Mülheim an der Ruhr
|coat of arms||Germany map|
|State :||North Rhine-Westphalia|
|Administrative region :||Dusseldorf|
|Height :||40 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||91.28 km 2|
|Residents:||170,632 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||1869 inhabitants per km 2|
|Primaries :||0208, 02054|
|License plate :||MH|
|Community key :||05 1 17 000|
|LOCODE :||DE MUH|
|City structure:||9 districts in 3 districts|
City administration address :
|Am Rathaus 1
45468 Mülheim an der Ruhr
|Lord Mayor :||Ulrich Scholten ( SPD )|
|Location of Mülheim an der Ruhr in North Rhine-Westphalia and in the administrative district of Düsseldorf|
Mülheim an der Ruhr is an independent city in the western Ruhr area in North Rhine-Westphalia . The city is classified as a middle center . It is located on the Ruhr between the neighboring regional centers of Duisburg and Essen and the nearby state capital Düsseldorf . Mülheim is also part of the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region .
Historically, Mülheim, together with Kettwig and Werden, is one of the northernmost parts of the Bergisches Land . In 1808 it was granted city rights. A century later, the number of inhabitants exceeded the limit of 100,000 and made Mülheim an der Ruhr a major city . With around 170,000 inhabitants, Mülheim ranks 44th among the 79 major cities in Germany (as of December 31, 2015).
With the closure of the Rosenblumendelle colliery in 1966, Mülheim became the first mining-free city in the Ruhr area. The former leather and mining town has meanwhile successfully completed the transformation into a diverse business location . The "city on the river" consists of more than 50 percent green and forest areas and is the seat of two Max Planck Institutes and the Ruhr West University, founded in 2009 .
Mülheim an der Ruhr lies at the transition from the Niederberg hill country, Westhellweg and the middle Lower Rhine plain.
The city center is on the right-hand side of the Ruhr, which crosses the city over a length of 14 kilometers from southeast to northwest, and about 12 kilometers east of its confluence with the Rhine . Between Broich on the left and the church hill on the right bank, the so-called Mülheimer Pforte, the Ruhr leaves the foothills of the Rhenish slate mountains and reaches the Lower Rhine lowlands . With the location of the city center directly on the river, the city of Mülheim an der Ruhr has a unique selling point in the Ruhr area alongside the city of Fröndenberg / Ruhr .
In terms of geological structure, the city is also in the three-part border area . The areas northeast of the Ruhr with their rich loess soils belong to the natural area of the Westenhellweg . The transition to the Westphalian Bight is difficult to define on the basis of the surface forms, whereas the formations of the Bergisches Land and the Lower Rhine lowlands are clearly visible. With its distinctive rock formation of Kahlenberg slope emphasize that the carbon resulting coal-bearing strata of the slate mountains on the northern foothills. The Ruhr eroded here over 50 meters deep in this mountain range in and lay there the Steinkohleflöze partially what the prospecting for coal in tunnel mode enabled. To the north, the coal-bearing layers sink deeper and deeper below the surface of the earth, which requires the operation of mines for hard coal extraction. The wide Styrumer floodplain shows, in contrast with its oxbows the characteristic features of Niederrheinebene.
Mülheim has a temperate climate all year round . Overall, the climate is more maritime than continental and there are typical climatic features of particularly densely populated areas . The terrain elevation, which rises to the east, is followed by the small-scale climatic conditions, which increase with precipitation from around 700 mm / year in the Styrumer Ruhraue to up to 900 mm / year at the city limits of Essen-Fulerum , while the daily average rises from 9.5 ° C to 8 ° C drops.
Neighboring cities and urban area
The city of Mülheim an der Ruhr borders in the north on the independent city of Oberhausen and in the east on the independent city of Essen . In the south is the metropolitan area of Düsseldorf with the city of Ratingen in the Mettmann district and in the west the independent city of Duisburg . The total length of the city boundary to the neighboring cities is 49 kilometers.
The urban area extends 13.4 kilometers from north to south and 10.7 kilometers from west to east. The highest point in the city is 152.7 meters above sea level and near Essen-Mülheim Airport . The lowest point at 26.0 meters above sea level is at the transition from the Ruhr to Duisburg.
The total area of the urban area comprises 91.29 square kilometers, which are sealed in roughly equal proportions (buildings, open spaces, traffic areas) and serve as forest and green areas or are used for agriculture. The south of Mülheim in particular forms the city's green lung along the slopes of the Ruhr Valley.
From a historical point of view, a total of nine districts are differentiated, which were independent localities until their incorporation.
