the Lion initiated the founding of the city, which took place between 1150 and 1180/1200. In the period between 1201 and 1208, Count Palatine Heinrich , the brother of Otto IV. , Is given as lord of the city. During this time, Guelph property rights and rulership rights were exercised from Göttingen . At this time, Göttingen citizens (burgenses) were first mentioned, which suggests that Göttingen was already organized in a specifically urban way. The Welfs administered their property around Göttingen from a farm north of the old village, on today's Ritterplan, and which was later expanded into a castle, the "Ballerhus" (balrus). The arable land that belonged to this farmyard is called "Bünde" (bound land) and is still mentioned in late medieval documents. The courtiers had their residence next to the manor house. In close connection with the court and the later castle there was also the Jakobikirche , which was a foundation of Henry the Lion and a south adjoining court, which was sold in 1303 by Duke Albrecht to the Walkenried monastery . It is obvious that by including the Jakobikirche and the adjoining courtyard, the entire castle complex in the south may have extended as far as today's Speckstraße and near Weender Straße.
However, Göttingen was not an imperial city, but was subject to the Guelph Dukes of Braunschweig-Lüneburg . The sovereign governors had their residence in the castle, which was in the northeast corner of the oldest city fortifications built before 1250, and which is still remembered today by the name Burgstrasse. Nonetheless, the dukes had to grant the city certain freedoms and compromise. In the early days of its history as a city, Göttingen was drawn into conflicts between the Guelphs and their opponents in southern Lower Saxony. The disputes in the first decades of the 13th century were beneficial to the political interests of the citizens of Göttingen, and they were able to skillfully exploit the politico-military situation and allow themselves to be wooed. In a document from 1232, Duke Otto confirmed the child to the people of Göttingen the rights they would have had at the time of his uncles - Otto IV and Count Palatine Heinrich. These were privileges that made trade easier, protected local merchants and defined the powers of the Göttingen self-government. He promised that the city should not fall into the hands of others. It can be assumed that by this time at the latest there was a city council appointed by the citizens and thus a practicable instrument of self-administration. Names of councilors are mentioned for the first time in a document from 1247.
Expansion and expansion
The area initially protected by the old town fortifications comprised the market, today's old town hall , the two main churches St. Johannis and St. Jacobi , the smaller St. Nikolai church , and the main traffic routes Weender, Groner and Rote Straße. Outside this fortification, in front of the inner Geismarer Tor, there was still the old village, which was then called Geismarer old village , with the church of St. Albani . In the High Middle Ages, the village only partially belonged to the Guelph domain and was therefore unable to benefit from the city's privileges and the protection provided by the city wall.
The city was initially protected by ramparts, at the latest by the end of the 13th century by walls on the ramparts. From this old city fortification, only the wall tower and part of the wall in Turmstrasse are preserved today. The then fortified area covered a maximum of 600 by 600 m, about 25 hectares, and was smaller than Hanover , but surpassed the neighboring Guelph cities of Northeim , Duderstadt and Münden . The approval for the construction of the wall was granted in 1362 by Duke Ernst von Braunschweig-Göttingen , the construction finally dragged on for over 200 years. If you add the external works ordered by the sovereigns and the necessary repair work and subsequent improvements, the construction time adds up to a total of 400 years. Huge sums of money and efforts were necessary to build the wall in such a condition as it can be seen today on old engravings and plans. First it formed a simple trench with a low rise, which was reinforced by fences and curtains , later by planks and a low walled parapet. In its final state, the wall had a strong retaining wall and parapet, a wide fortress moat composed of a chain of ponds, at least 30 towers built on the outer edge of the ramparts and a number of entrenchments and outer bastions. Four main gates were created in the context of the respective gates of the old city wall and were called outer gates .
The Gote brook, flowing south of the walls, was connected to the Leine by a canal around this time. The then Leinekanal called watercourse leash led significantly more water to the city along.
In the course of the Guelf inheritance divisions, Duke Albrecht der Feiste received rule over southern Lower Saxony in 1286 . He chose Göttingen as his seat of power and moved into the castle in the northern old town, the Ballerhus (also Bahlrhus ). From this, outside the walls in the west, on the opposite side of the Leine Canal, a new town, a street with buildings on both sides and only about 80 m long, was laid out before 1300. With the re-establishment, Albrecht intended to create a counterweight to the city, which was growing rapidly both economically and politically, in order to consolidate his power from this base. However, the duke could not prevent the up-and-coming Göttingen from expanding further west, as the Göttingen council managed to block all development opportunities for the Neustadt. After the project developed poorly, the council of the city of Göttingen bought this unpleasant competitive foundation in 1319 for only 300 marks. In the south of the Neustadt, the St. Mary's Church was first built as the parish church of the Neustadt , which was transferred to the Teutonic Knight Order in 1318, together with the adjacent courts .
In addition, two monasteries were founded on the edge of the old town in the late 13th century. In the eastern part of the old town, on the site of today's Wilhelmsplatz, a Franciscan monastery was initially built. According to the later city chronicler Franciscus Lubecus , the brothers of the Franciscan order founded in 1210 are said to have settled there since 1268, but possibly as early as 1246. In 1306 the monastery church ("Barfüßerkirche") was probably consecrated , of which an altarpiece dating from 1424 has been preserved. The convent initially belonged to the Cologne Franciscan Province ( Colonia ); In 1462 he was forced by the leadership of the order to accept the rules of the Order of Observance and assigned to the Saxon Franciscan Province ( Saxonia ). The monastery existed until 1533, after a sometimes violent conflict between the city council, the population and the Franciscans broke out there from 1529. The former Provincial of Saxonia , Andreas Grone (Fricke), was expelled from the city by the council in 1531 for "inciting speeches". On July 23, 1533 all friars left the city in a solemn procession under pressure from the council . Their library with around 450 to 500 volumes was closed in 1545. Since the Franciscans did not wear shoes as an expression of their poverty and humility, their order was popularly called barefoot ; therefore the street leading to the monastery was given its current name Barfüßerstraße . Excavations at Wilhelmsplatz in 2015 uncovered numerous skeletons that were buried Franciscan brothers. During the Thirty Years' War , the Franciscans tried to reactivate their monastery in Göttingen from 1628, protected by the Catholic imperial garrison, and came into competition with the Minorites ; With the help of Emperor Ferdinand II and Nuncio Aloisius Carafa, the Franciscans were able to prevail. In February 1632, however, they had to flee from Göttingen and give up the monastery after the city had been recaptured by Protestant troops.
Jews were settled in the city in the late 13th century. On March 1, 1289, the dukes of Braunschweig and Lüneburg granted the Göttingen council permission to accept the Jew Moses in the city. The Jews lived mainly near the St. Jacobi Church in today's Jüdenstrasse. In Göttingen, the history of the Jews was already marked by great suffering in the Middle Ages. After Duke Otto III in 1369/1370. ceded the right of jurisdiction over the Jews to the city, bloody pogroms and expulsions occurred here again and again . From 1460 to 1599 no Jews at all lived in Göttingen for over 100 years.
The 14th and 15th centuries were a heyday of economic power development for Göttingen, to which the works of architecture bear testimony. In the first half of the 14th century, the new construction of St. John's Church began as a Gothic hall church . From 1330 a Gothic building replaced the smaller St. Nikolai Church. After the completion of the work on the St. Johannis Church, the construction of the St. Jacobi Church began in the second half of the 14th century. In the years after 1366, substantial parts of the (now old) town hall were built. The main features of the building did not take shape until the middle of the 15th century.
In the years around 1360, the fortification ring around the city was redefined and now included the new town and the old village. In the course of these construction measures, the four city gates were moved further outwards and the area of the city grew to an area of around 75 hectares.
Growth and independence
After Albrecht des Feisten's death in 1318, Göttingen came to Duke Ernst I († 1367) via Otto the Mild († 1344 ). The principality of Göttingen ruled by him formed a part of the principality in the Duchy of Braunschweig-Lüneburg . The principality of Göttingen was economically the poorest of the Guelph principalities. Under Ernst's successor, Otto I († 1394), Göttingen succeeded in further strengthening its status as an autonomous city. Otto I, called the Quade (the villain), is described as a prominent representative of the knighthood of that time, whose hatred was for the cities, whose flourishing power was a thorn in his side. Accordingly, his rule was continuously marked by feuds and foreign policy conflicts. Although the city of Göttingen was initially heavily harassed by him, he ultimately did not succeed in further expanding the sovereignty, which benefited Göttingen's independence. The ducal district court on the Leineberg, located at the gates of the city, came under the influence of Göttingen and was pledged to the city by Otto in 1375. In addition to obtaining judicial rights, the city succeeded in acquiring manorial rights from Otto. In April 1387, the conflict between the city and Otto reached its climax: The Göttingen people stormed the ducal castle within the city walls, in return Otto devastated villages and lands in the area. In July, however, the citizens were able to achieve a victory over the princely armed forces in an open field battle between Rosdorf and Grone under city governor Moritz von Uslar . Otto then had to recognize the freedom of the Göttingen goods in the area in August 1387. In this respect, the year 1387 marks an important turning point in the history of the city. After Otto's death, Göttingen was able to further expand its autonomy under his successor Otto Cocles (the one-eyed man), not least because the House of Braunschweig-Göttingen died out with Otto Cocles and the open question of inheritance and his premature abdication in 1435 led to a further destabilization of sovereign power.
The relationship to the Guelph sovereignty was characterized in the subsequent period up to the end of the 15th century by a constant and successful pushing back of the sovereign influence on the city. Even if Göttingen was not officially a free imperial city , but always remained subject to the Brunswick dukes, it was nevertheless able to fight for a significant independence and was partly recorded in documents among the imperial cities and invited to particularly important imperial days .
After various further dynastic divisions and changes of rule, which began with the death of Otto Cocles (1463), Erich received rule over the merged principality of Calenberg- Göttingen. The city initially refused to pay homage to the new ruler, whereupon Erich obtained an imperial ban against Göttingen from King Maximilian in 1504 . The ongoing tension led to an economic weakening of the city, so that the city finally paid homage in 1512. Soon afterwards, the relationship between Erich and the city was characterized by a peculiar peacefulness, which is attributed to the fact that Erich was financially dependent on the city.
The basis for the political and general upswing in Göttingen in the late Middle Ages was the city's growing economic importance. This was mainly due to the convenient location in the Leinetal on an old and important north-south trade route. This favored the local industry, the wool weaving mill in Göttingen . In addition to the linen weavers , who belonged to the inner circle of the Göttingen guilds, but ranked at the lower end in terms of social reputation, the wool weavers settled in the Neustadt. The wool processed there came mainly from the area around the city; sometimes there were up to 3,000 sheep and 1,500 lambs. The woolen cloths were successfully exported to Holland and via Lübeck. From 1475 onwards, domestic cloth production was expanded with the recruitment of new skilled workers. These so-called new woolen weavers brought new, previously unused techniques with them to Göttingen and consolidated the city's position as an export-oriented cloth- making city for three generations. It was not until the end of the 16th century, when it was hardly possible to compete with the cheap English cloths, that the Göttingen cloth making trade fell.
The Göttingen merchants benefited from the good traffic situation between the important trading cities of Lübeck and Frankfurt am Main . The Göttingen market achieved supra-regional importance. Four times a year foreign traders came to Göttingen in large numbers for the fair. The merchants who operated long-distance trade as suppliers for the Göttingen market and as transit traders in supraregional business had great fortunes in Göttingen.
The Hanseatic League also joined Göttingen. The city's first invitation to the Hanseatic Day is dated 1351. The relationship with the Hanseatic League, however, remained largely distant. As an inland city , Göttingen was happy to use the functioning economic network of the Hanseatic League, but did not want to get involved in the politics of the general association. Göttingen did not become a paying member until 1426, and in 1572 the final withdrawal from the Hanseatic League followed.
Reformation and Thirty Years War
The 16th century began in Göttingen with economic problems that ultimately led to tensions. The open conflict between the craft guilds and the council, which was essentially created by the merchants' class, came about in 1514 when the council wanted to issue new taxes to reorganize the budget . On March 6th, 1514, the guilds stormed the town hall, unceremoniously captured the council and then drove them out of responsibility. The council was able to regain its old position with the help of Duke Erich I , but the conflict continued to smolder and thus formed the breeding ground for the introduction of the Reformation in Göttingen.
However, the Reformation , which, as a result of Martin Luther's posting of the theses in 1517 and the Diet of Worms in 1521, gradually gripped large parts of Germany and especially the large cities, initially seemed to bypass Göttingen. Even when the Peasants' War raged through Germany in 1524/25, things remained calm in Göttingen. It was not until 1529, twelve years after Luther posted his theses, that the Reformation emerged in Göttingen. The reason for this was initially a very medieval scene: a Bartholomew procession. Such processions had become rare in the big cities of Germany during these times. The old church system in Göttingen was still undisputed up to this point. The upheaval was initiated by the new Wollenwebern , the group of people who had only settled in Göttingen from 1475, and insofar as they were more open to the new ideas than the long-established residents, so to a certain extent formed the progressive element in the city. These new woolen weavers had formed a counter-demonstration to the Bartholomäus procession and received the procession on Groner Straße with Luther's chorale “ Out of deep need I cry to you ” and accompanied the procession with other Christian psalms and mocking songs. In addition to the religious aspect, the new woolen weavers also questioned the existing system of rule in the city.
