Osterode am Harz
|coat of arms||Germany map|
|State :||Lower Saxony|
|Height :||220 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||102.47 km 2|
|Residents:||21,563 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||210 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postal code :||37520|
|Area code :||05522|
|License plate :||GÖ , DUD, HMÜ, OHA|
|Community key :||03 1 59 026|
|LOCODE :||DE OSE|
City administration address :
37520 Osterode am Harz
|Mayor :||Jens Augat ( SPD )|
|Location of the city of Osterode am Harz in the district of Göttingen|
Osterode am Harz [ ɔstəˈroːdə ] is a medium- sized town and independent municipality in the southeast of Lower Saxony in the district of Göttingen on the southwestern edge of the Upper Harz . Osterode am Harz was the county seat of November 1, 2016, the Göttingen district merged district Osterode am Harz .
The town of Osterode am Harz lies in a valley running from northwest to southeast between the Harz Mountains and the hills of the Harz foreland, which drop off steeply in the area of the Petershütte and Katzenstein districts and emerge as gypsum cliffs. In the south-east of the city there is a swampy area with several partly natural, partly artificial ponds.
The Söse flows through the city and is dammed about 5 km from the city to form the Sösetalsperre . The Söse dam was completed in 1931 and has a capacity of 25.5 million m³; by the Harzwasserwerke is drinking water until after Bremen delivered. In Osterode the Apenke flows into the Söse.
The following localities belong to the city of Osterode am Harz:
- Dorste (1,505 inhabitants)
- Daugava (126 inhabitants)
- Förste / Nienstedt with the districts of Förste (1,893 inhabitants) and Nienstedt (442 inhabitants)
- Freedom (1,878 inhabitants)
- Lasfelde / Petershütte / Katzenstein with the districts Lasfelde (1,212 inhabitants), Petershütte (745 inhabitants) and Katzenstein (1,121 inhabitants)
- Lerbach (990 inhabitants)
- Mark (123 inhabitants)
- Core city (10,243 inhabitants)
- Riefensbeek-Kamschlacken (270 inhabitants)
- Schwiegershausen (1,666 inhabitants)
- Ührde (103 inhabitants)
(As of July 1, 2012)
The localities of Freiheit, Lasfelde, Petershütte and Katzenstein are structurally directly connected to the core town of Osterode, Lerbach is only a very short distance away. The other localities are perceived by the development as independent villages, whereby Förste and Nienstedt are also directly connected to each other and only separated by the course of the Söse river.
Overall, a little more than 1/4 of all residents of Osterode live outside the city area (as of mid-2012).
Monthly average temperatures and precipitation for Osterode am Harz
Source: Precipitation rates: DWD, 1961–1990; other information: Holidaycheck
The city is located in an area that was populated early on. Excavations on the Pipinsburg uncovered a settlement from the La Tène period secured by ramparts . In Daugava remains of were manor Daugava found as part of a settlement, with interruptions of 3-4. Century to the 13th / 14th Century existed for a period of about 1000 years. It is not known when today's Osterode settlement was founded. The place name ending in -rode indicates a foundation during the clearing phases at the transition from the early to the high Middle Ages. The name is interpreted as "clearing site located to the east" or "eastern part of a clearing site", although it is not clear to which western location this directional information referred. A sometimes discussed reference to an alleged Germanic deity Ostara is generally rejected in the literature. The first known written mention of Osterode is assessed differently: In the chronicle of the Peterskloster in Erfurt it is mentioned in 1152 that the opulentissima villa Osterroth was destroyed in a feud between Heinrich the Lion and the Margrave Albrecht the Bear. Another mention of Osterrode is contained in a document supposedly written by Emperor Lothar on October 7th, 1136, which is, however, a forgery from the end of the 12th century. Some other dates mentioned as the first written evidence refer to Osterode am Fallstein .