Since 1975 Mülheim has also been divided into the three city districts Linksruhr, Rechtsruhr-Nord and Rechtsruhr-Süd . In 1984 the city council decided to work out long-term development concepts and for statistical purposes to subdivide the city area into six sub-areas, which were subdivided taking into account the historical and structural relationships. These sub-areas are broader than the historical districts, but some of them continue their names.
|1||Old town I||1 city center||1 Rechtsruhr-Süd||3.20||20,119||6287|
|2||Old town II||1 city center 2)||1 Rechtsruhr-Süd 2)||5.79||24,696||4265|
|3||Styrum||2 styrum||2 Rechtsruhr-Nord||4.44||15,484||3487|
|4th||Muffled||3 muffles 4)||2 Rechtsruhr-Nord 4)||5.51||18,392||3338|
|5||Be called||4 hot 3)||1 Rechtsruhr-Süd 3)||8.88||21,117||2378|
|6th||Menden-Holthausen||1 city center||1 Rechtsruhr-Süd||17.30||13,450||777|
|7th||Saarn||5 Saarn||3 left clock||26.92||23,485||872|
|8th||Broich||6 Broich / Speldorf||3 left clock||8.78||13,678||1558|
|9||Speldorf||6 Broich / Speldorf||3 left clock||10.46||18,269||1747|
1) As of December 31, 2014
2) Parts of the Altstadt II district (Altstadt II-Nordost and Papenbusch) have been separated and assigned to the Dümpten sub-area in the Rechtsruhr-Nord district.
3) Parts of the district of Heißen (Winkhausen-Nord) were removed and assigned to the sub-area of Dümpten in the district of Rechtsruhr-Nord.
4) The Dümpten sub-area consists of the historical part of the city and the extensions specified under point 2 above.
In 1093 the city was first mentioned as Mulinhem as a place of jurisdiction within the Ruhrgau . In more recent documents, the name was changed to Molenheim and Molnheim , but the interpretation of the name Mülheim as the home of mills indicates that the inhabitants of their settlement in the Middle Ages assigned the existence of mills as a special characteristic. Whether this was due to their large number or the outstanding importance of a single mill can no longer be determined. In the Mülheim dialect Mölmsch , the city is called Mölm .
The history of the city of Mülheim is closely linked to the two historical settlement centers, Broich Castle on the left and the church hill on the right side of the Ruhr. Broich Castle, seat of the noble lords of Broich and later their noble successors, was built in the last quarter of the 9th century, probably in the winter of 883/884, as a defense system against the attacks of the Vikings on the historic Ruhrfurt of the old Hellweg . The church hill has always been the economic and religious core of the place.
Around 1200 the Cistercian monastery Saarn was founded in the south of today's Mülheim city area , but very little is known about its founders and the first nuns of the monastery. A few decades later, in a second founding phase, Archbishop Engelbert I of Cologne became aware of Saarn Monastery as part of his political activities as Archbishop, Count von Berg and at the same time imperial administrator and educator of the underage King Henry VII . Engelbert was probably responsible for the admission of the Saar nuns into the Cistercian order and the introduction of a strict enclosure, as well as extensive privileges for the monastery by the Pope and the Empire. In the following years the monastery received numerous donations from the Mülheimer and the neighboring area and also from the Lords of Broich. King Heinrich was honored - presumably at Engelbert's instigation - by the nuns as fundator (founder) in their book of memories .
After the Lords of Broich died out in 1372, Broich Castle initially fell to the Counts of Isenberg-Limburg . The Archbishop of Cologne Dietrich II von Moers and Duke Gerhard von Jülich-Berg succeeded in conquering and taking possession of Broich together in 1443, with the castle being badly damaged. Already at the beginning of the 14th century, the Count House Isenberg-Limburg split into the main lines Limburg-Broich and Limburg-Styrum . After the male line of the Counts of Limburg-Broich died out in 1511, Wirich V. von Daun-Falkenstein inherited the rule in 1508 and later his successors. The Limburg-Styrum branch laid the foundation stone of Styrum Castle, which became the center of a Styrum rule that was immediately under the Empire (until 1806).
Early modern age
In the 16th century, the rulers of the Broich rulership, with the help of the Dukes von Berg, withdrew from the electoral demands of Broich. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the Duchy of Berg succeeded in asserting sovereign rights over the Broich rule.
During the Spanish-Dutch Eighty Years War , which also affected the Lower Rhine and Westphalia, Spanish troops besieged Broich Castle in 1598, which finally capitulated and was occupied. After only a few days, the Spaniards killed Count Wirich von Daun-Falkenstein , the most important leader of the Protestants in the Lower Rhine region, at the stately Broich mill.
When the male line of the Counts of Daun-Falkenstein was extinguished in 1682 with the death of Wilhelm Wirich, the fief fell to the Counts of Leiningen , who had the Broich rule administered by a rent master .
Start of industrialization
The industrialization of Mülheim began around 1770 with the expansion of the Ruhr into a shipping route . While shipping was possible on the lower reaches between Duisburg and Mülheim city center since the 14th century and the first Rhine port was built in Ruhrort as early as 1716 , the Ruhr only became navigable above Mülheim city center in 1780 with the construction of the first lock. This gave the coal trade a massive boom, because the barges could now be towed along the towpath from Hattingen to the Duisburg port . With the Humboldt and United Sellerbeck collieries, the first mines with profitable coal production in the city were established.
The first factory in Mülheim was founded by Johann Caspar Troost in 1791 with the spinning mill in Luisental, which was later expanded to become the J. Caspar Troost textile factory . At the height of the textile industry in the middle of the 19th century, the factory with over 1200 employees became the largest employer in Mülheim.