Now the events were crowded, the previous delay was followed by a surprising acceleration of the upheaval: With the former Rostock Dominican Friedrich Hüventhal , a Protestant preacher was now in the city. He gained increasing influence, held a public sermon on the market square and, after controversial negotiations with the council, against the will of the Pauline monks in the Pauline Church on October 24, 1529, was able to celebrate the first regular Protestant church service in Göttingen. This location had to be chosen because the Göttingen City Council did not initially have any power over the parish churches in the city. These were under the control of Duke Erich I. He still adhered to the old faith and did not want to allow Protestant sermons in the parish churches subordinate to him. Erich I had already joined the Dessau Bund , an anti-Protestant alliance of northern German states, in 1525 , and saw the relationship between the city and its sovereign in the largest city in his principality, Calenberg- Göttingen, severely disrupted. After the Göttingen group summarized the church reform and political innovations with a final recourse on November 18, 1529, Erich reacted promptly and brusquely. He addressed the city in the harsh form of a feud letter. Hüventhal, who was no longer undisputed in the city's Reformation movement, then had to leave the city. However, this did not mean the end of the Reformation in Göttingen, the Göttingen people brought the more moderate preacher Heinrich Winkel from Braunschweig to the city. Around this time, Johann Bruns became one of the leading figures in church politics in Göttingen. As pastor of Grone , he had already preached Lutheran as one of the first in the region; later he became the syndic of the city. After the city council closed the parish churches in which Lutheran preaching was not allowed, the newly elaborated church regulations of Göttingen, which concluded the Göttingen Reformation, were read out on Palm Sunday in 1530. The church ordinance was submitted to Martin Luther for correction and approval and appeared in a Wittenberg printing house in 1531 with an approving preface by the reformer.
After the Reformation was completed by the new church order, the situation came to a head again. Duke Erich I obtained the support of the estates at the Moringen state parliament for the demand that the city return to the old church. For its part, Göttingen took a step into imperial politics and decided on May 31, 1531 to join the Schmalkaldic League , an association of the Protestant imperial estates to defend their faith.
In April 1533 the city succeeded in getting in touch with the duke and settling the controversy in a treaty. Erich's wife Elisabeth von Brandenburg , who publicly converted to the Protestant faith herself in 1538, was not uninvolved in this . After Erich's death in 1540, she took over the custodial government for her son Erich II and began with her body breeding Münden to push through the Reformation in the Principality of Calenberg-Göttingen. Elisabeth made the pastor Anton Corvinus from the Hessian Witzenhausen superintendent for the principality and had the Calenberg church ordinance drawn up , which went into print in 1542.
After the defeat of the Protestants in the Schmalkaldic War in 1548, they had to accept the Augsburg Interim . As in many parts of the empire, this was difficult for the goddesses and they refused to enforce it. After a long absence, Duke Erich II returned to his principality, converted to Catholicism in 1549 and began - much to the chagrin of his mother - to enforce the interim. In Göttingen this meant that the city had to dismiss its superintendent Mörlin , who had turned too harshly against the interim and against the duke. This dismissal can be seen as a first step towards the elimination of urban autonomy in the church system and in other areas of self-government in the late 16th and 17th centuries.
After the imperial estates were granted the right to determine the confession of their subjects in the Augsburg Imperial and Religious Peace of 1555, Erich II promised, although he remained true to the Catholic faith, to leave the principality with the church order of 1542 and with the Protestant doctrine. In 1580, the city council of Göttingen signed the Lutheran formula of concord from 1577.
After the death of Erich II in 1584, who did not leave a male successor, the principality fell to Duke Julius von Wolfenbüttel , whereby the principality of Calenberg-Göttingen came back to the principality of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel . Göttingen, which had already lost its influence in 1582 due to the loss of the surrounding Leinedörfer to the dukes, had to cope with several outbreaks of the plague in 1597, 1611 and finally in 1626 in addition to the economic decline that now began .
In 1623 Göttingen was included for the first time in the Thirty Years' War that broke out in 1618 . Göttingen was surrounded by the fighting armies and, at the urging of the sovereign Friedrich Ulrich von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, had to temporarily accept a garrison . His brother Christian , called the great Halberstadt , had drawn the Lower Saxon imperial circle , to which Göttingen belonged, into the war. In 1625, Göttingen began to expand the fortifications with the approval of the sovereign. The city should need this, because as early as autumn 1625 the imperial general Albrecht von Wallenstein besieged the city and asked for provisions and accommodation. Wallenstein moved on and was content to lead the entire Göttingen herd of around 1,000 cattle as prey. Göttingen tried to prepare for the defense, but shortly afterwards Tilly , the general of the Catholic League , was standing in front of the city in the summer of 1626, after he had wreaked a bloodbath in neighboring Münden shortly before . Tilly allegedly had Göttingen bombarded for five weeks and diverted the line by miners from the Harz, so that the city of Tilly had to open its gates on August 3, 1626. Tilly took up residence at 32 Weender Strasse, the commandant's house . After Tilly's victory in the Battle of Lutter am Barenberge over the Danish troops, he was able to secure his position in Lower Saxony and Göttingen remained occupied by imperial-Catholic troops. Göttingen suffered greatly from the occupation and the unbearable contribution burden for the city , whereupon a large part of the population left the city and up to 400 houses were empty. Only six years later did the balance of power change, and after the Swedish victory over Tilly in the Battle of Breitenfeld in 1631, Göttingen was recaptured for the Protestant side by Swedish and Weimar troops under Wilhelm von Weimar . In the autumn of 1632 Göttingen was threatened again by Pappenheim troops , but afterwards the city was firmly in the hands of Protestant troops. However, this initially did not mean any improvement in conditions for the city, and the occupation continued to weigh heavily on the civilian population.
In 1634, with the death of Friedrich Ulrich, the Middle House in Braunschweig went out . Göttingen fell to Georg von Braunschweig and Lüneburg-Calenberg , who chose Hanover as his residence , after the Welf inheritance was again divided . After his death in 1641, Göttingen had to endure the last great siege by Piccolomini under Duke Christian Ludwig . Afterwards the war was over for Göttingen, but the city had to bear the burden of the garrison and the war costs for many years .
Resurgence as a university town
After the Thirty Years War , the city's economic decline continued. The export of cloth and canvas had almost completely collapsed. The population, which was 6,000 in 1400, fell to under 3,000 in 1680. The economic decline was followed by the political. The supremacy of the guilds in the council and citizenship was replaced by the rule of the sovereign. In 1690, Duke Ernst August succeeded in transforming the council into a princely administrative body through the so-called city recession. In terms of foreign policy, the situation changed. The Principality of Braunschweig-Calenberg, to which Göttingen had belonged since 1634, was appointed an electorate by Emperor Leopold I in 1692 under Duke Ernst August . The now electoral princes of Braunschweig-Lüneburg (Kurhannover) were also King of Great Britain from 1714 in personal union . Ernst August's son, Elector Georg Ludwig von Hannover, was to ascend the British throne as Georg I.
The Electorate of Braunschweig-Lüneburg, which began to develop into a territorial power in the center of Germany, did not have its own university until then . It was therefore decided to re-establish a university to train the theologians, lawyers and doctors needed in the country. The state government of the Electorate of Hanover decided to create this in Göttingen. What spoke in favor of Göttingen was the fact that the city had already had a high school, the pedagogy, for some time, which could function as the nucleus of the new university. During the reign of George II August of Great Britain , who gave the university its name, teaching at Georg August University was opened in 1734 . The inauguration followed in 1737. The rapid success that the new establishment had is due not least to the commitment of the university's first curator, Gerlach Adolph von Münchhausen . The university brought new life to the city and stimulated population growth. Intensive construction work quickly changed the face of the city. The baroque Grätzelhaus in Goetheallee is a representative example of the self-confidence of new residents of Göttingen . New apartments, restaurants and eateries as well as hostels were opened (see London tavern ). In order to improve the cultural offerings of the professors and students, a university riding stable was built. In the years that followed, Göttingen gained a reputation as a place of science throughout Europe and overseas. Many famous scholars came to the city and worked there. The high reputation of the university was based not least on the clever acquisition policy of the newly founded university library . In addition, the Königliche Societät der Wissenschaften in Göttingen , which later became the Academy of Sciences in Göttingen, was founded in 1751 , which published the Göttingen advertisements from Scholars , a magazine that quickly became internationally known for information on scientific innovations.
The Seven Years' War meant new garrisons for Göttingen between 1757 and 1762. The French army took quarters, but the university continued its teaching operations. After the war, the city walls in Göttingen were razed and the city wall became a promenade. The university town, demilitarized to that extent, was able to fully devote itself to university operations and entered its heyday.
From Napoléon to 1866
In the wars waged by Napoléon Bonaparte , the Electorate of Hanover was occupied by French troops in 1803 without a fight. Göttingen itself was spared from occupations and other burdens. This may have something to do with the university's high standing. For a short time Hanover was awarded Prussia in 1805 . As a result, Göttingen was occupied by Prussian troops . After the Peace of Tilsit in 1807, the Electorate of Hanover disappeared from the map. Göttingen became part of the Kingdom of Westphalia with the royal seat of Kassel under Napoléon's brother Jérôme Bonaparte . In the Kingdom of Westphalia, Göttingen was the capital of the Leine department , which at times extended to Rinteln . As a result, Göttingen became the seat of several authorities and courts with a central function; the prefecture had its seat in the Michaelishaus . The foreign rule was not seen as oppressive over time. Student numbers stabilized after an initial decline, and Göttingen conformed to French rule, which lasted until 1813. After the collapse of French rule in Germany, the Electorate of Hanover was elevated to a kingdom. From 1823 Göttingen belonged to the Landdrostei Hildesheim , the newly formed intermediate authority.
In 1807 Carl Friedrich Gauß became head of the university's observatory; to this day he is one of the world's most respected mathematicians and physicists.
The last known example of the execution method of crushing limbs with iron clubs in Hanover dates from October 10, 1828. In retaliation for the greed-committed murder of his father and sister, Andreas Christoph Beinhorn from Grone was dragged on a cow skin to the place of execution and there, on the Leinebergland in Goettingen, publicly from below whacked - as it is in a contemporary pamphlet - "smashed with clubs and after his body braided on the wheel" (even if only for a day).
The emerging national movement in Germany went hand in hand with demands for political liberalization and democratization. When the July Revolution in Paris spread to Germany in 1830 , Göttingen experienced the so-called Göttingen Revolution in January 1831 . While the state of Hanover remained largely calm, a chain of different causes led to a violent outbreak in Göttingen, as a result of which a revolutionary council was formed under the leadership of the private lecturer Johann Ernst Arminius von Rauschenplatt and the magistrate of the city of Göttingen was dissolved on January 8, 1831 has been. The king demanded a free constitution for the Kingdom of Hanover and the overthrow of the government. The government was adamant and sent troops to the city on a large scale. On January 16, the rioters had to capitulate. The troops entered the city and lodged themselves there. Unless they had fled abroad, the leaders of the uprising were sentenced to draconian sentences. It was not until early March 1831 that calm returned to Göttingen. The university, which had been closed by the government on January 18, was able to reopen in mid-April. As a result of the uprising, the government made profound changes to the city constitution and replaced the old city constitution from 1690 with a new one. The centuries-old political role of the guilds came to an end, and in their place came representatives of a class of bourgeois dignitaries.
In 1837 - 100 years after the university opened - the auditorium was inaugurated as a representative and administrative building for the university . On the square in front of it, today's Wilhelmsplatz , a monument was erected to the then sovereign and founder, Wilhelm IV . Under his successor, King Ernst August I , with whom the 123-year personal union between Great Britain and Hanover ended, a conflict broke out in the same year. When he took office, he repealed the relatively liberal constitution that his predecessor had enacted in 1833, whereupon seven Göttingen professors protested. On December 12, 1837, Ernst August I dismissed the professors and expelled three of them from the country. This event had an enormous impact - not only in the Kingdom of Hanover, but throughout Germany. The Göttingen Seven , as they were called from then on, were soon considered to be the martyrs of a politically more attentive bourgeoisie. The opposition in the kingdom was shaken up by the protest. The resistance of the bourgeoisie was partially successful: with the state constitutional law of August 6, 1840, Hanover was given a constitutional constitution again, in which, however, the rights of the estates were severely curtailed in favor of the monarch. Quiet soon returned to Göttingen, but the university, which had been suffering from declining student numbers since the 1820s, was noticeably losing its reputation.
After the constitutional struggles, however, there was little easing of political freedom. Meetings had to be approved, lending libraries were checked and the three designated professors were not allowed to come back to Göttingen until 1848. The university members were of the opinion that the strict police regiment that prevailed in Göttingen was fatal for the university.