The Osteroder Castle (now a ruin), located northeast of the old town on a mountain spur, was probably built to protect this market settlement and the old Harzstrasse . A town wall is reported for the first time in 1234, a council, a citizenry and a new town are mentioned as early as 1238, and a town seal is passed down from 1261. In 1239 , Duke Otto the Child granted the old town its rights, which were not mentioned in detail, exempted the residents from customs in Braunschweig, lifted the import ban on beer from Goslar and the levying of ungeld . The market settlement was not granted the town charter of the imperial city of Goslar until 1293. In another, undated letter, the duke announced his intention to re-establish the new town of Osterode. This is clearly recognizable in today's cityscape as a planned settlement and had its own market. Above all, residents of the former, desolate villages of Besingen and Motlingerode will have settled in the Neustadt, this is evident from the strong cultivation of the corridors of the desert , in which the residents of the Neustadt participated to a large extent. In the vicinity of Osterode there is also the medieval desert of Gheylshagen . Undeveloped areas testify to the present day of the earlier border between old and new town, which was soon included in the fortification ring of the town. The line of the wall in the southeast bulges out and includes the St. Jacobi virgin monastery, which has existed since around 1230. In 2019, excavations in the area of the medieval Johannistores uncovered the foundation walls of an earlier town gate.
When the Welfenhaus was divided in 1289, Osterode came to the Braunschweig-Grubenhagen line until it died out in 1596. The princes resided in the old Osterode Castle, which was abandoned at the beginning of the 16th century. Ernst III. had the St. Jacobi monastery , which was closed in 1561, converted into a castle.
The city was an important trading center, which also joined the Hanseatic League. The mining and iron smelting activities in the area also contributed to their prosperity. In Osterode there was also a mint, which is attested, among other things, by the so-called Mückentaler . In 1420 the former monastery school was taken over as the city's own Latin school.
City fires in 1545, destruction in the Thirty Years 'War and later in the Seven Years' War, a plague epidemic from 1625 to 1627 and several floods of the Söse brought setbacks . Nevertheless, until the 19th century, Osterode developed into an important trading center for cloth makers and traders. 1807-1813, the city belonged to the department of the Harz Mountains . From 1867 to 1885, the Osterode office, together with the other offices of Gieboldehausen and Herzberg , as well as the cities of Osterode, Duderstadt and Herzberg, were in the Osterode district, which was sometimes also referred to as the "tax circle". Managed by a district chief, the district could hardly establish its own competencies and was always in conflict with the administrative districts that still existed in parallel. The reason for the amalgamation of the offices and localities was a Prussian administrative reform, which was supposed to incorporate the annexed Kingdom of Hanover as a province into the Kingdom of Prussia and which was primarily geared towards fiscal and military purposes.
At the end of the 19th century, cotton and cloth factories were built, and the construction of the Sösetalsperre between 1928–1932 provided protection from floods.
The historian Walter Struve , whose ancestors came from the city, researched and published about Osterode as a typical example of a small German town during the Weimar Republic and National Socialism.
During the Second World War , Osterode was the location of a number of important war armaments factories , the production of which was largely based on forced labor . From 1944, efforts were made to build an underground hydrogenation plant for the production of fuels and lubricants in the nearby gypsum quarries under the code name Dachs IV . In autumn 1944, excavation work began in the gypsum quarry of the Schimpf company in Osterode-Petershütte to make room for the inclusion of "Dachs IV", an underground oil refinery of the Hamburg oil company Rhenania-Ossag AG. According to the construction management's monthly report from December 1944, 430 foreign workers and 72 concentration camp prisoners were deployed on the construction site. The associated satellite camp, which was subordinate to the Mittelbau-Dora concentration camp , was probably not set up until the end of November 1944. At the end of February 1945 the number of workers had risen to 665 construction prisoners. The project was not brought to a conclusion and the external command was dissolved on March 27, 1945. In addition, from autumn 1944 there was a further external camp of the Buchenwald concentration camp . The inmates were involved in the manufacture of armaments for the Air Force at Heber Maschinen- und Apparatefabrik (HEMAF). The first inmates moved into the camp at the end of September 1944. On October 1, the external command numbered 66 inmates. On October 4, 1944, Heber again submitted an "application for the provision of 260 prisoners", which was apparently decided at short notice. At the end of October 1944, the number of camp inmates rose to 284 as a result of further Buchenwald transports, especially the one on October 12 with 192 prisoners. The camp, which originally belonged to Buchenwald, was subordinated to the Mittelbau concentration camp at the end of October 1944, but did not add to the main Dora camp closer ties to the “Dachs IV” subcamp in Osterode-Petershütte, only a few kilometers away. During the Second World War, around 1,000 people were incarcerated in the Osterode judicial prison. In the Optical Works in Osterode, later trading under the name Sigbert-Kassel, 200 forced laborers were employed under the orders of the Northeim employment office. The following civilian forced laborers were also employed in Osterode:
- Anton Piller: 450 people
- Nordwerke: 50 people
- R. Kellermann: 430 people
- Greve Uhl: 180 people
- Urban Poland camp: 220 people
- Bremketal forest camp: 290 people
- Lorenz company, gym: 310 people
At the beginning of April 1945 there was fighting between the US Army and the Wehrmacht in the area around Osterode. In order to delay the advance of the Allies, the demolition of the three bridges was ordered. When the Johannistor Bridge was blown up, it was devastated and some buildings in the vicinity were destroyed. A total of twelve houses were destroyed in Osterode in World War II. After 1945, new branches of industry settled, and the industrial companies relevant to armaments at the time of National Socialism were able to save the production boom in the post-war period. The city has kept its old town center to this day.