In connection with the formation of the Rhine Confederation and the establishment of the Grand Duchy of Berg , the Broich and Styrum dominions were dissolved in 1806 and the Broich-Styrum office was temporarily established, to which Mülheim also belonged. Only two years later, on February 18, 1808, Mülheim was declared a municipality by the French-influenced government of the Grand Duchy of Berg and set up as the lowest state administrative unit based on the French model. Administratively, the city was assigned to the newly created Rhine department .
In 1811 mechanic Johann Dinnendahl opened a mechanical workshop and together with his brother, Franz Dinnendahl , he founded an iron smelter in 1820 for the production of cast machine parts, from which the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Hütte later emerged.
Following the decisions of the Congress of Vienna in 1815 was the Grand Duchy of Berg, therefore, Mülheim in the Prussian state incorporated and 1816 by the newly formed district of Essen in the administrative district of Dusseldorf managed, but which already disbanded 27 September 1823, as part of the Rhine Province , with the Dinslaken district was merged to form the new Duisburg district .
As a counterbalance to the nobility, the oldest Mülheim civil society, the casino society with the name Gesellschaft Casino eV, was founded in 1816 , which erected the building of the same name on the Delle with ballroom, club rooms and wine cellar, which still exists today. All decision-makers from the emerging industry and their families also came here.
The economic upturn enabled the Sellerbeck horse-drawn railway from the port to the Sellerbeck colliery in Dümpten to go into operation in 1837, and the private share road from Mülheimer Hafen to Essen-Borbeck was completed in 1839 .
Between 1842 and 1844, Germany's first iron suspension bridge, the Chain Bridge , was built on the Ruhrfurt between Broich and the city center, and Friedrich-Wilhelms-Hütte played a key role in its construction. The bridge had to give way to a concrete bridge in 1909 because the increasing traffic was responsible for dangerous vibrations in the construction.
Forty years after issuing the French city of Mülheim rights received in 1846 the town charter on the Prussian law.
Highlights of industrialization
Between 1850 and 1890, Mülheim changed from a shipping location to an industrial location. In 1849 - for the first time in the Ruhr area - steel production with coking coal started in the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Hütte and consequently the first briquette factory in the Ruhr area opened at the Wiesche colliery in 1861. In order to increase production, many of the small pits in the Mülheim area were merged into unified underground mines. In the early 1850s, for example, five large mine shafts were producing, but the rate of expansion of coal production in Mülheim could not be increased soon afterwards, and in the course of the northward migration of the mining industry, the neighboring towns began to overtake the Mülheim mines in terms of company size and production. The connection of the city to the railway network of the Bergisch-Märkische Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft in 1862 and the establishment of the Ruhr Valley Railway (1872–1876) led to the decline of Ruhr shipping and around 1890 the last Ruhraaken were coal ships.
In this time of economic restructuring acquired August Thyssen 1871 the Heckhoffshof in Mülheim-Styrum and founded the company Thyssen & Co. , the basis for one of the largest mining companies should be.
The growth of the Ruhr region triggered by industrialization made administrative reforms necessary, some of which were implemented in rapid succession. In 1873, Mülheim an der Ruhr became the seat of a newly created district of the same name, Mülheim an der Ruhr , after the cities of Duisburg and Essen had become independent. This district was divided again in 1887 and the western part was assigned to the Ruhrort district . In 1904, again only 17 years later, Mülheim became an urban district in accordance with the new Rhenish provincial order after reaching more than 40,000 inhabitants .
Progress and steady growth could be observed in the following years: In 1897 the first electric tram ran in Mülheim and in 1899 the 159 infantry regiment moved into the new barracks on Kaiserstraße, thereby helping Mülheim gain the status of a garrison town .
On the way to the big city
In the period from 1904 to 1928, Paul Lembke, as Lord Mayor of Mülheim, shaped the face of the city largely according to his ideas. In the year he took office, the city was enlarged seven times in area with the incorporation of the left-wing Ruhr district and the population grew suddenly from 40,000 to over 93,000. Just four years later - on the 100th anniversary of its existence - Mülheim crossed the 100,000-inhabitant limit and was able to join the big cities . At this time Lembke did not pursue the strategy of increasing the population through incorporation at any price. So he rejected the incorporation of Alstaden and the northern parts of Dümpten and Styrum and left them to Oberhausen because the districts were too densely populated for him and characterized by mining. On the other hand, he called for the incorporation of Heißen, Süd-Dümpten and, above all, Menden and Raadt. This shows the goal that Lembke was pursuing: to create a “green Mülheim”, because these districts are part of the agricultural areas with a long-established population.
During this period of time, the city shed its small-town character and transformed itself into a modern metropolis through decisive improvements in infrastructure and the economy as well as through significant cultural impulses. This includes the expansion of the school system, the establishment of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Coal Research (1912), the opening of the town hall (1926), the construction of three Ruhr bridges and the expansion of the shipping canal with the port facilities (1927). Last but not least, the creation of spacious local recreation areas in the Mülheim city area is a lasting achievement.