The German Revolution of 1848/1849 , which resulted in tumults and rebellions in many parts of Germany, remained in Göttingen without any major bloodshed. Only on the night of March 11th to 12th, 1848, there was a minor argument between the police and some students from the corps . As a result, the students left the city in protest. Since the semester was coming to an end anyway, this excerpt was not very convincing. A citizens' assembly and a vigilante group were founded as revolutionary institutions in Göttingen. However, the former dissolved at the end of the year because it had failed with and because of its politicization.
The time after the March riots was a rather quiet time for Göttingen. The political movements were quieter than before, and otherwise the 1850s are described as a time of sedate comfort. A date of paramount importance for urban development was July 31, 1854. On this day the railway line from Alfeld to Göttingen was opened and the Göttingen train station was inaugurated with a splendid festival. Now Göttingen took a big step into the modern age, the population increased, businesses settled in Göttingen and new residential areas were built outside of the medieval wall.
The last public execution under the linden tree on the Leineberg took place on January 20, 1859. Friederike Lotze was the name of the delinquent sentenced to death. She had poisoned the master baker Sievert at Münden, who had promised her marriage and whose maid she was, on March 13, 1858. She was beheaded with the sword.
The relationship between the city and its monarch, George V since 1851 , remained tense. King visits to the city were rare, and when they did, they went to the university of which he was proud. Georg distrusted the Göttingen bourgeoisie, which he viewed critically as an opposition. No revolution against the unconvincing monarch was planned in Göttingen, but when Prussian troops marched into Göttingen on June 22, 1866 , and shortly after the battle of Langensalza Hanover fell to Prussia, there was no substantial opposition in Göttingen to becoming Prussian.
1866 to 1919
Under Prussian rule, the people of Göttingen adapted relatively quickly to the new conditions. In particular, an enthusiasm for Otto von Bismarck developed in Göttingen , who was matriculated at Georgia Augusta from 1832 to 1833. In the city of Göttingen, next to a Bismarck tower on the Kleperberg , as it existed in many cities in Germany, a Bismarck stone was built on the Klausberg . Two Göttingen memorial plaques in the city , one of them on his last student apartment in Göttingen, the Bismarckhäuschen , commemorate the most famous Göttingen student of the 19th century. In the city of Göttingen, the Prussian-friendly National Liberal Party was very popular, while the Hanoverian-friendly Welfen party was more successful in the Göttingen district.
The industrialization began relatively late in Göttingen. Only from the turn of the century can one speak of an advance of industrial production in Göttingen. Due to the proximity to the university, which had meanwhile risen to a stronghold of the natural sciences that was respected worldwide, the precision mechanical, optical and electrical engineering industry developed in Göttingen, which has now replaced the textile industry as the most important branch of the Göttingen economy.
The city population of Göttingen began to grow rapidly in the 1870s. In 1875 Göttingen had 17,000 inhabitants, in 1900 there were already 30,000. The majority of the population still lived in the old town at that time; only the members of the middle and upper classes, especially the professors, sat down east of the city on the heights of the Hainberg . It was not until around 1895 that the population began to increase in the areas outside the old town. During the time of the German Empire, the mayors of Göttingen, Merkel and Calsow , began to expand the underdeveloped public utilities and modernize the city.
After almost thirty years of discussion, the city decided in April 1914 to set up a tram . Construction work began on June 29th. Rails were already delivered but not installed. When the war broke out on August 1st, the work was stopped and never resumed.
The First World War was greeted with enthusiasm for the most part in Göttingen . Many professors let themselves be carried away by the national hysteria. Soon there was disillusionment here. Businesses had to adjust to the war economy , and food supplies became a problem. The war came close to Göttingen when a prisoner of war camp was set up in the Ebertal below the Lohberg as early as August 1914 , in which up to 10,000 prisoners of war were temporarily housed. When the November Revolution followed the defeat in World War I in 1918 , a soldiers' and people's council was elected in Göttingen and a resolution passed. On November 10th, the worker Willi Kretschmer hoisted the red flag on the town hall. In fact, not too much changed in Göttingen despite the tumult; the city administration under Mayor Georg Calsow was able to continue working almost undisturbed.
From the beginning in the 20th century - up to the National Socialist era - the subjects of mathematics and physics flourished at the university. Mathematicians such as Felix Klein , David Hilbert , Hermann Minkowski , Emmy Noether , Hermann Weyl , Richard Courant and others, as well as physicists such as Max Born and James Franck set standards, enjoyed worldwide renown and spread the splendor of the city. The Nazis consciously accepted that this should now be over.
National Socialism, War and Post War Period
The internal instability of the Weimar Republic was also reflected in Göttingen. During the Kapp Putsch in the spring of 1920, a general strike was decided in Göttingen. The military then demonstrated their power and marched on March 15 in the city center and blocked the streets. In the rest of the uneasy years of the Weimar Republic that followed, the NSDAP quickly gained a foothold here. The local NSDAP branch in Göttingen was formed in the spring of 1922, and as early as the first half of the 1920s, Göttingen was considered a stronghold of the National Socialists, who achieved above-average electoral success here. The NSDAP and above all the SA regularly showed presence on the streets during mass marches, which deliberately provoked clashes with political opponents. As early as March 1930 there were violent clashes between the SA and the communist Red Front Fighters League . Fights between Communists and National Socialists subsequently remained the order of the day in Göttingen.
As a result of the global economic crisis from 1929 onwards, large companies had to close, unemployment rose and the need in Göttingen also increased. This gave the NSDAP further support. On July 21, 1932, Hitler's appearance marked the climax of the Göttingen Reichstag election campaign. Around 20,000 to 30,000 people attended the event in Kaiser-Wilhelm-Park despite pouring rain. In the subsequent election on July 31, 51% of the people of Göttingen (in the whole of Germany it was only 37%), i.e. the absolute majority, voted for the National Socialists.
In contrast to the city of Göttingen, it was much more difficult for the National Socialists to gain a foothold in the surrounding communities, which were to be incorporated as districts from 1963. In the then independent municipality of Grone in particular, the Social Democrats remained the strongest force even in the Reichstag elections on March 5, 1933. Grone was one of only four communities in what was then the Braunschweig-Südhannover constituency in which the NSDAP did not become the strongest force in this election.
Nonetheless, after having ended parliamentarism in the Weimar Republic with the Enabling Act, the National Socialists succeeded in dismissing all opposing and “non-Aryan” civil servants in April 1933 by means of a single government decree, the law for the restoration of the professional civil service to take early retirement, as a result of which the university alone suddenly lost almost a fifth of its professors.
Although the NSDAP's electoral successes in Göttingen fell slightly shortly before the seizure of power , Hitler's appointment as Reich Chancellor on January 30, 1933 was celebrated the next day with a large torchlight procession, attended by more than 2000 uniformed members of the SA , SS and Hitler Youth took part. The takeover of power in Göttingen went without incident. According to the Reichstag Fire Ordinance of February 28, the police took targeted action against the Communists, and on March 5 the SA was able to hoist the swastika flag on the town hall without hindrance. On March 28, 1933, the SA broke into the windows of Jewish shops and physically assaulted Jewish citizens. Not far from Göttingen, in the Moringen workhouse in the Northeim district , the Moringen concentration camp was set up as early as 1933 , which served as a youth concentration camp from 1940 .
People of Jewish "descent" were systematically pushed out of administration, business and science. For the university, especially in the field of mathematics and physics, this led to bloodletting from which the natural sciences in Göttingen and throughout Germany would only slowly recover after the Second World War .
At the same time, there was a long-term impoverishment of the intellectual life in the city, which was not immediately noticeable. This soon became noticeable in the wake of the book burning , in which German students in many university cities publicly burned books labeled as “un-German”. The book burning on May 10, 1933 was opened by the rector of the Georg August University , Friedrich Neumann . After a “fire speech” by the Germanist Gerhard Fricke , the student groups around the National Socialist German Student Union marched in a torchlight procession from Weender Tor to Adolf-Hitler-Platz, today's Theaterplatz. There the leader of the student body , Heinz Wolff, gave a short speech about the “un-German spirit” in front of the stake with a “Lenin” sign on top. After singing the song “Flamme up” and the Horst-Wessel song , the crowd dissolved.
In the course of bringing the student associations into line with the aim of transferring them to the National Socialist comradeships (the Feickert Plan ), disputes arose which were fueled by the city under National Socialist Mayor Albert Gnade and which culminated in the Göttingen riots in 1934 . Nevertheless, state power prevailed and all connections, accelerated by the effect of the Heidelberg asparagus meal in May 1935, were either dissolved by mid-1936 or transferred to comradeships. On May 12, 1936, Rudolf Hess ordered, in the sense of incompatibility , that no party member or member of a Nazi organization could be a member of a student union at the same time.
During the November pogroms of November 9th to 10th, 1938, the Göttingen synagogue in Maschstrasse, which had been devastated for the first time in the attacks in March 1933, was burned by members of the SA and SS (systematically from outside) and the mob. Of the almost 500 Jewish inhabitants before 1933, around 220 still lived in the city in 1938. Almost without exception, they fell victim to attacks by the SA and SS. On September 30, 1938, the license to practice medicine was revoked from the Jewish doctors . In 1940 the Göttingen sanatoriums and nursing homes received the registration forms according to which the " destruction of life unworthy of life " was carried out as part of the T4 1941 campaign . In December 1941, the Göttingen NSDAP district leadership complained that the imminent deportation of the Göttingen Jews had already become known to the population and that they were being overwhelmed with applications for apartment allocation. There was no resistance to the actions. The last 140 members of the Jewish community in Göttingen were deported to the extermination camps in 1942.
In air raids on Gottingen in World War II emerged compared to many other cities only minor damage. From July 7, 1944, the city suffered eight air raids, but these mainly targeted the railway systems. The following were destroyed: the anatomy (today the bus station), the station building, the freight station, the gas works, the railway bridge over the Leine and the brewery. The historic old town remained largely undamaged. Explosive bombs destroyed half of the Untere Maschstrasse here, as did the Luther school, the Junkernschänke, the Rheinischer Hof and several residential buildings on Jüdenstrasse and Angerstrasse. The Paulinerkirche, the university library, which was then located on Prinzenstrasse, and the zoological institute (next to the anatomy), as well as the auditorium building at Weender Tor, were badly damaged , whereby a petrol station (Iduna center) and other buildings (today's court) disappeared . The Johanniskirche and the town hall were also damaged. Outside the old town, which was not burned down, residential buildings were destroyed in Grone and Treuenhagen as well as in Kasseler Landstrasse, Arndtstrasse, Emilienstraße and Weender Landstrasse. A total of 107 people died; In addition, 235 apartments were completely destroyed, and many houses and public buildings were damaged. The not far away cities of Kassel , Hanover and Braunschweig were largely destroyed by massive Allied bombing raids, Kassel burned down several times at night (under blackout ).
There was an eastern workers ' camp on Schützenplatz and a western workers' camp on the Eiswiese on Sandweg , which was planned in 1942 by the Hanoverian armaments construction department of the Albert Speer ministry and then immediately by the kitchen association. V. were taken over.
Göttingen was overcrowded with bomb refugees. Because of the well-equipped hospitals, among other things, it had become a hospital town during the war, with 3,000 to 4,000 wounded soldiers at the end of the war. Considering the fact you were lucky that the General Otto Hitzfeld to Open City was declared Göttingen from the advancing American troops from all combat units leave and so no major combat operations on 8 April 1945 freed could be. On that day, several houses in Geismar and Wilhelm-Weber-Strasse as well as the St. Paulus Church were damaged by artillery fire. Overall, only 2.1% of Göttingen was destroyed in World War II.
After the war, the city was added to the British occupation zone, and American units were replaced by British ones. Göttingen was now in a zone triangle: neighboring Thuringia belonged to the Soviet occupation zone , Kassel in the south to the American zone . Because of this location and since Göttingen had survived the war largely intact, it became the point of contact for many interzone migrants and refugees . Göttingen University was the first in Germany (shortly before Heidelberg ) to resume teaching in the 1945/46 winter semester.
Since the establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany
Due to the turmoil of the war and the post-war era, the city's population increased suddenly. Quite a few came through the Friedland transit camp . While in 1939 just under 50,000 people lived in Göttingen, in 1949 the number was 80,000 when the apartment was confiscated to accommodate displaced persons . At that time, Göttingen was one of the most densely populated cities in Germany. During the industrialization process in the 19th century, the city had not already been expanded by incorporations like other cities. In the first post-war years, primarily the western part of the city was built on.
On April 12, 1957, another Göttingen declaration was made : 18 German nuclear and nuclear physicists, including Nobel Prize winners such as Max Born , Otto Hahn , Werner Heisenberg and Max von Laue , warned under the leadership of Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker about the equipment of the Bundeswehr tactical nuclear weapons, as they were brought up at the time by the Chancellor of the young Federal Republic, Konrad Adenauer . The initiative of the Göttingen Eighteen , who saw themselves as the successor to the Göttingen Seven mentioned above , was crowned with success, because Adenauer's ideas were obsolete from this point on.