In the early years of the economic boom , according to plans by the architects Hans Jaeckel and Wilhelm Wietfeld , the former district hospital was built from 1954 to 1956 , which was in operation until 2002, and then from 1955 to 1957 according to plans by Jaeckel, the nurses' house on site. The district vocational school, built between 1961 and 1962, was also based on Jaeckel's designs.
On February 1, 1971, the communities of Freiheit, Katzenstein, Lasfelde, Petershütte and Schwiegershausen were incorporated. 1 July 1972 in the wake of came resin Act of Lower Saxony's regional reorganization the places Dorste, Förste, Lerbach, brand, Nienstedt am Harz and Riefensbeek-Kamschlacken added and parts of the territory of the municipality Hörden with at that time little more than 100 inhabitants.
¹ The population figures for 1961 (June 6th) and 1970 (May 27th) are the respective census results. The figures also include the inhabitants of the places that were later incorporated.
Osterode is the seat of the Harzer Land parish of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Hanover . In the city of Osterode there are the Protestant churches of St. Aegidien Marktkirche in the city center, the Jacobikirche at the castle, the Kreuzkirche on the northern outskirts, the Marienkirche in the Marienvorstadt and the Church of the Good Shepherd in the south of the city. Other Protestant churches are located in localities incorporated into Osterode.
Osterode is also the seat of the Catholic parish of St. John the Baptist , it belongs to the Nörten-Osterode deanery in the Diocese of Hildesheim . The parish church of St. John the Baptist in the Johannisvorstadt, built in 1902-04 in Osterode , named after John the Baptist , and the Catholic Church in Badenhausen belong to it . The Church of St. Martin , built in 1962/63 in the south of the city, was profaned in 2015 .
The Free Evangelical Congregation Osterode was founded in 1967, it belongs to the Federation of Free Evangelical Congregations in Germany (FeG) and has a community center at Abgunst. The Christ- Congregation Osterode belongs to the Bund Freikirchlicher Pentecostal congregations . The Evangelical Free Church of Herzberg ( Baptists ) has a parish hall in Osterode on Westpreußenstrasse. There is a New Apostolic Church on In den Geeren , and its congregation belongs to the Göttingen church district.
The council of the city of Osterode am Harz consists of 34 council women and councilors. This is the specified number for a city with a population between 20,001 and 25,000. The 34 council members are elected by local elections for five years each. The current term of office began on November 1, 2016 and ends on October 31, 2021.
The last local elections on September 11, 2016 resulted in the following election results and distribution of seats:
|Parties and constituencies||%
|SPD||Social Democratic Party of Germany||47.08||16||50.50||18th||51.04||18th||48.48||19th|
|CDU||Christian Democratic Union of Germany||34.19||12||31.89||11||31.73||11||35.59||13|
|GREEN||Alliance 90 / The Greens||10.35||3||12.41||4th||5.81||2||5.29||2|
|FDP||Free Democratic Party||8.38||3||3.12||1||6.73||2||4.26||1|
|THE LEFT.||The left||-||-||2.08||0||2.00||0||-||-|
|FWG||Free community of voters City of Osterode||-||-||-||-||2.69||1||6.38||2|
|Voter turnout in%||54.40||54.40||49.49||52.29|
Mayor of the city is the studied political and administrative scientist and Jens Augat (SPD), who was active as a teacher until his election. In the last mayoral election on September 15, 2019, he was elected with 57.86% of the vote. The turnout was 47.66%. Augat took office on November 1, 2019.