In 1925, a traffic landing pad was built in a purely agricultural area between the cities of Mülheim and Essen , which was expanded in 1935 to become the central landing pad for the entire Rhenish-Westphalian industrial area. This made it one of the most important German airports at that time, far ahead of Düsseldorf Airport , which was administered from here. At the end of the 1920s, the Richthofensiedlung (Richthofensiedlung), a so-called aviation settlement, was built in the immediate vicinity of the airfield for administrative, flight and maintenance personnel .
From the last free Reichstag election , the NSDAP emerged as the strongest party on November 6, 1932 in Mülheim with 28.3% of the vote. In comparison, voter approval for National Socialism in Mülheim was below the nationwide overall result of 33.1%. Similar to other cities in the Ruhr area, the NSDAP became the strongest party; but the KPD with 24.27% and the SPD with 13.53% achieved a larger share of the vote with a total of 37.81%. Nevertheless, enthusiasm broke out in Mülheim about the appointment of Adolf Hitler as Chancellor and his supporters celebrated this with a torchlight procession.
From mid-February 1933, there were first house searches of suspected communists, especially in the Dümpten district, and at the end of February 200 members of the SS , SA and Stahlhelm officially took over the police force as auxiliary policemen in the city and arrested numerous political opponents. In the first local elections after the seizure of power , the NSDAP won 45.1% of the vote. In the first council decision, Hitler and Hindenburg were given honorary citizenship of the city.
On September 30, 1938, the Jewish community in Mülheim was "quasi-expropriated": By resolution of the council, the synagogue on Viktoriaplatz was forcibly sold to the Stadtsparkasse for only 56,000 Reichsmarks . Only a few weeks later the Jewish house of God burned down on the night of the Reichspogrom from November 9th to 10th. The fire was started by the Mülheim fire brigade, who limited the extinguishing work to preventing the fire from spreading to neighboring houses.
In June 1941, a labor education camp was set up at Essen / Mülheim Airport under the administration of the Cologne Gestapo . 26 police officers from the Essen police force acted as guards, and the airport company was responsible for the work. It is estimated that between 6,000 and 8,000 people passed through the camp by March 1945, killing 130 prisoners.
In the course of 1943 and 1944 the city was repeatedly targeted by air raids. The heaviest attack took place on the night of June 22nd to 23rd, 1943. 242 Lancaster , 155 Halifax , 93 Stirling , 55 Wellington and 12 Mosquito bombers, ie 557 aircraft, flew to the city in three waves, one after the other . The main goals were the city center, the railway lines, the German pipe works, the Schmitz-Scholl company as a supplier of provisions for the Wehrmacht , the Reichsbahn repair shop and the port. The attack left 530 dead of the city's population and 1,630 buildings (64%) were destroyed or damaged. Around 40,000 residents then had to be evacuated.
In another bombing raid, which actually targeted the city of Oberhausen , some bombs hit the Dümpten district in the night of November 1st to November 2nd, 1944. 33 residents were killed there and in the surrounding districts. The last heavy attack took place on December 24, 1944: To repel the German Ardennes offensive , which received air support from Mülheim airport, 338 British bombers attacked Essen-Mülheim airport. 74 residents of the city lost their lives, fifty of them in a direct hit on the bunker in Windmühlenstrasse.
The end of the war came for the city on April 11, 1945. To defend against the advancing troops, 200 soldiers of the 183rd Volksgrenadierregiment were still in Mülheim area, who were to be supported by around 3,000 members of the Volkssturm. In the morning the first soldiers of the 17th US Airborne Division advanced from Essen via the district of Heißen to the city center. In the urban area there was only a short fight between some Volkssturm people and the Americans in the area of Kämpchenstrasse. Two Volkssturm men and three GIs were killed. At 9:40 am, Lord Mayor Edwin Hasenjaeger (1888–1972) handed the city over to the Americans, who were replaced by the British a few months later as the occupying power .
post war period
At the end of the war there were only 88,000 people living in Mülheim, but by the end of 1945 the number had increased again to 125,441 due to war returnees and refugees. The reconstruction began initially under the impression of dismantling , which mainly affected the iron and steel industry . As early as 1950, Mannesmannröhren-Werke were again Western Europe's largest tube producer. The number of employees at the plant rose from 6,000 (1950) to over 10,500 (1961), and the same applies to the total number of employees, which grew from 49,000 to 82,000.
In 1964 the city began to undergo long and difficult structural change . Due to the steel and coal crisis , the last shift was done at the blast furnaces of the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Hütte . Mülheim was the first city in the Ruhr area to no longer have any steel production . Two years later (1966) coal production at the Rosenblumendelle colliery had to be stopped. This made Mülheim the first city in the Ruhr area to be free of mining.
The restructuring process led to the opening of the RheinRuhrZentrum in 1973 on the site of the former Humboldt colliery . Germany’s formerly largest covered shopping center has since symbolized the return to the traditional past as a trading city. In 1974 the City Center (today's name: FORUM City Mülheim ) was completed as an inner-city shopping center and Schloßstraße was redesigned into a pedestrian zone.