Incorporation and industrialization were made up for by the Göttingen Act of July 1, 1964. On the one hand, the municipalities of Geismar , Grone , Nikolausberg and Weende were incorporated into the city with effect from July 4, 1964, and on the other hand, the city of Göttingen was incorporated into the district of Göttingen . Nevertheless, Göttingen was given a special position in the district, as the regulations for independent cities continue to apply to the city , unless otherwise stipulated by state law. As a result of the incorporations, Göttingen's urban area was more than doubled to 7,371 hectares ; the population increased by 31% from 83,000 to 109,000. At the same time, large new building areas and new city districts were created in the incorporated suburbs.
The course was set for the development of a modern city. Larger planning projects in the 1970s wanted to retain the character of the old university town, and according to the spatial planning plan, Göttingen was to function as the regional center for the entire southern Lower Saxony area. In the course of this project, large parts of the well-preserved old town, which was undestroyed during the war, were completely demolished as part of "area renovations" and replaced by new buildings, parking garages or fallow land. The most decisive step in this regard was the demolition of the university riding stables built in 1735 on Weender Strasse in 1968, which was accompanied by violent protests from citizens and students. Between 1966 and 1975, the inner-city streets were largely converted into pedestrian zones. The administration moved into its new town hall in 1978, for which the riding stables originally had to give way, but which was built in a completely different location southeast of the old town. Instead of the town hall, a department store (today 'Carre') was built in the Reitstallviertel. In addition, the Art Nouveau bath from 1906 was replaced by the new city bath in 1968. This was demolished in 2004 after a long period of vacancy.
Like the city, the growing university also modernized. The number of students rose from 4,680 in the winter semester 1945/46 to 30,000 in the early 1990s; afterwards they declined again. From 1964, today's campus and the humanities center were built on the area of the former university sports center north of the old town. The north university was built between Weende and Nikolausberg, where a large part of the natural science facilities are now located. In 1973 the construction of a new university hospital began. In 1993 the architecturally sophisticated new building of the state and university library was opened on campus.
With the opening of the border in 1989 and the accession of the East German federal states in 1990, Göttingen lost its peripheral location and is conveniently located in the middle of Germany. The change was associated with the fact that the Bundeswehr gave up its location in Göttingen in 1993 and not only did the history of the city as a garrison town come to an end (see 2nd Kurhessisches Infantry Regiment No. 82 ), but an important economic factor also disappeared.
The student riots that occurred in Göttingen in 1968 did not end here as quickly as elsewhere. In the early 1990s, Göttingen hit the headlines because of the “shard demos” of the Autonomous Antifa and the spectacular alliance demonstrations against right-wing extremism with the participation of the left-wing black block , whose participants appeared masked at the head of the demonstrations that reached into the bourgeois spectrum. Since 1990, almost consistently until today, there have been numerous actions from this radical left movement that have attracted nationwide media coverage.
The decisive action by large parts of the Göttingen population against right-wing extremist demonstrations, often in the form of alliances in which church groups as well as trade unions and autonomous groups from the left-wing radical spectrum of Göttingen participate, has contributed to the fact that right-wing extremism gains little or no ground here could. Nonetheless, there are regular NPD demonstrations, Nazi rallies and rallies with participants from all over Germany, which regularly encourage many counter-demonstrators to actively position themselves against right-wing extremism. During such events, the right-wing extremists and counter-demonstrators must be separated from a large police force.
In the explosion of a 65-year-old dud from the Second World War on the Göttingen Schützenplatz on June 1, 2010 three members of the ordnance disposal service died , two were seriously injured and four were slightly injured; everyone was busy preparing for bomb disposal .
The following communities were incorporated into Göttingen:
- April 1, 1963: Herberhausen
- 4th July 1964: Geismar , Grone , Nikolausberg and Weende
- January 1, 1973: Deppoldshausen , Elliehausen , Esebeck , Groß Ellershausen , Hetjershausen , Holtensen , Knutbühren and Roringen
The population development has shown growth since the Middle Ages, which accelerated sharply with the beginning of the early modern period. In 1986, officially 133,796 residents registered as main resident, a provisional high was reached, which however had to be corrected down by 20,000 people after the 1987 census , to 114,698, because the excessively high number was based on an incorrect update. In the following years, the official population rose to 128,419 (1997), then fell slightly and, from 2004, settled at around 122,000 inhabitants. This number remained more or less constant until 2013, when the census data were used and Göttingen's official number of persons registered as main resident was revised downwards again by around 5000 people to 116,420 in June 2013. In the meantime, a large number of students had not deregistered when they left and were still registered as main resident, which resulted in too high a population. On the other hand, only about half of the students in Göttingen are registered as main residents. At the end of 2018, 135,299 people were registered with their main (122,030) or secondary residence (13,269) in Göttingen. The State Statistical Office determined 119,801 inhabitants on the same reference date.
Number of students at the University of Göttingen: Summer semester 2004: 23,446, winter semester 2004/05: 24,398, summer semester 2005: 23,649, winter semester 2005/06: 24,400. In 2014, this number was 27,456, of which 18,391 were registered in Göttingen as primary or secondary residence. There are also other universities such as the University of Applied Science and Art or the Private University of Applied Sciences Göttingen (both together with students enrolled in Göttingen in 1802), which results in a student share of around 22% (2014).
On December 31, 2019, of the 134,632 inhabitants of Göttingen, 49,343 were Protestant Christians and 19,591 were Catholics . In 2017, 38.3% (51,583) of the 134,824 inhabitants were Protestant Christians and 15.2% (20,435) Catholics.
The area of the city of Göttingen initially belonged to the Archdiocese of Mainz or to its Archdiaconate Nörten . After the Reformation, Göttingen was an almost exclusively Lutheran city for many centuries. In 1530 the city received a new church order with a city superintendent who was subordinate to the state superintendent in Grubenhagen . All parishes in the city formed a general association. In the later Kingdom of Hanover , Göttingen became the seat of a district to which several church districts , including the church district of Göttingen, belong. All Protestant parishes in the city of Göttingen today - unless they are free churches - belong to the Göttingen parish of the Evangelical Lutheran Regional Church of Hanover .
From 1713 Reformed house services were held in Göttingen , in 1736 there were French Reformed services. All this led to the foundation of a Reformed congregation in 1748 , which was accepted into the Confederation of Reformed Churches in Lower Saxony in 1752. In 1928 the reformed community of Göttingen was a founding member of the Federation of Evangelical Reformed Churches in Germany , in which it was chairman for over 50 years; In 2013 she left this union of independent congregations and joined the Evangelical Reformed Church .
From 1746 Catholic services were again allowed for students in Göttingen , and a year later for all residents of the city. It was not until 1787 that the first Catholic church ( St. Michael ) could be built after the Reformation . In 1825 an independent parish was established that belonged to the Hildesheim diocese . In 1929 a second Catholic church, the Pauluskirche , was consecrated. Later, Göttingen became the seat of a deanery of the Hildesheim diocese, to which all Roman Catholic parishes in the city now belong.
In addition to the two large churches, there are congregations that belong to free churches , including an Evangelical Free Church Congregation ( Baptists , founded in 1894), a Mennonite Congregation (founded in 1946), the Evangelical Free Church of Ecclesia, an Adventist church , a congregation of the self-employed Evangelical Lutheran Church (SELK) and a Free Evangelical Congregation ( FeG ).
There is evidence of a Jewish community in Göttingen since the 16th century . The old synagogue from 1869 was burned down during the Reichspogromnacht in 1938 . Over 400 tombstones have been preserved in the Jewish cemetery next to the city cemetery . There is now a lively Jewish community life again. At the beginning of 2004 a new community center was inaugurated in Angerstrasse. On February 6, 2004, the first Erew Shabbat service was celebrated in the new church. The new synagogue building was from Bodenfelde to Göttingen translocated Service.
There are also several Muslim communities, including some in Grone, in the north city and one in the south city. In 2006, the Turkish DITIB community completed the Salimya mosque in Königsstieg . The Al Taqwa Mosque is on Güterbahnhofstrasse.
In addition, congregations of Jehovah's Witnesses , the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints , the New Apostolic Church , the Russian Orthodox Church and other Orthodox are represented in Göttingen.
Political and Administrative History
At the head of the city had been a council with 24 councilors since the 12th century. From 1319 the new town was subordinate to the council. The election of the council took place on the Monday after Michaelmas day . From 1611 the 24 councilors were elected by the entire township. The council elected the mayor from among its members . From 1669 there were only 16 councilors, later only 12. From 1690 the city regiment was completely reorganized. Then there was the council, which consisted of the court mayor, two mayors, the syndic, the city secretary and eight councilors to be elected by the government. While the city was part of the Kingdom of Westphalia , a mayor headed the city administration. He was supported by a municipal council. In 1831 new constitutional and administrative regulations were issued. After that there was a mayor or, from 1844, a lord mayor . With the new town ordinance of 1852 there was again a mayor, who from 1885 again carried the title of mayor. During the Third Reich, the head of the city was appointed by the NSDAP
In 1946, the military government of the British zone of occupation introduced the local constitution based on the British model. Then there was a popularly elected council. This elected the mayor from among his number as chairman and representative of the city, who was active on a voluntary basis. In addition, from 1946 there was a full-time senior city director, also elected by the council, as head of the city administration. In 2000, the dual leadership in Göttingen was given up. Since then there has only been the full-time Lord Mayor, who is the head of the city administration and the city's representative. He has been elected directly by the citizens for eight (previously five) years since 1999. Jürgen Danielowski (CDU) emerged victorious from the first election in 1999 . He took office on January 1, 2000 and handed it over to his successor, Wolfgang Meyer (SPD) on November 1, 2006 . He was succeeded in June 2014 by Rolf-Georg Köhler (SPD).
There is also a chairman of the council, who is elected from among its members at the constituent meeting of the council (most recently in 2016) after each local election. Christian Henze (SPD) has been chairman since August 2018.
The City Council of Göttingen is composed of 47 council members (46 councilors and a directly elected full-time mayor). The deputies from Piraten (2) and Die PARTTEI (1) formed a council group after the local elections in 2016. There is a budget alliance of the SPD and the Greens, other decisions are made with changing majorities.
On June 15, 2014, Rolf-Georg Köhler (SPD) was elected Lord Mayor of Göttingen with 58.9% in a runoff election. He took office on November 1, 2014.
In the Bundestag , Göttingen is represented by the Bundestag members Thomas Oppermann (SPD), Fritz Güntzler (CDU), Jürgen Trittin (Greens) and Konstantin Kuhle (FDP); Thomas Oppermann received the direct mandate of the Göttingen constituency in the 2017 Bundestag election .
In the Lower Saxony state parliament elected in 2017 , the MPs Gabriele Andretta (SPD, direct election Göttingen-Stadt), Gerd Hujahn (SPD, direct election Göttingen / Münden), Thomas Ehbrecht (CDU, direct election WK15), Stefan Wenzel (Greens, state list) represent the city of Göttingen.
coat of arms
|Blazon : “The coat of arms of the city shows three silver towers covered with red on a silver arch, the middle one with a golden knob and accompanied by four golden balls (2: 2), the sides with four windows and a golden finial; below in red a blue-armored golden lion walking to the left. "|
Justification of the coat of arms: The coat of arms of the city of Göttingen goes back to the oldest surviving seal of the city from the year 1278. It shows a golden or yellow lion walking heraldically to the left (seen from the viewer: right), the coat of arms of the Guelphs Dukes. The lion indicates that Göttingen was part of the Guelph territory, the Duchy of Braunschweig-Lüneburg . Above it is a silver arch symbolizing the city wall on a blue field with three towers, also silver, with red, pointed roofs. The towers and the wall indicate that Göttingen had city rights. The space between the towers is interrupted by four spheres.
The city flag is black and gold.
The city's coat of arms was last laid down in its current form in 1961 in the city's main statute . At times, the city used a simpler coat of arms, which showed the golden crowned, golden capital letter G in black.
The flag of the city shows the colors black and gold in two longitudinal stripes of equal width.
Göttingen's motto, which is located at the entrance to the Ratskeller , reads: “ Extra Gottingam non est vita, si est vita non est ita ” (in German “Outside of Göttingen there is no life; if there is life, then no such”) and should open the writer and historian August Ludwig von Schlözer go back.
Göttingen maintains a city partnership with the following cities :
- Cheltenham (United Kingdom), since 1951
- Toruń / Thorn (Poland), since 1978
- Pau (France), since 1983
- Lutherstadt Wittenberg (Germany), since 1988
- La Paz Centro (Nicaragua), solidarity agreement since 1989
Education and Research
Göttingen is a city that has been largely shaped by education and research since the 18th century, hence the name university city . 45 Nobel Prize winners came from the city and / or worked there. (This is known as the Göttingen Nobel Prize miracle.)