coat of arms
|Blazon : “Divided by silver and red by a golden clover leaf bow; on it two blue towers, the right one with a red dome, the left one with a red pointed roof; between them a red cross of paws hovers; below a blue armored golden lion striding to the left. "|
|Foundation of the coat of arms: The first seal was created during the construction of a new town in 1238 around the Burgflecken. A replica from the 17th century shows the Guelph lion facing to the right, which can be seen as the only feature in the seals. The wall ring, already mentioned in 1234, is symbolized in the towers and the arch, the cross either stands for the holy patron John the Baptist of the market church or as a market symbol. A crowned "O" in the lion's shield, as well as the towers and cross, found their way into the coat of arms in the 19th century.|
From the 17th century until 1914 the city had a different coat of arms.
|Blazon : “In red in the upper half a striding golden lion with a blue tongue and armor; below a gold crowned, silver O. "|
The city has twinning partnerships with the following cities:
- since 1963: Armentières , France (one of the Sösebrücken is called "Armentieres Bridge").
- since 1994: Ostróda , Poland (In the city center there is a memorial stone from 1985 with the inscription: "826 kilometers to Osterode-Ostpreussen")
Culture and sights
The town center in particular is characterized by half-timbered houses with tiled roofs to this day . In his travel report Die Harzreise Heinrich Heine writes : "... where Osterode with its red roofs peeps out from the green fir forests like a moss rose." Together with Duderstadt , Einbeck , Hann. Münden and Northeim , Osterode forms the half-timbered corner .
Since 1936 there has been a local history museum in the Ritterhaus at Rollberg 32, which was founded in 1905 in a room of the city building department in the old school yard. It collects and presents testimonies and documents of Easter or history from the Middle Ages to the recent past. In addition to the permanent exhibition on the city and regional history, special exhibitions on changing topics are held regularly.
In the vicinity of Osterode am Harz there are several castle ruins , including those of the Old Castle in the urban area and those of Lichtenstein Castle between Dorste and Förste. On the Ührder Berg southwest of Osterode stands the Galgenturm , a medieval watch tower.
One of the most imposing buildings in the city is the Harzkornmagazin , built between 1719 and 1722 , which originally served to supply the mining areas in the Upper Harz with grain and has been used as a town hall since extensive renovations in 1989 . Another building is the Eulenburg , which was the seat of a textile factory until the 1960s. The Schachtrupp villa , named after an entrepreneur, is located on the Kurpark and will serve as a library in the future.
The Rommel barracks still existed in Osterode until 2004 . It was home to the 12th Panzer Grenadier Battalion and, from 1972 to 1993, also the telecommunications sector C of telecommunications regiment 71 of the Bundeswehr . The large barracks area was bought by a private investor, but is still empty today.
The football club VfR Dostluk Osterode is at home in Osterode , which was created in 2019 through the merger of the clubs VfR Osterode 08 and FC Dostluk Spor . The first team of the club plays in the district league 4 of the NFV district Braunschweig. The suburb TuSpo Petershütte (full club name is TuSpo Lasfelde-Petershütte-Katzenstein ) plays in the Braunschweig regional league.
The first women's team at HSG Osterode Harz plays in the regional league .
Athletics is run as the LG Osterode athletics community of the clubs TSV Eisdorf , TVG Hattorf , TSV Schwiegershausen , MTV Förste and MTV Osterode . National and international athletics events take place in Osterode every year.
A city forest run has been taking place since May 2019 , which was created as an alternative to the previous old town run . Another special feature of the year is the "Harzer Hexentrail", which starts at the Kornmarkt and finishes in the Kurpark in front of the town hall. With the City Beach Cup of the Children's Sports Foundation, a beach volleyball tournament will take place in the city center in June . A Christmas market in December is organized by the local tourist association. Every Tuesday and Saturday, local producers hold a weekly market on the grain market . A tradition since 1905 are the “Easter or Christmas singers” who walk through the city center in black robes on Christmas Eve from 10 p.m. and sing “ This is the day God made ”. The old town festival "3 friendly days" was held in 2017 for the 48th and, for the time being, last time.
Economy and Infrastructure
Several federal highways lead through Osterode. The B 243 , which is developed like a motorway , opens up the western and southern Harz with connection to the A7 motorway near Seesen and the A38 motorway near Nordhausen; on their traffic flows from Erfurt he spatial direction North Germany . The B 241 connects the Solling with the Harz Mountains - in the narrower sense Northeim with Goslar - and has four lanes in the urban area. Furthermore, the B 498 begins in Osterode , which also takes another route via Altenau to Goslar.