The project of a continuous light rail connection between the cities of the western Ruhr area was partially realized in 1979 with the underground light rail line from Mülheim main station to Essen in a first stage.
The North Rhine-Westphalian state horticultural show MüGa , which was held in the city in 1992 , led to considerable redesigns in the Mülheim Ruhr valley. Above all in the core area of the exhibition, around the roundhouse, unsightly industrial wastelands were turned into green spaces.
Mülheim's history as a garrison town ended in 1994 when the British Army on the Rhine left the Wrexham Barracks after 48 years . This second Mülheim barracks was built for the Wehrmacht at the end of the 1930s, while the old barracks on Kaiserstrasse were no longer used by the military after 1945 and demolished in the mid-1970s.
Structural change has been given new impulses for years: The Siemens Technopark has been under construction on a total of 245,000 square meters of industrial wasteland on Mellinghofer Strasse since 2000, and potential start-ups have a central position with the start-up center in the Haus der Wirtschaft, which opened in 2005 Settlement option available.
Mölmsch Platt is the Lower Franconian dialect of the city of Mülheim an der Ruhr. This is a variety of the northern Lower Franconian counting Ostbergischen . Due to the close relationship of the dialect with the dialects on the left and right Lower Rhine and those in the Dutch and Flemish parts of Limburg , the dialects are counted together to the Limburg language .
- In 1878 Eppinghofen and Mellinghofen (both from the Mülheim-Land mayor's office ) were incorporated into the urban area - now the Altstadt II district.
- The Broich mayor's office followed in 1904 with the municipalities of Broich, Saarn and Speldorf.
- In 1904 Holthausen from the mayor's office in Heißen and the municipality of Styrum were added.
- In 1910, Lord Mayor Dr. Lembke incorporated Oberdümpten and the community of Heißen with Winkhausen and part of Fulerum, while the highly industrialized areas of Unterstyrum and Unterdümpten and the community of Alstaden were incorporated into Oberhausen.
- In 1920 Menden and Raadt, which until 1910 belonged to the mayor's office in Heißen and then to the district of Essen, were incorporated.
- In 1929 the urban area was expanded considerably to the south and Selbeck (Mintard Office), Ickten and parts of Umstand (Kettwig-Land Office) went to Mülheim.
- The last expansion followed on January 1, 1975: Mintard, part of the city of Kettwig since 1930 , went to Mülheim, while the main part of the city of Kettwig was incorporated into Essen.
On January 1, 1981, an area with then more than 100 inhabitants was assigned to the neighboring town of Ratingen.
|Population (as of December 31, 2010)|
|over 65 years||23.6%|
|Proportion of foreigners||10.39%|
With over 10,000 inhabitants, Mülheim was when it became a town in 1808 - after Düsseldorf , Elberfeld and Barmen (now both in Wuppertal ) - the fourth largest municipality in the area that corresponds to today's administrative district of Düsseldorf . The neighboring communities of Duisburg (4,500 inhabitants) and Essen (3,700 inhabitants) were much less important. The beginning of industrialization resulted in a significant increase in population.
In 1904, the population of Mülheim doubled after the incorporation of several localities - including the municipality of Styrum (18,434 inhabitants in 1900) - from around 40,000 to over 93,000. Due to ongoing immigration, the population of the city exceeded the limit of 100,000 in 1908, making Mülheim a major city . In 1971 the population reached its historic high of 192,915. On December 31, 2011, 168,566 people lived in Mülheim with their main place of residence, according to an update by the State Office for Data Processing and Statistics in North Rhine-Westphalia . Deviating from this, the number of inhabitants on May 19, 2011 according to the 2011 census was only 166,865, i.e. almost 2000 fewer.
Mülheim was once shaped by Protestants. Only through industrialization and the associated immigration of workers did the Catholic and above all the rest of the population of the city grow. According to the 2011 census , 31.3% of the population were Protestant, 30.7% Roman Catholic and 38.0% were non-denominational , belonged to another religious community or did not provide any information. At the end of 2019, 44,502 (25.8%) of the 172,446 inhabitants were Protestant, 45,785 (26.6%) Roman Catholic and 82,159 (47.6%) were non-denominational or belong to another religious community. The number of Protestants and Catholics has therefore decreased in the observed period.
In the Middle Ages, Mülheim an der Ruhr belonged to the Diocese of Liège and later to the Archdiocese of Cologne . In the first half of the 16th century, the Broich rulers introduced the Reformation by appointing a suitable pastor . At first it was a Lutheran congregation, in the last quarter of the 16th century, again through the appointment of a corresponding pastor, according to the Reformed creed. From 1621 there were Lutheran parishioners again and in 1658 they founded their own parish. From 1817 both belonged to the Evangelical Church in Prussia and its Rhenish provincial church. At the District Synod of Düsseldorf founded by royal order in 1817, congregations of both denominations united unanimously . In contrast to Ratingen (1817) and Essen (1819) Düsseldorf (1825), however, the two communities in Mülheim were not united for the time being. It was not until 1887 that the Reformed and Lutheran congregations merged to form the Evangelical Congregation Mülheim an der Ruhr ( united congregation). In 1870 the congregations on the Ruhr separated from Düsseldorf and together with Essen (until 1900, the Ruhr communes of Essen until 1934) and Oberhausen (until 1954) formed the parish on the Ruhr within the Evangelical Church in the Rhineland . Today all seven Protestant parishes of the city of Mülheim an der Ruhr (United, Lukaskirchengemeinde, Broich, Heißen, Markuskirchengemeinde, Saarn and Speldorf ) as well as the parish of Kettwig (city of Essen ) belong to it .