The Georg August University of Göttingen dominates the cityscape and perception . It was founded in 1737 by the then Elector George II of Hanover , King of Great Britain, and has produced a long list of well-known personalities . In 2007 the university won the second round of the Excellence Initiative . In the cityscape, the commemorative plaques on the houses, which have been typical of Göttingen since 1874, remind of the homes of around 320 famous Göttingen scholars and students. They are mostly made of white marble and refer to the time the honored person lived in the respective house. A Göttingen laudation is associated with the installation of the plaque .
In 1751 the Royal Society of Sciences in Göttingen , later the Academy of Sciences in Göttingen , was founded.
The University of Applied Science and Art has had a location in Göttingen since 1974 . In 1983 the University of Cooperative Education in Göttingen was founded, in 1994 the Private University of Applied Sciences Göttingen and in 2002 the University of Applied Sciences in the German Red Cross , which no longer exists. There is also the Administrative and Economic Academy Göttingen e. V. as well as the Volkshochschule Göttingen e. V .
In addition to the universities, five institutes of the Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science, founded in 1948, are located in Göttingen; these are the Max Planck Institute for Experimental Medicine , the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry , and the Max Planck -Institute for research into multi-religious and multi-ethnic societies and the Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization . In 2014, the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research , which had previously been located in Katlenburg-Lindau , was relocated to Göttingen. The city of Göttingen is also a “corporate sponsoring member” of the Max Planck Society.
Libraries and scientific service facilities
- Lower Saxony State and University Library Göttingen
- Society for Scientific Data Processing mbH Göttingen (GWDG); Computer center for the university and the Max Planck institutes
- Göttingen City Library ; founded in 1897
Other scientific institutions
- German Aerospace Center e. V. (DLR)
- German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE)
- Laser Laboratory Göttingen e. V.
- German Primate Center
- Sociological Research Institute (SOFI) e. V.
- IWF Wissen und Medien gGmbH (closed since January 1, 2011)
- Septuagint Company ; founded in 1907
- Northwest German Forest Research Institute
- XLAB - nationwide leading school laboratory as a link between schools and universities as well as research institutes in the field of natural and technical sciences
- Humanities student laboratory of the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen - Humanities university student laboratory as a bridge between schools, universities, teacher training , research and educational institutions in the areas of humanities, social and cultural studies
- Canon Law Institute of the Evangelical Church in Germany
- Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry
- Max Planck Institute for Experimental Medicine
- Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization (formerly Fluid Research )
- Max Planck Institute for Research on Multi-Religious and Multi-Ethnic Societies (formerly MPI for History )
- Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research
- Göttingen Center for Molecular Biology (GZMB)
- European Neuroscience Institute (ENI)
- Society for Scientific Data Processing mbH Göttingen (GWDG)
- Application center for plasma and photonics of the Fraunhofer Institute for Surface Engineering and Thin Films
In addition to five high schools ( Felix-Klein-Gymnasium , Hainberg-Gymnasium , Max-Planck-Gymnasium , Otto-Hahn-Gymnasium , Theodor-Heuss-Gymnasium ), Göttingen has the Georg-Christoph-Lichtenberg-Gesamtschule , the Geschwister-Scholl-Gesamtschule and the evening grammar school in Göttingen, where you can also complete your Abitur. There is also this possibility at the vocational schools I (Arnoldischule) in the technical high school for business, in the technical high school in the vocational schools II and at the vocational schools III in the high school for health and social affairs. Independent schools are the Free Waldorf School Göttingen as a comprehensive school with all graduation options as well as its own Waldorf qualification and the Montessori school . In general, there is a full range of general and vocational schools in Göttingen.
Culture and sights
The Göttingen theater landscape includes the German Theater Göttingen , the Young Theater Göttingen (JT) , the theater in the operating room , which uses a former show operating theater of the old surgical clinic of the Göttingen University as a stage, as well as the large stage of the Free Waldorf School Göttingen in Weende, on which annually several theater and eurythmy performances take place in a 450-person ballroom. In Göttingen there are still various theater groups, such as the silent dogs , the boat people project or the Domino association .
The International Handel Festival , organized annually by the Handel Society in early summer, goes back to the first re-performances of Handel operas in the post-baroque period, initiated by musicologists in Göttingen in the 1920s. In the late 20th century, the Festival, under the direction of John Eliot Gardiner and later Nicholas McGegan, became a center of musical and scenic historical performance practice of the works of George Frideric Handel . Laurence Cummings has been Artistic Director of the Festival since 2012. The festival attracts an international audience, especially from Handel's adopted country of Great Britain. One of the numerous concert venues is the Deutsches Theater Göttingen.
In the summer of 2007 Judith Kara renovated the Alte Fechthalle in cooperation with the University of Göttingen and turned it into a cultural center. The result was an event location with good acoustics to bring together different art forms. This is where the dance culture week takes place in autumn .
The Goethe Institute has been a venue for chamber concerts for many years . The Levinsche Villa was built by a Göttingen entrepreneur at the end of the 19th century. Between the world wars, the city of Göttingen made the building available to scientists as an apartment.
Since March 2012 the pianist Gerrit Zitterbart has been running a piano salon , where international young prize winners perform as soloists and with chamber music.
In 1964, the chanson made Göttingen known by the French singer Barbara . There are institutions such as the Göttingen Symphony Orchestra , the Göttingen Youth Symphony Orchestra , the Göttingen Flowmarkt or the Guano Apes and Ganz Schön Feist that are known beyond the city limits. In addition, Göttingen has an amateur music scene in the field of classical music with five symphony orchestras alone, each with a different thematic focus.
- Orchestra Göttinger Musikfreunde (OGM),
- concierto Göttingen (chamber orchestra with a modern and historical style of music in the sense of historical performance practice ),
- University Orchestra Göttingen (as the official orchestra of the Georg-August University ),
- Academic Orchestra Association (AOV) (focus on high and late romantic orchestral works)
- Orchestra of the Student Music Association Blue Singers (chamber orchestra with a focus on the late 18th to early 19th centuries).
With the Göttingen Boys' Choir, the city has a choir that has been known across national borders since the 1970s. Soloists from the Göttingen Choir Academy are regularly engaged at music theaters in the region. There are also several amateur big bands and other jazz formations in Göttingen. Since 1978 the Göttingen Jazz Festival has been taking place on the first weekend in November with international stars and Göttingen jazz artists. The association stall arte organizes every year a festival of visual arts, literature and contemporary music.
After twenty-nine years of Göttingen Old Town Festival, an indoor old town festival has been held every year since 2006 in different locations. The town hall (after the renovation work started in November 2018) and the locomotive hall are available for events. The Nörgelbuff is a traditional live club .
The ten-day Göttingen Literature Autumn has been held every autumn since 1992 , with readings and lectures by international authors in the Old Town Hall and in the Deutsches Theater. In 2002 the ceremony for the 75th birthday of Günter Grass took place during the literary autumn, in the presence of Federal Chancellor Gerhard Schröder and Federal President Johannes Rau .
The literary center in Göttingen runs a regular year-round program to which not only authors but also cultural workers from the adjacent areas are invited as a “walk-in feature section”. The literary center has existed as a permanent institution since 2000.
Museums and Archives
- City Museum Göttingen
- University art collection
- Academic Museum of the University: now disbanded
- Archaeological collections of the university (including the collection of plaster casts of ancient sculptures)
- Geoscientific Museum of the University of Göttingen
- University dungeon (historical graffiti )
- Ethnological collection of the University of Göttingen (with the Baron von Asch collection and the Cook / Forster collection)
- University Zoological Collections
- Bismarckhäuschen am Wall ( Otto von Bismarck's student apartment )
- Museum of Göttingen Chemistry
- Saline Luisenhall (one of the last still active production sites for vacuum salt in Europe)
- City Archives
- Collection of historical musical instruments from the university
- Historical collection on obstetrics and moulage collection of the university
- Blechschmidt human embryological documentation collection at the university
University Botanical Gardens
In Göttingen there are the following botanical gardens of the Georg August University :
- Old Botanical Garden : oldest botanical garden in Lower Saxony and one of the richest in Germany with over 10,000 plant species
- New botanical garden : ecological experimental garden
- Forest botanical garden : rich collection of trees
There are numerous monuments in Göttingen. Of particular importance in terms of art and cultural history are:
- Gauss Weber monument ( Ferdinand Hartzer , ore image foundry Gladenbeck , stone plinth with bronze sculptures, 1899)
- Wöhler monument (Ferdinand Hartzer, Erzbildgießerei Gladenbeck, bronze statue on a base made of Swedish granite, 1890)
- Monument to Gottfried August Bürger ( Gustav Eberlein , granite base with life-size bronze bust, 1895)
- Gänselieselbrunnen (sculptor Paul Nissen and architect Heinrich Stöckhardt , fountain with bronze sculpture, 1901)
- Rohns memorial stone (1895, next to the Rohns bathhouse)
- Merkelstein (Ferdinand Hartzer, stone block with bronze relief image, 1897)
- Memorial stone Pfalz Grona (1884)
- Monument to King Wilhelm IV of Hanover , founder of the auditorium ( Ernst von Bandel , bronze statue, 1837)
- Langensalza monument (7.32 m high pinnacle canopy made of cast iron, 1872)
- Hainbund Monument (1872)
- Eichendorff memorial stone (1960)
- Shepherd's Fountain ( Dietrich Wilhelm Rathkamp , 1914)
- Kleiner Reinsbrunnen Mermaid (sculptor Friedrich Küsthardt , grotto with bronze sculpture, 1901)
- Bismarck tower on the Kleperberg (building officer Heinrich August Anton Gerber and architect Conrad Rathkamp, 1896)
- Bismarckstein (7 m high limestone viewing platform, 1903, designed by Friedrich Jenner , construction carried out by Rudolf Hannig , Hanover)
- Synagogue memorial (artist Corrado Cagli, Rome; sculpture made of concrete and steel, 1973)
- Memorial for forced laborers
- Göttingen survey (sculptor Andreas Welzenbach , sculpture ensemble in front of the Kornmarktpassage, 2012)
As part of a re-inventory of the designated cultural monuments in the city center of Göttingen carried out from 2008 to 2010, the entire area enclosed by the medieval wall up to the outer wall foot was designated as a building culture ensemble downtown Göttingen as a listed group of structures in the monument register. Within this area, 179 buildings are listed as individual monuments in the monument register. A further 819 buildings, combined in 90 groups, are constituent parts of the inner city building culture ensemble . A list of architectural monuments in the inner city area east of Weender Strasse is in the list of architectural monuments in Göttingen / Baukulturensemble Innenstadt-Ostteil , from Weender Strasse west in the list of architectural monuments in Göttingen / Baukulturensemble Innenstadt-Westteil and the fortifications and architectural monuments of the inner city outside the Stadtwalles are listed in the list of architectural monuments in Göttingen . An inner city concept was issued in 2011 for the further development of the inner city.
There are eight churches in the inner city within the wall :
- St. Albani , in the east of the city center, is slightly elevated in the area of the original Gutingi, the nucleus of today's city. It is the oldest church in Göttingen.
- St. Jacobi , a landmark visible from afar and, at 72 meters, the highest church in the city. It houses a valuable winged altar from 1402.
- St. Johannis , two-tower market and council church and often redesigned in its history. On January 23, 2005, the north tower of the church burned down after an arson attack .
- St. Marien is the church of the former Teutonic Order .
- St. Michael , the only Catholic church in the city center, is lined up like a town house in Kurz Strasse; A fundamental modernization took place in 2014/2015.
- St. Nikolai , which has been the university church in their property since 1820 due to a petition by the student body from 1819, is inconspicuous in terms of its construction. It was used as a magazine from 1800 to 1818. In the course of the preparation for this use, a dilapidated double tower was removed. The sandstone building dates from the end of the 13th century. However, Romanesque foundations (12th century (?)) Were found during archaeological investigations. The equipment details include an epitaph from the Pauline Church in memory of the famous University Chancellor of Mosheim .
- Paulinerkirche , today converted into an old university library, is a former Dominican church. It is the oldest Gothic church in the city. On November 24, 1944, it was badly damaged by an air mine and rebuilt after the war.
- Reformed Church (Untere Karspüle 10A), was built after the university was founded on the initiative of the Swiss professor Albrecht von Haller in 1752/53.
The five oldest parish churches of the city are St. Albani, St. Jacobi, St. Johannis, St. Nikolai and the Paulinerkirche. St. Marien as the new town's church was probably only added after the town had been expanded.
The Vierkirchenblick is marked with a bronze plate in the pavement on the corner of Marktplatz and Kornmarkt. From there a church can be seen in every direction (N: Jacobi, O: Albani, S: Michaelis, W: Johannis). The bronze plate was donated by the owner of the Diekmann clothing store, Harro Tubbesing. In 1981, during renovation work in the Diekmann clothing store, the foundations of the Schuhhof , built in 1251 , the oldest guild hall in the city with a Gothic barrel vault and groin vault, were discovered. Today the cellar vault is used as a restaurant. The buildings with the house numbers Markt 7 and 8 have been added to the list of Lower Saxony cultural monuments and are on the south side of the market square.