Osterode is on the Herzberg – Seesen railway line , which continues to Braunschweig without changing trains . In November 2004, the place received two new stops for around one million euros, which replace the previous stations and improve the quality of local public transport through a more central location ; they are also closer to the vocational schools . The former Osterode (Harz) train station (which was built as a classic train station with a waiting hall , ticket sales and train station restaurant) and the Osterode Süd stop were omitted. The new stops only have bus shelters , as is known from bus traffic, and apart from the ticket machine , they do not offer any special equipment. While the former freight yard now serves as a mosque ("Fatih Mosque"), the former Osterode station is empty and is visibly deteriorating.
The narrow-gauge railway line Osterode – Kreiensen was given up in 1967.
A town hall for cultural events has existed in the Kurpark since 1973 , which was renovated from 2007 to 2009 for 2.5 million euros and expanded to include a restaurant.
In 1893 the first indoor swimming pool was opened and in 1928 the outdoor pool was opened in the Schwimmbadstrasse. In 1996 the indoor swimming pool from the 1970s was converted into the “Aloha Aqua-Land” adventure pool and expanded in 2008 with a sauna facility. In 2018, the renovation of the swimming pool with outdoor pool is to begin.
In the former Luisenschule at Scheffelstraße 14, the city of Osterode has had a city library since 1958 , which was previously located in the municipal building department at the old schoolyard from 1911 to 1936 and in the knight's house from 1936 to 1956.
Osterode am Harz there are five primary schools ( "On Jacobitor", "Three Linden" and "Röddenberg" as well as in the districts Lasfelde and Förste), the main school Neustädter Tor at Firehouse Square, the junior high school on the Röddenberg and Tilman-Riemenschneider - school . The Wartberg School is a special needs school with a focus on learning, physical and motor development, mental development and language development.
Several vocational schools are available for vocational training , such as the European School Vocational School I at Neustädter Tor as a commercial college with a technical high school and Vocational School II with the locations An der Leege and Neustädter Tor as a regional competence center with Erasmus + program.
One of the companies that have a seat here
- Harz Energie , energy supplier
- Piller , products for uninterruptible power supply
- Harz-Weser-Werke , non-profit GmbH for people with disabilities
- Sigma laboratory centrifuges, manufacturer of centrifuges
- Christian freeze drying equipment, provides equipment for lyophilization ago
Branches of companies with a foreign seat are:
- Bilfinger Piping Technologies , piping systems for plant construction
- Kamax , manufacturer of fasteners for the automotive industry
- Thermo Fisher Scientific , laboratory equipment manufacturer
- Sun Chemical , printing ink manufacturer
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- Hans Erich Giebel: Chronicle of the city of Osterode am Harz . Magdeburg, 1931.
- Johann Georg Friedrich Renner: From the history of the city of Osterode am Harz . Krösing, Osterode, 1926.
- Heinrich Wendt, Jörg Leuschner: History of the Guelph principality Grubenhagen, the office and the city of Osterode . Olms, Hildesheim [u. a.], 1988. ISBN 3-487-09035-X
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- Localities Localities of the city of Osterode am Harz
-  LSN-Online
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- City history on the homepage of the city of Osterode
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- Article Badger IV
- History of the HEMAF and the concentration camp external command
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- Lower Saxony city book . Braunschweig 1952
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- Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality register for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes in municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer GmbH, Stuttgart and Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 215 and 216 .
- Expertise Fachwerk-Fünfeck Regional identity: Osterode am Harz In: fachwerk5eck.de , accessed on April 5, 2018 (PDF; 4 MB)
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- Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. District of Osterode am Harz. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).
- City Council Election 2016 In: kdgoe.de , accessed on June 19, 2020.
- Lower Saxony Municipal Constitutional Law (NKomVG) in the version of December 17, 2010; Section 46 - Number of MPs , accessed on September 1, 2013
- Klemens Stadler : The municipal coats of arms of the federal states of Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein (= German coat of arms - Federal Republic of Germany . Volume 5 ). Bremen 1970.
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- Osterode am Harz
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- Telecommunications Sector C of Telecommunications Regiment 71
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