The Counts of Limburg-Styrum retained the Roman Catholic faith, which meant that the Styrum rule also remained Roman Catholic and Catholic worship continued to be celebrated in the chapel of Styrum Castle . The pastoral care of the Catholics who remained in the area was initially taken over by Minorites from Duisburg, until in 1752 the Düsseldorf Jesuit College provided a permanent clergyman for Catholic worship and lessons. Thanks to a donation from Count Karl Joseph August von Limburg-Styrum on January 13, 1755, a house was built to house the school, church service and the clergyman's apartment. After the Jesuit order was abolished in 1780, secular chaplains oversaw the mission station . They managed to build in Mülheim a church that on 10 November 1786 the Cologne Auxiliary Bishop Karl Aloys Count von Koenigsegg-Aulendorf consecrated was. On January 18, 1790, the Cologne elector and archbishop Maximilian Franz of Austria elevated the mission station to a canonical parish . The Cologne Nuncio Carlo Antonio Giuseppe Bellisomi made a donation for the construction of the church in April 1782. In the course of industrialization , further Catholic parishes were established in Mülheim that belonged to the Archdiocese of Cologne until they were assigned to the newly founded Diocese of Essen in 1958 . Only the parish of St. Laurentius in Mintard , which was only incorporated into Mülheim in 1975 , still belongs to the Archdiocese of Cologne. The 15 parishes belonging to the Mülheim City Deanery of the Diocese of Essen were Christ the King, the Holy Spirit, the Holy Cross, the Heart of Jesus, St. Barbara , St. Elisabeth, St. Engelbert, St. Joseph, St. Mary's Birth, St. Maria Himmelfahrt, St. Mariae Rosenkranz with the branch church St. Albertus Magnus (Fusion 2000), St. Michael, St. Raphael, St. Theresia of Avila and St. Theresia of the Child Jesus. The future concept of the Diocese of Essen, which was implemented by 2008, provided for a reduction to three parishes with nine churches and four branch churches. The Church of St. Raphael was profaned and given a different purpose, the Holy Cross Church was rededicated to the Resurrection Church with a columbarium . The three parishes are St. Mary's Birth with 14,964 Kaholics, St. Barbara with 15,445 Catholics and St. Mary's Assumption with 15,361 Kaholics (as of December 31, 2019). There are also congregations in Mülheim that belong to free churches : the Seventh-day Adventists (STA), three Evangelical Free Church congregations ( Baptists ), the Methodist Church and the Free Evangelical Church (FeG).
The city has a special significance as a place of foundation for a Pentecostal Free Church Association: The Mülheim Association of Free Church Evangelical Congregations, founded in 1905, led from Mülheim to a major national awakening at the beginning of the 20th century , in the course of which the Christ Congregation Mülheim became the first Pentecostal church in Germany founded.
In addition, the New Apostolic Church and other Christian communities such as Jehovah's Witnesses or the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (also known as "Mormons") are represented in Mülheim an der Ruhr .
Jews lived in Mülheim an der Ruhr for over 500 years , often as a tolerated minority who had to pay high taxes for their tolerance and were only free and respected citizens at times.
At the beginning of the 1930s, around 650 Mülheim residents were Jewish and met in two synagogues for common prayer. The seizure of power by the National Socialists in March 1933 led to open anti-Semitism . The pressure exerted on Jewish business people quickly led to the first shop closings, to daily threats in public and at work, in schools and associations, and to the first emigrations .
Between 1933 and 1936 around 200 Jewish citizens emigrated, including only a few of the long-established Jewish residents of Mülheim, who at that time still felt safe despite all the harassment. In 1938 the Jewish population had shrunk by half as a result of the first deportations and emigrations. The large synagogue on Viktoriaplatz (since 2009: Synagogenplatz) had to be sold due to lack of money and pressure from the city. The Reichspogromnacht made the situation worse , and in the following years until 1943/1944 the Jews still living in Mülheim were ghettoized in several houses and taken in batches to concentration and death camps . In 2009, the murder of Mülheim Jews in Sobibor was brought before the Munich II regional court in the trial against John Demjanjuk .
A total of 233 Jews from Mülheim emigrated, mostly to Palestine or South America . According to the memorial book - Victims of the Persecution of Jews under the National Socialist Tyranny of 1933–1945 , 255 Jewish residents of Mülheim were murdered, although the exact number is likely to be higher because of the more than fifty unknown fates. More than eighty died in Mülheim; some escaped humiliation, persecution and deportation through suicide.