The old town hall (Markt 9) is essentially Gothic. On the stairs of the town hall there are two stone lions bearing a coat of arms. On the market square in front of it stands the famous Gänselieselbrunnen , the symbol of the city. In the old town there are numerous half-timbered houses (13th to 19th centuries), some of which have been heavily restored , such as Rote Straße 25 from 1276, a typical Gothic residential building, and - after two half-timbered houses in Esslingen am Neckar from 1262/63 and 1267 - the third oldest half-timbered house in Germany that has been dendrochronologically dated. Also worth mentioning are the Ratsapotheke and the Junkernschänke (1547, Barfüßerstraße 5), which was destroyed by bombs on March 21, 1945 and rebuilt after the Second World War , the Bornemannsche Haus, the Black Bear , the Schrödersche Haus and the Lichtenberghaus, with which the city is located Göttingen advertised in the time competition 365 Landmarks in the Land of Ideas . The downtown area is still almost completely surrounded by remodeled in the 18th century to a walkway Wall .
The university attractions include the auditorium (Wilhelmsplatz) with the Karzer (in which, contrary to a widespread political myth, Chancellor Otto von Bismarck was not a student), which could be seen alongside other Göttingen buildings on the 10 D-Mark bill , the Old Auditorium (Weender Landstrasse 2) and the Old Botanical Garden (Untere Karspüle 1). The former observatory (Geismar Landstrasse 11) is a classicist building built between 1803 and 1816 with echoes of revolutionary architecture .
At the Geismartor is the Accouchierhaus , built between 1785 and 1790 (Kurz-Geismar-Straße 1), a former maternity hospital, which is now used as the university's musicological seminar.
In addition to the detention center, the Bismarckhäuschen am Wall (Bürgerstraße 27a) reminds of Bismarck's student days . The Bismarcktturm, built as a lookout tower in 1892–169, stands on the Kleperberg .
In the Nikolausberg district you will find a picturesque village church in a prominent location, the Romanesque components of which seem to be stylistically related to the "Building School" of Königslutter am Elm . It was originally founded as a monastery church; However, the convent moved to Weende, which is located near the valley (today a district of Göttingen).
In the district of Weende , the school building of the Free Waldorf School Göttingen, which was completed in 1987 and is architecturally unique in the region, impresses with its south wing, which was inaugurated in 2007 (design: Jochen Brandi).
There are numerous examples of modern art in the city, for example the bronze sculpture Der Tanz by Bernd Altenstein (1982). Its location in the middle of the old town is popularly known as the navel .
The Kunsthaus Göttingen is under construction (2019) .
The tower of the Jakobikirche houses a carillon , mostly from 1968, which consists of 14 bells. The two largest of these (c 2 and d 2 ) are used for the quarter-hour strike. The carillon sounds every Saturday at 11:30 a.m.
At the Lange-Geismar-Str. 44 a carillon sounds several times a day.
- April: Easter market
- May or June: International Handel Festival
- June: Göttingen game designers meeting
- July: Göttingen Night of Culture, old town run, shooting festival
- September: Gänseliesel festival, learning festival, health market, Nikolausberg music days, dance and culture week in the Alte Fechthalle, NDR 2 soundcheck new music
- October: Göttingen Literature Autumn
- November: Nobody should be lonely, Göttingen Jazz Festival
- December: Göttingen Christmas Market
A very well-known event with numerous stages distributed over the entire pedestrian zone for the presentation of satirical and musical live performances was the old town festival that took place on the last weekend in August . The last organizer, however, became insolvent, a successor could no longer be found due to the financial risk and there was also a noise protection suit from a local resident who won the process. These two reasons led to the last old town festival taking place in 2004. On the initiative of various institutions in Göttingen, the indoor old town festival has been taking place in several pubs at the same time since 2007 .
Student associations and boxes
As a result of the university, a number of fraternities and other student associations were founded in Göttingen since the beginning of the 19th century . Today there are still over 40 active student associations here. Of the fraternities, the Hannovera , Holzminda and Brunsviga are still active. As opponents of the fraternities, a large group of left-wing activists emerged from the 1960s, which made a building on Rote Strasse their meeting place and held regular demonstrations.
After the university was founded , a deputation lodge (branch lodge) was set up in Göttingen in 1747 at the request of Carl Phillip Freiherr von Knigge, who had studied in Göttingen and become master of the chair of the Freemason lodge Friedrich in Hanover . This made Göttingen one of the first cities to have a lodge. Professor and lawyer Georg Ludwig Böhmer became the first master of the chair . After initial difficulties, the lodge was dissolved in 1753, re-established in 1765 and 1793 and founded in 1810 under the current name of Augusta zum Goldenen Zirkel with matriculation number 22. The lodge, which has almost 50 members, presents itself as an open community for everyone. It only accepts men, but also invites their families and meets regularly in its lodge house in Oberen Karspüle 47. The current master of the chair is Dietmar Meinshausen.
Göttingen has a diverse and colorful nightlife. For example, the Nörgelbuff offers funk to rock music and is also a venue for live music. The Dots, a cozy "Spielunke" in the Börner quarter (Barfüßerstraße), has a diverse cultural offer as well as regular live acts, in addition, the Dots is organized collectively. The student-run Stilbrvch, a venue for all kinds of events, is located on the university's central campus. The Amavi Wild Göttingen , the Eins B, Der Freihafen, T-Keller, Exil, the Club Savoy , which is located in the former central bank of Lower Saxony, and the Alpenmax Göttingen offer further celebration options . There are also innumerable bars in the city center. In the past, the Club Savoy and Alpenmax Göttingen have repeatedly been accused of racist admission practices. According to the Göttingen Integration Council, it is more and more common for foreigners to be denied access to discos.
Economy and Infrastructure
In September 2017, the unemployment rate was 5.0% (2017: 5.8%, 2010: 8.3%).
As part of a divestment decision on climate protection, the city has committed itself to investing public money only in financial investments that meet ethical and ecological criteria and thus e.g. B. Exclude investments in fossil fuels or child labor.
The federal motorway 7 Hanover - Kassel runs through the western urban area of Göttingen from north to south . South of Göttingen, the Drammetal motorway triangle formed the connection to the federal motorway 38 to Halle (Saale) and Leipzig . Further, the lead federal roads 3 and 27 by Göttingen. The traffic ring runs around the city center along the former city wall, which separates the city center from the neighboring quarters by walking, largely keeping car traffic out of the city center and distributing it in all directions to the remote city districts. Nevertheless, there are overlaps between different user groups, particularly in the area of the transition between the pedestrian zone and small-scale development. Bus and parking search traffic annoy themselves here with cyclists and pedestrians.
The Göttingen train station is on the high-speed line Hanover – Würzburg, which opened in 1991, and has been a stop for the ICE ever since . The routes of the InterCityExpress lead via Kassel to Frankfurt am Main , Munich and Stuttgart , partly to Switzerland and Austria , and in the opposite direction to Hanover , Hamburg , Bremen and via Braunschweig and Wolfsburg to Berlin . In the old route network, Göttingen is on the north-south main line from Hamburg via Hanover from the north and to Kassel, Frankfurt and Würzburg in the south ( Göttingen – Bebra railway line ). The Göttingen – Bodenfelde railway line leads to the Weser and Solling (with connections in the direction of Paderborn ). 126 ICE, 53 IC and 236 local trains run daily in Göttingen. For several years, regional traffic has been guaranteed on the southern route following tenders from private providers. In the direction of Kassel, a regional express train runs in double traction via Eichenberg - Witzenhausen - Hann.Münden , with one traction serving the route via Bad Sooden - Eschwege to Bebra .
Since 1980 the Dransfelder Bahn branching off in Göttingen , which was part of the Hannöverschen Südbahn and was the first rail connection between Hanover and Kassel, has been closed. In 1957 the Gartetalbahn , a narrow-gauge railway to Duderstadt for passenger traffic, was shut down.
The nearest commercial airports are in Hanover (about 105 km as the crow flies), Paderborn / Lippstadt (about 90 km as the crow flies) and Kassel-Calden (about 40 km as the crow flies). Göttingen has an airfield in Günterode in Thuringia, the Eichsfeld airfield (20 km as the crow flies). Other airfields in the area are Witzenhausen Airfield (20 km as the crow flies), Höxter-Holzminden Airfield (47 km as the crow flies) and Northeim Airfield (about 20 km as the crow flies).
27 city bus routes (routes 11/12, 21/22, 23, 31/32, 33, 41/42, 50, 61/62, 71/72, 73, 80, 91/92 and night bus routes N1 to N8) operated by the Göttingen public transport company and numerous taxis serve the local public transport system in Göttingen.
The bicycle is the preferred mode of transport in the student city . Due to its largely hilly location, the city center of Göttingen is predestined for bicycle traffic. There are numerous developed bike paths and parking spaces, including a chargeable bike station at the train station. In 2006 the city of Göttingen won the state competition bicycle-friendly municipality of Lower Saxony. A bicycle city map published on behalf of the city has been available since 2008. The Leine-Heide-Radweg leads through the city .
Göttingen has a large number of companies that deal with measurement technology. Therefore, the regional trade association Measurement Valley was founded in 1998 . The 34 members include institutions such as vocational schools, the Georg-August University of Göttingen, the Hildesheim / Holzminden / Göttingen University of Applied Sciences and the Hanover Chamber of Commerce and Industry. Also members are the Sartorius AG and the Mahr Group . Sartorius AG is a global corporation with its headquarters in Göttingen and an international leader as a provider of sub-areas of laboratory and process technology. With around 8,125 employees worldwide, the company achieved sales of 1.566 billion euros in 2018. The Mahr Group, with around 1700 employees worldwide, is also headquartered in Göttingen, employed around 750 people in Göttingen in 2012 and achieved sales of 214 million euros.
The ten largest companies by total assets are:
- Sparkasse Göttingen
- Sartorius AG
- Volksbank Kassel Göttingen eG
- Hindalco (formerly Novelis , before that Alcan )
- Sartorius Stedim Biotech GmbH
- Amedes Medical Services GmbH
- Coherent GmbH (laser technology)
- Logistics company coincidence
- Sartorius Weighing Technology GmbH
- Housing cooperative eG Göttingen
Also of importance are:
- optical industry ( Zeiss , Qioptiq )
- Scientific teaching and learning systems ( Phywe )
- Vacuum systems (Pfeiffer Vacuum Components & Solutions GmbH)
- Regional sausage specialties (Börner-Eisenacher GmbH)
- Press distribution company (Tonollo)
- Healthcare ( AQUA Institute )
- Luxury foods (Kaufmanns AG)
- Book publishers ( Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht ; Steidl-Verlag ; Wallstein-Verlag )
In 2012 Göttingen was recognized as an energy municipality for its commitment to renewable energies . Biogas-driven combined heat and power units (BHKWs) and a heating plant fired with waste wood supply numerous households there via district heating networks. In the future, the networks are to be expanded bit by bit.
The health care of the residents is ensured by several hospitals. The University Medical Center Göttingen is at the forefront of health care with around 1500 beds, 1362 of which are planned beds , followed by the psychiatric Asklepios Specialist Clinic Göttingen with 428, the Evangelical Hospital Göttingen-Weende with 421, the Neu-Mariahilf Hospital with 104 and the Agaplesion Hospital Neu Bethlehem with 100 beds.
Authorities and public institutions
Göttingen is the administrative seat of the district of Göttingen and the educational region of southern Lower Saxony . The city continues to be the seat of a police headquarters and a federal police station . In addition to the Göttingen District Court, the Göttingen Regional Court , the Göttingen Administrative Court and the Göttingen Labor Court are located in the city, as well as other authorities such as the tax office , customs office , an office of the Federal Employment Agency and a branch of the Deutsche Bundesbank .
with a high degree of distribution
- Göttingen is a one-newspaper circle ; the only local daily newspaper published here is the Göttinger Tageblatt , published by the Madsack publishing company . It is a regionalized version of the Hannoversche Allgemeine Zeitung .
- Weekly free show advertising papers look (also Madsack) and ExtraTip (WAD bag holds 20% stake).
- The magazine GÖKick has been published every quarter since 2008 and focuses on the regional football situation .
- Every month appear Street Magazine daily rate and K3 The magazine , ten times a year appearing city magazines 37 ° , pony and trends & fun and quarterly factor , the decision-maker magazine for the region Göttingen and the regional Journal for Südniedersachsen RegJo .
in the surrounding area / discontinued
- The Hessische / Niedersächsische Allgemeine (HNA) has an editorial team in Göttingen. For the HNA local editorial offices in Lower Saxony (Hann. Münden, Northeim and Uslar), the state political pages and the page Blick nach Göttingen (appears in the Witzenhäuser Allgemeine ) are produced there. In addition, the editorial team is responsible for the weekly event page That is going on in the region .
- The attempt to establish an independent and cooperatively organized Göttingen weekly newspaper failed in July 2006.
- Every one to two weeks, the Göttingen printed matter, perceived as radical left , appeared .