Only 39 Jewish people from Mülheim returned from the concentration camps or hiding places and the Holocaust survivors who had returned to Mülheim founded the Mülheim Jewish Community at the beginning of 1946, of which Salomon Lifsches was chairman until 1968. In 1955 it merged with the neighboring Duisburg community, and the number of members grew to 83. In 1960 the Mülheim synagogue on Kampstrasse was inaugurated. In 1968 the Jewish communities in Mülheim, Duisburg and Oberhausen united to form a common religious community - the Jewish community of Duisburg-Mülheim / Ruhr-Oberhausen .
In the 1990s, the number of parishioners increased to over 2,800 as a result of the immigration of Jews from the former Soviet Union , making it necessary to build a new synagogue. The Jewish community and the three cities of Mülheim, Duisburg and Oberhausen jointly agreed on the new building in Duisburg's inner harbor . And since the inauguration of the new community center of the Jewish community Duisburg-Mülheim / Ruhr-Oberhausen in Duisburg in 1999, this place has been filled with life.
Among other things, cultural events take place there, such as an annual Jewish Book Fair and the Jewish Culture Days in the Rhineland . The involvement in family and youth work is also based in the community center with the children and youth center Tikwatejnu - Tikwatejnu is Hebrew and means "Our hope". There are also offices and rooms in Mülheim and Oberhausen so that family and youth work can be carried out on site.
There are several Islamic communities in Mülheim . Overall, the Islamic population makes up between 8% and 10% of the total population, making it the third largest religious group in the city.
The Turkish Fatih Camii community has one of the largest Islamic prayer rooms in Germany.
The Arab Islamic Community of Mülheim made national headlines in 2005 when the association's plans to acquire the vacant building of the state central bank became known. Although the previous prayer room was threatened with demolition because the city administration was planning to widen the street, the plans to move to the well-secured bank building were rejected by the media and politicians. Only after long negotiations could the association be offered the former Haus der Wirtschaft for sale. The approximately 280 members will find a considerably larger prayer room, a kitchen and various classrooms in the house, which was opened in September 2006.
Politics and administration
The seat of the governing political institutions, first and foremost the city council and the mayor, as well as most parts of the city administration, is the historic town hall in the city center .
The first administration in the modern sense was set up in 1808, when Mülheim received city rights and administrative responsibility was placed on the three municipal councils and a mayor. In 1846 the revised town order followed with a magistrate and the town council assembly and from 1851 the new Prussian municipal code came into force . At the head of the city were the municipality board with the mayor and the municipal council, from 1856 the magistrate with the mayor and the city council assembly (Rhenish city code). From 1895 the mayor of Mülheim usually carried the title of mayor .
During the time of the Nazis , the Mayor of that was NSDAP used. After the Second World War , the military government of the British Zone of Occupation appointed a new Lord Mayor and in 1946 introduced the local constitution based on the British model. Then there was a city council elected by the people , whose members were designated as city councilors . The council initially elected the mayor from among its members as chairman and representative of the city, who was active on a voluntary basis, and a full-time senior city director as head of the city administration.
In 1999 this dual leadership in the city administration was abolished. Since then, the full-time mayor has been chairman of the council, head of the city administration and city representative. He has been elected directly by the Mülheim population - also since 1999.
Since 1975 the city area has been divided into the three city districts, each of them has a district council with a district mayor . The district council has 19 members and is elected by the population of the district in every local election (every five years).
Administratively, the city belongs to the administrative district of Düsseldorf , the Rhineland Regional Association and the Ruhr Regional Association . For decades, Mülheim was considered the traditional stronghold of the SPD , until it was replaced in 1994 by the first black-green alliance in a major North Rhine-Westphalian city. Since then, the local spectrum of parties has broadened and the previous absolute majority is no longer a matter of course for the social democratic candidate in state and federal elections. Since Dagmar Mühlenfeld was elected Lord Mayor in 2003, the controversial urban planning project Ruhrbania , which is intended to increase the attractiveness of Mülheim for companies and residents, has been a constant local political issue , but which also has to give way to green spaces and existing infrastructure.
For years, Mülheim has been complaining about the consequences of the financial and economic crisis, dramatically collapsing income and rapidly increasing social security contributions. This is associated with budget deficits of 79 million euros in 2013 and 113 million euros in 2014. For the 2015 budget year, the city of Mülheim has a budget deficit in ordinary income and expenses (including financial income and expenses) of -76.5 million euros in the overall result plan estimated.
As of December 31, 2014, the city's liabilities were 1,359 million euros. Taking into account the assets in the city budget, this results in a balance sheet overindebtedness of 209 million euros. The budget security concept has been in effect for the municipal fund since 2010/11 . In March 2019, the debt rose to 2,044 million euros.
Mayor and Lord Mayor since 1808
Since the city elevation in 1808, over twenty people have held the office of mayor and lord mayor. The complete list of names with the dates of the term of office can be found in the list of personalities of the city of Mülheim an der Ruhr . The terms of office of Christian Weuste (1822 to 1847), Wilhelm Oechelhäuser (1852 to 1856), Karl Obertüschen (1857 to 1873) and Paul Lembke (1904 to 1922) were of outstanding importance for the city .