As a local broadcaster, StadtRadio Göttingen offers a non-commercial local radio program. Local windows are also broadcast by the Lower Saxony commercial broadcasters Hit-Radio Antenne and radio ffn . NDR 1 Niedersachsen broadcasts regional windows from the Braunschweig studio on weekdays for southern and eastern Lower Saxony, with southern Lower Saxony contributions being produced in a regional studio based in Göttingen, which also produces for the other NDR radio waves as well as for Das Erste and NDR television .
Because of the unfavorable valley location for VHF reception, city-wide reception is limited to the Nikolausberg , Bovenden and Hoher Meißner transmitters , from which the following frequencies are broadcast:
- NDR 1 Lower Saxony on 88.5 MHz (Nikolausberg)
- NDR 2 on 94.1 MHz (Nikolausberg)
- NDR culture on 96.8 MHz (Nikolausberg)
- NDR info on 99.9 MHz (Nikolausberg)
- N-Joy from NDR on 95.9 MHz (Nikolausberg)
- StadtRadio Göttingen on 107.1 MHz (Bovenden)
- Radio 21 on 93.4 MHz (Bovenden)
- radio ffn on 102.8 MHz (Bovenden)
- Hit radio antenna on 106.0 MHz (Bovenden)
- Germany radio on 101.0 MHz (Bovenden)
- hr1 to 99.0 MHz (Hoher Meißner)
- hr2 culture on 95.5 MHz (Hoher Meißner)
- hr3 at 89.5 MHz (Hoher Meißner)
- hr4 to 101.7 MHz (Hoher Meißner)
- Hit Radio FFH on 105.1 MHz (Hoher Meißner)
The programs broadcast by the powerful broadcasting systems on the Brocken are also mostly easy to receive:
- MDR Saxony-Anhalt on 94.6 MHz
- MDR Figaro on 107.8 MHz
- MDR jump to 91.5 MHz
- Deutschlandradio Kultur on 97.4 MHz
- 89.0 RTL on 89.0 MHz
- Radio SAW on 101.4 MHz
There is no local television in Göttingen. On May 29, 2006, the analog terrestrial television signal from the Göttingen (Nikolausberg) and Hoher Meißner transmitters, which had previously covered the city with analog television, was switched off and DVB-T was introduced. The private broadcasters RTL and Sat.1 can no longer be received terrestrially; however, there is a larger number of public service programs available in comparison to analog reception. The station Espol broadcasts Das Erste , Arte , Phoenix , tagesschau24 , 3sat , ZDF , KiKA / ZDFneo , ZDFinfo as well as the third programs from NDR , WDR , hr-fernsehen and MDR . The bouquets, which essentially consist of the same programs, can be received from the Hoher Meissner or from the Hetjershausen station throughout the city . In addition to cable and satellite TV, IPTV from Telekom is available in some parts of the city .
- The Göttinger Stadtinfo (goest) has been on the Internet as a non-commercial online magazine since 2001 with reports on local political and cultural events and a detailed calendar of events.
- The Internet newspaper www.buergerstimmen.de was online from mid-2005 to the end of 2012 .
- Gö-Polis - Göttinger Stadtmagazin (formerly: Polis - Göttinger Stadtmagazin ) from 2004 to 2013 as a print medium, from 2010 also, from 2014 only as an online magazine (www.goe-polis.de) with a focus on daily local political and ecological reporting . The project was discontinued in 2018.
Film city Göttingen
From 1945 to 1960, Göttingen was the production facility for over 90 feature films, among others
- 1949: Liebe 47 (Director: Wolfgang Liebeneiner , leading actress: Hilde Krahl , based on Wolfgang Borchert's play Outside in front of the door )
- 1950: Gynecologist Dr. Prätorius (directors: Curt Goetz and Karl Peter Gillmann, actors: Curt Goetz, Valérie von Martens , Albert Florath , Rudolf Reif, Erich Ponto )
- 1950: There comes a day (Direction: Rudolf Jugert , Actors: Dieter Borsche , Maria Schell , Lil Dagover , Herbert Hübner , Gustav Knuth )
- 1951: The house in Montevideo (directed by Curt Goetz and Valérie von Martens , actors: Curt Goetz, Valérie von Martens, Albert Florath )
- 1953: Hocus pocus (director: Kurt Hoffmann , actors: Curt Goetz , Valérie von Martens , Hans Nielsen , Erich Ponto )
- 1958: Dogs, do you want to live forever (director: Frank Wisbar , actors: Joachim Hansen , Ernst Wilhelm Borchert , Wolfgang Preiss , Karl Lange , Horst Frank , Peter Carsten , Richard Münch , Günter Pfitzmann , Sonja Ziemann )
- 1958: Wir Wunderkinder (director: Kurt Hoffmann , actors: Johanna von Koczian , Hansjörg Felmy , Wera Frydtberg , Robert Graf )
- 1959: Roses for the public prosecutor (Director: Wolfgang Staudte , Actors: Martin Held , Walter Giller , Ingrid van Bergen , Camilla Spira )
- 1959: Buddenbrooks (Director: Alfred Weidenmann , Actors: Liselotte Pulver , Nadja Tiller , Hansjörg Felmy , Lil Dagover , Werner Hinz , Hanns Lothar , Rudolf Platte , Günther Lüders )
- 1959: Of course the motorists (leading actors: Heinz Erhardt , Maria Perschy , Erik Schumann , Ruth Stephan , Trude Herr ) as well as numerous other Heinz Erhardt films
The production company was the Göttingen Film Construction Society, which was founded by Hans Abich and Rolf Thiele in 1946. The company stands for the problem-oriented cinema film of the 1950s as well as the production of numerous comedies with Heinz Erhardt. In 1960 the company moved to Munich .
The Curt Goetz films were produced by Domnick -Filmproduktion GmbH.
- In 2004 in Göttingen and Hann. Münden filmed the episode Dark Paths from the crime series Tatort . Since 2019, the shooting for the crime scenes around Commissioner Lindholm has taken place in Göttingen, among other places.
- In 2012 Harder und die Göre was shot in Göttingen in order to make Göttingen a film city again (Director: Oliver Clark, Leading Actor: Harry Baer , Paula Hans, Thomas Lehmann , Thomas Kahler)
Since 1994 there has been the Göttingen International Ethnographic Film Festival every two years in May during the Ascension week in the inner-city Pauluskirche .
The Göttingen section of the German Alpine Club with almost 3500 members (as of December 31, 2018) is one of the largest sports clubs in Göttingen. It was founded on November 22nd, 1889, making it one of the oldest clubs in Göttingen. She runs a climbing hall in Weende and a mobile climbing wall.
A nationally known football club in Göttingen was 1. SC Göttingen 05 , which had to file for bankruptcy in 2003 . In the following year, the youth department (FC Göttingen 05), which had been outsourced before the bankruptcy, merged with RSV Geismar to form RSV Göttingen 05 . The club currently plays in the Lower Saxony state league and is currently the most successful Göttingen football club. The venues for 1. SC Göttingen 05 were the Maschpark and the Jahnstadion .
The successor club RSV 05 started on the sports field on Benzstrasse in Geismar and is playing again today in the Jahnstadion. The club is known nationwide because of its following, probably the largest of a football club in Göttingen.
There are still several fan clubs from the days of the SC, including the 05 Supporters Crew , which form the umbrella organization. The home games attract an average of 900 spectators, which is considerable for a fifth division team.
The neighboring club , the SVG Göttingen 07, is a long-standing athletic rival . This is located (seen from the Jahnstadion) on the other side of the Leineufer, in the SVG stadium on Sandweg and plays in the Braunschweig regional league . The highlight was the Göttingen city derbies in the Braunschweig regional league in the 2010/2011 season on the Göttingen Benzstrasse with around 1800 spectators and the second leg in front of around 2500 spectators in the SVG stadium. The game ended 1: 1 and the RSV 05 surprisingly rose to the top league months later.
Some functionaries of the larger clubs in Göttingen have already planned a merger to form a large club several times in order to bring higher-class football back to the university city (as happened in other cities, for example at FC Ingolstadt 04 ). They were unable to implement this due to the many negative voices from clubs and fans. Most recently, FC Göttingen was founded in November 2008 by board members of the SVG Göttingen, RSV Göttingen 05, SCW Göttingen, TSV Holtensen and Sparta Göttingen . The goal was high-class football in Göttingen. The association was partly welcomed, partly strictly rejected. After the SVG Göttingen quickly withdrew from the project after talks with the board, the association was dissolved again after only 21 days. A spokesman for the SVG justified this with the words: "The [...] material and human resources [the existence of the SVG] seriously endanger."
The SCW Göttingen is also known for its annual A youth indoor tournament. The tournament, which used to take place shortly before Christmas in the Lokhalle, had to be postponed to mid-January due to the quarter-finals of the DFB Junior League Cup scheduled for this period. For four days, four internationally known clubs (in the past representatives of FC Barcelona, Chelsea London, PSV Eindhoven, Bröndby Copenhagen), eight Bundesliga teams (such as VfL Wolfsburg, Hannover 96 or Borussia Dortmund) and 12 regional clubs fight for the tournament victory. The tournament regularly has a high number of spectators and is considered Europe's largest A youth indoor tournament.
The Mexican national team set up their World Cup quarters in Göttingen on the occasion of the 2006 World Cup . The team made a guest appearance in the Hotel Freizeit In and played a test match in front of 15,000 spectators against a regional team from Göttingen. In addition, Göttingen was the venue for the unofficial German championship in futsal in 2006 .
Göttingen is also a traditional basketball location. The BG 74 Göttingen is currently with the men's team as BG Göttingen in the first basketball league represented. This team won the EuroChallenge in 2010 . In 1980, 1983 and 1984, the Göttingen basketball players of ASC 1846 Göttingen , the city's second major club, won the German championship, and in 1984 and 1985 they won the German Cup. The women's team of BG 74 Göttingen also played in the first women's basketball league from 2003 to 2009 , under the name Trinos Göttingen in the 2008/2009 season . After the 2008/2009 season, however, there were renewed financial problems that resulted in the team not being granted a first division license. In addition, the Göttingen team (consisting of players from ASC 1846, BG 74 and the Bad Sooden-Allendorf sports school) plays in the youth basketball league (NBBL). The fact that three teams played in the highest German league was unique in German basketball history.
The venue for the women's team is the sports hall of the Felix-Klein-Gymnasium, which holds around 1500 spectators. Since the 2007/2008 season, the men's venue has been the Göttingen Lokhalle. Since the 2011/12 season, the men's team has played most of its home games in the newly built Sparkassen-Arena on Schützenplatz, but continues to play individual games in the Lokhalle. The ASC 1846 plays in the hall of the IGS.
The competition community of the University of Göttingen was also multiple German university champions, most recently in 2006.
The tradition of basketball in Göttingen includes the women's basketball players from Göttingen 05 , who became German champions in 1968, 1970, 1971, 1972 and 1974.
The BG 74 Göttingen Generals, which will celebrate their 30th anniversary in 2018, are the American football department of the traditional Göttingen club BG 74. The generals provide a U19 youth team and a men's team. The men's team will compete in the Oberliga Nord in the 2018 season.
Canoe polo is one of the most successful sports in Göttingen. The men's team of the Göttingen Paddlers Club (GPC) was 2012 (in Essen and 2007 in Berlin 2006) and a third place in 2009 German after two runner-up for the first time in the club's master of canoe polo Bundesliga and reached at the European Club Championships (Champions League) in Duisburg the 8th place. The women's team, one of the most successful teams in the country (champions: 2004,2005,2007,2011 - runner-up 2008,2010 third: 2009,2012 - European Club Championship winner 2007), reached third place in 2012. The GPC junior teams have already celebrated a number of successes: for example, first place in the Lower Saxony championship, first place in the well-attended Karnath Cup and the greatest success so far at the German championship in Berlin in 2007 with third place. In addition to the successes at national level, Göttingen has produced numerous successful national players. Lukas Richter (Vice World Champion 2012) and Tonie Lenz (World Champion 2006, 2012 - 1st place World Games 2005) are currently playing in the highest national squads. Every year on the last weekend in April, one of the largest national tournaments takes place in the outdoor pool on Brauweg with international and top-class cast.
The Hockey Club Göttingen e. V., which split off from ESV Rot-Weiß Göttingen.
For the field season, the training grounds are located on the district sports facility (BSA) in Greitweg, where games are played on the natural grass and for the indoor season in the large hall of the Geschwister-Scholl-Gesamtschule (KGS). The club room is also located on the school premises.
After a double promotion in February 2019, the 1st women and 1st men of HC Göttingen both play in the Regionalliga Nord in the 2019/20 indoor season. The 2nd men compete in the 2nd Lower Saxony Association League after their promotion (also in 2019). In addition to these three teams, there are also children's and youth teams and a leisure team that mainly takes part in tournaments in the region.
Inline skater hockey
The Black Lions represent the Tuspo 1861 Göttingen in the North German Inline Hockey League (NIHL).
The table footballers of the ASC represent their club in the 2nd table football league. In addition to the team competition, players of the ASC Göttingen team also start in single and double competitions. In addition to the Hessian Association Championship 2009 and the North Hessian Championship 2009 in doubles, the World Championship in singles in the amateur class was also won by an ASC player.
Goettingen skydiving club
The parachuting club was founded in 1986 to promote and implement sports at the Georg August University. A team of four under police chief inspector Jacqueline Emmermann became German champions in formation jumping in 2013 . The skydiving area for the team is Kassel-Calden.
A compilation of honorary citizens, sons and daughters of the city, members of the university, (lord) mayors, senior city directors and other personalities of the city can be found in
On the last series of D-Mark banknotes , on the 10- D-Mark banknote, to the left of the portrait of the mathematician and astronomer Carl Friedrich Gauß , there was a collage of various historical buildings in Göttingen. There you can see the observatory , St. John's Church , the university auditorium , the town hall , the Jacobi church tower and the museum .
An Airbus A340-311 of Lufthansa with the identification D-AIGF carried the name Göttingen until its decommissioning in 2014 , in the meantime a somewhat smaller Airbus A321-231 with the identification D-AIDG has replaced it.
- Gustav Schmidt (Hrsg.): Document book of the city of Göttingen up to the year 1400. Hanover 1863.
- German city book. Urban History Handbook. Volume 3. Northwest Germany. 1st subband. Lower Saxony / Bremen. On behalf of the Working Group of the Historical Commissions and with the support of the German Association of Cities, the Association of German Cities and the German Association of Municipalities, ed. by Erich Keyser, Stuttgart 1952
- Ludwig Börne : The Göttingen Unrest (1818) . Complete Writings, Volume 1, Düsseldorf 1964.
- Albrecht Saathoff: History of the university town of Göttingen. Göttingen 1937.
- Dietrich Denecke , Helga-Maria Kühn (ed.): Göttingen. History of a university town. 3 volumes, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1987–2002, ISBN 3-525-36196-3 .
- Gustav Meier: Film City Göttingen. Pictures for a new world? On the history of the Göttingen feature film production from 1945 to 1961. Film construction GmbH. History 1946–1960. Reichold, Hannover 1996. ISBN 3-930459-14-0 .
- Gudrun Schwibbe, Michael Schwibbe : Time travel - 1050 years of life in Göttingen. Göttinger Tageblatt, 2003, ISBN 3-924781-48-6 .
- Bettina Borgemeister: The city and its forest. An investigation into the forest history of the cities of Göttingen and Hanover from the 13th to the 18th century . Publications of the Historical Commission for Lower Saxony and Bremen. Tape. 228. Hahn, Hannover 2005, ISBN 3-7752-6028-5 .
- Jürgen Höltken, Günther Meinhardt: Göttingen in the 19th and 20th centuries , Göttingen 1976
- Betty Arndt, Andreas Ströbl: “Gutingi” - from village to city. Edited by the city of Göttingen. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2005, ISBN 3-525-85424-2 .
- Sibylle Obenaus : Göttingen. In: Herbert Obenaus : Historical manual of the Jewish communities in Lower Saxony and Bremen . Edited in collaboration with David Bankier and Daniel Fraenkel. 2 vols. Göttingen 2005, pp. 626–663, ISBN 3-89244-753-5 .
- Nils Oschinski: Content and implementation of early National Socialist press instructions: Three Göttingen newspapers in comparison (1933–1935) . Grin, Munich 2007, ISBN 3-638-74303-9 .
- Elmar Mittler (Ed.): One world alone is not enough - Great Britain, Hanover and Göttingen 1714–1835. Catalog, Göttingen 2005, ISBN 3-930457-75-X .
- Maren Büttner, Sabine Horn: Everyday life after 1945. The post-war period using the example of the city of Göttingen. Göttinger Universitätsverlag, Göttingen 2010, ISBN 978-3-940344-81-6 .
- Sabine Horn, Inge Marszolek, Maria Rhode, Eva Schöck-Quinteros (eds.): Protest on site. The 80s in Bremen and Göttingen, Essen 2012.
- Hermann Wellenreuther (Ed.): Göttingen 1690–1755 - Studies on the social history of a city. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1988, ISBN 3-525-35839-3 .
- Wieland Sachse: Göttingen in the 18th and 19th centuries - On the population and social structure of a German university town. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1987, ISBN 3-525-85415-3 .
- Michael Sauer (Ed.): Monuments in Göttingen. Handouts for history lessons, Göttingen 2012.
- Martin Heinzelmann: Göttingen in the air war . The workshop, Göttingen 2003, ISBN 3-89533-424-3 .
- August Tecklenburg: Göttingen. The story of a German city. Tower, Göttingen 1930.
- Wiebke Fesefeldt: The restart of communal life in Göttingen. The city from 1945 to 1948. Göttingen 1962.
- August Deppe, Richard Jäger, Heinrich Troe: The millennial Göttingen: origin and development as reflected in its streets and buildings . Journey, Göttingen 1953.
- Kornelia Duwe, Carola Gottschalk, Marianne Koerner on behalf of the Geschichtswerkstatt Göttingen e. V. (Ed.): Göttingen without Gänseliesel. Texts and images on the city's history . 2nd Edition. Wartberg, Gudensberg-Gleichen 1989, ISBN 3-925277-26-9 .
- Stine Marg , Franz Walter (ed.): Göttingen heads and their work in the world , Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2012, ISBN 978-3-525-30036-7 .
- www.goettingen.de - official website of the city of Göttingen
- stadtplan.goettingen.de - City map, historical aerial photos of Göttingen and a satellite image of southern Lower Saxony
- goesis.goettingen.de - GÖSIS: Göttingen Statistical Information System
- goecam.de - GöCam: Webcams and virtual city tour with over 300 panorama photos from Göttingen
- Wiki Göttingen
- Article Göttingen In: GenWiki.de
- The inscriptions of the city of Göttingen via Deutsche Insschriften Online
- Plan of the city of Göttingen from 1737
- Plan of the city of Göttingen from 1747
- Plan of the city of Göttingen from 1760
recent history of Göttingen
- National Socialism in Göttingen - Dissertation by Cordula Tollmien
- Forced Labor in Göttingen - Homepage about the Nazi forced laborers in Göttingen
- Documentation of the book burning in 1933 in the university town of Göttingen
- … ”And suddenly we were enemies” The expulsion of the Jews from Göttingen a film by Jürgen Hobrecht
- Photos from the history of Göttingen - by Karlheinz Otto, from the 1960s to today
- Göttingen anthem becomes an internet hit ( memento from April 15, 2015 in the internet archive ) on www.ndr.de on December 20, 2013
References and footnotes
- State Office for Statistics Lower Saxony, LSN-Online regional database, Table 12411: Update of the population, as of December 31, 2019 ( help ).
- Statistics unit: data, facts and figures 2020 (leaflet) . Ed .: City of Göttingen, The Lord Mayor. Göttingen August 14, 2020 ( kdgoe.de [PDF] The information from city and state statistics differ considerably from one another).
- Nature reserve "Stadtwald Göttingen and Kerstlingeröder Feld" on the NLKWN website, accessed on June 14, 2011
- Ordinance of the Braunschweig district government on the Bratental nature reserve, City of Göttingen, dated August 18, 1982, accessed on June 14, 2011 (PDF; 234 kB).
- DWD climate data 1981-2010
- A. Deppe, R. Jäger, H. Troe: The millennial Göttingen - origin and development in the mirror of its streets and buildings , publisher. Local history study group of the city and district of Göttingen, contributions to local history of southern Lower Saxony, issue 4, Heinz Heise-Verlag, Göttingen 1953, pp. 1-84.
- Walter Nissen: Göttingen yesterday and today - A collection of testimonies to the city and university history , published by the City of Göttingen, Göttinger Druckerei- und Verlagsgesellschaft mbH., Göttingen 1972.
- www.archaeologieportal.niedersachsen.de ( Memento from April 8, 2014 in the Internet Archive ).
- Reinhard Maier: The prehistoric and early historical finds and monuments of the Göttingen district. Verlag August Laux, Hildesheim 1971 (material booklets on the prehistory and early history of Lower Saxony 5).
- A pretty old university town . In: Hannoversche Allgemeine Zeitung , September 8, 2006, p. 6.
- August Deppe (among others): The millennial Göttingen. Origin and development as reflected in its streets and buildings . Heinz Reise-Verlag, Göttingen 1953.
- Dieter Berg (Ed.): Traces of Franciscan History. Chronological outline of the history of the Saxon Franciscan provinces from their beginnings to the present. Werl 1999, p. 184.108.40.206.
- Dieter Berg (Ed.): Traces of Franciscan History. Chronological outline of the history of the Saxon Franciscan provinces from their beginnings to the present. Werl 1999, p. 273.277.293.
- Wieland Gabcke: v ( Memento from October 17, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) at: ndr.de from October 14, 2015
- Dieter Berg (Ed.): Traces of Franciscan History. Chronological outline of the history of the Saxon Franciscan provinces from their beginnings to the present. Werl 1999, p. 345.349.351.
- Dieter Neitzert: Göttingen's economy, using examples from the 15th and 16th centuries. In: Dietrich Denecke (Ed.): Göttingen. History of a university town. Volume 1: From the beginning to the end of the Thirty Years War. Göttingen 1987, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, pp. 298-345, here: p. 330.
- See BSLK , p. 766; see. P. 17.
- detail: Matthias Blazek: The practice of crushing limbs with iron clubs was still used in this country until 1828 . In: Südniedersachsen - Journal for Regional Research and Home Care , Volume 38, No. 3, September 2010, p. 72 ff .; Smashed with clubs, braided the body on the bike . In: Göttinger Tageblatt , October 16, 2010, p. 12.
- detail: Blazek, Matthias: 15 rules for beheading . In: Göttinger Tageblatt , March 11, 2012.
- Sven Schreivogel: The Göttingen tram. A forgotten project. Sven Schreivogel, Neu-Eichenberg 1992.
- Karl Dietrich Bracher: The German dictatorship . 6th edition, Kiepenheuer & Witsch, 1993, ISBN 3-89340-043-5 , p. 294 ff.
- For the " Aryan proof " it was required that all ancestors up to and including the grandparents were " pure " Aryans . After the religious affiliation was not asked. If a person had a Jewish spouse, they were classified as a " half-Jew ", initially "only harassed " and deported after the 1942 Wannsee Conference .
- Fricke wrote in 1933: “The face of the nation begins to change from the depths. Barren, decaying, parasitic surface layers are irresistibly plowed down and melted down into the core, believed to be extinct, but glowing youthfully erupted, of that primeval völkisch reality from which we all live ... ”In: Zeitschrift für deutsche Bildung. Booklet 9. Diesterweg, 1933, p. 494.
- Volker Zimmermann: Medicine in Göttingen during the National Socialist dictatorship. In: Würzburg medical history reports. Volume 9, 1991, pp. 393-416, here: pp. 394 and 410-414.
- Camp Schützenplatz: "Eastern Workers Camp"
- Eiswiese camp, Göttingen, Sandweg (accessed on August 7, 2016).
- JK Cornelius: Lost Years - Memories from the Years 1943–1945. Translated from the Dutch by Holger E. Wiedenstried with revisions by Cordula Tollmien . 2001 (accessed August 7, 2016).
- April - Chronicle for 1945 stadtarchiv.goettingen.de
- Göttingen Law ( Memento of February 20, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 12 kB)
- Katharina Klocke: Planning sins: half-timbering gives way to the demolition excavator. In: Göttinger Tageblatt , May 4, 2012, accessed on October 11, 2017.
- Zeitreise-Badestadt-Goettingen goettinger-tageblatt.de, accessed on February 5, 2019
- . Göttingen: Three dead in a bomb explosion. In: Göttinger Tageblatt from June 1, 2010.
- Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality directory for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes for municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer GmbH, Stuttgart and Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 207 .
- Wayback Machine. September 4, 2019, accessed August 26, 2020 .
- Student the University of Göttingen. DV department of the central administration. October 21, 2005.
- GÖSIS (leaflet 2014)
- City of Göttingen Data Facts Figures 2019 Population Page 5 , accessed on September 4, 2019
- Data Facts Figures 2018. (PDF) City of Göttingen, accessed on July 15, 2018 .
- Göttingen Synagogue for around 500 parishioners, wiki-goettingen.de
- The importance of the cemetery and the synagogue in Bodenfelde ( Memento from March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
- DITIB mosque. Retrieved June 15, 2019 .
- Divine service in the former goods hall in Göttingen goettinger-tageblatt.de, on November 4, 2014
- Advice from goettingen.de, accessed on February 8, 2019
- Voting repeated - Henze new chairman of the council in Göttingen goettinger-tageblatt.de, on August 20, 2018, accessed on March 6, 2019
- Rolf-Georg Köhler (SPD) wins election for mayor in Göttingen. Göttinger Tageblatt, accessed on July 28, 2013 .
- Main statutes of the city of Göttingen PDF (74 kB)
- The coat of arms of the city of Göttingen. City Archives Göttingen, accessed on August 22, 2017 .
- Heraldry of the World: Coat of Arms of Göttingen
- Main statutes of the city of Göttingen. (PDF) Retrieved November 27, 2015 .
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