In 1945 and 1946 the mayors changed frequently at the top of the city. In these post-war years, the Lord Mayors were temporarily appointed to the office by the Allies . In addition to the former mayor Edwin Renatus Hasenjaeger , who was in office from October 1945 to April 1946, the previous councilors Gustav Langweg and Werner Hoosmann and the later city director Josef Poell were in charge of the city for only a few days.
With the first free municipal elections in autumn 1946 there was again a certain continuity in the occupation of the office and Heinrich Thöne in particular shaped the image of the city during its reconstruction during his term in office from 1948 to 1969. From 2003 to 2015 Dagmar Mühlenfeld headed the city administration. Ulrich Scholten has been Lord Mayor of the city of art on the Ruhr since October 21, 2015 .
City directors 1946–1999
City Director (since 1999)
Since the introduction of the single track, i.e. since the transfer of the official powers of the City Director to the Lord Mayor, there is no longer a City Director in Mülheim, as in all of North Rhine-Westphalia. The main statute of Mülheim provides for the office of city director. He is elected by the city council, is a member of the administrative board as an alderman and a general representative of the mayor in his function as head of administration. Frank Steinfort (CDU) has been city director since 1999 .
The City Council Mülheims has since its formation after the last local elections on May 25, 2014 the mayor exclusive 54 members . By leaving and joining parties and factions, the composition of the council has changed according to political camps since the election. The seats are distributed among the individual parties and alliances as follows (as of June 1, 2019):
|Party or alliance||Voting shares||Sit on the council|
|SPD||31.52%||first 17 seats,
then 19 seats (including a former PIRATE city councilor and a previous MBI and then non-attached city councilor)
|CDU||27.17%||first 15 seats,
then 12 seats
|MBI||10.08%||first 5 seats,
then 3 seats
|AfD||5.24%||first 3 seats,
then 0 seats
|The left||4.1%||2 seats,
then 0 seats
|PIRATES||1.72%||first 1 seat,
then 0 seats
|WE FROM Mülheim||1.43%||1 seat|
|Alliance for Education||0.96%||1 seat, meanwhile a member of the Alliance for Mülheim parliamentary group|
|Mülheim 5 to 12
(until March 2017 ALFA )
|2 transfers from the AfD (group formation)||first 2 seats,
then 1 seat, meanwhile a member of the Alliance for Mülheim parliamentary group
|Civil departure for Mülheim||3 transfers from the CDU and 1 transfer from the MBI and entry of a previous AfD and then non-attached city councilor (new parliamentary group), later transfer of a “Mülheim 5 to 12” city councilor||first 5 seats,
then 6 seats
|Alliance for Mülheim||2 transfers from the left, Bündnis für Bildung and from Mülheim 5 to 12 to a common parliamentary group||4 seats (new parliamentary group)|
Mülheim is part of the Mülheim I state electoral district and the Essen I - Mülheim II state electoral district . Member of the state parliament is for Mülheim I the social democrat Hannelore Kraft , for Essen I - Mülheim II her party friend Thomas Kutschaty . The Mülheim Bundestag constituency is the Bundestag constituency Mülheim - Essen I , its MP Arno Klare (SPD).
Coat of arms, logo and flag
Blazon : "The escutcheon of the coat of arms of the city of Mülheim an der Ruhr shows in two split and once split shield (the meaning of the representation in brackets):
|Reasons for the coat of arms: The coat of arms was introduced in 1890 and awarded by the Prussian State Ministry in 1925 . The shield of the last Count of Daun-Falkenstein is depicted under a castle wall on the head of the shield. The lords of Daun-Oberstein and Falkenstein were vassals of the Duchy of Berg . The Falkenstein counts came through inheritance (1608–1628) into the possession of the Hohenfels - Reipoltskirchen rule (former community of Wolfstein in Rhineland-Palatinate ).|
The town of Mülheim's ring of honor and honor bar bear the town's coat of arms.
The much younger logo was designed in 1971 by the Mülheim artist Peter-Torsten Schulz and has since adorned all city signs and letterheads. The double M stands as a symbolic bridge that is reflected in the Ruhr.
Mülheim an der Ruhr maintains city partnerships with the following cities:
A sponsorship existed from 1967 to 2005 with the speedboat S70-Kormoran of the German Navy ; one of these has existed since 1998 for the jumbo jet Boeing 747-400 Mülheim an der Ruhr (registration number D-ABVO) of Deutsche Lufthansa . The jumbo jet is stationed at Frankfurt am Main Airport. Since September 30, 2004, the city of Mülheim an der Ruhr has sponsored the ICE of the same name operated by Deutsche Bahn AG .
Culture and sights
Mülheim's art and culture scene is characterized by the city's ideal location in the Rhine-Ruhr region. In addition to the visual arts and theater, there is a lively music scene. Artists like Helge Schneider , Christoph Schlingensief , Dore O. and bands like Bluttat , Die Lokalmatadore , Die Ruhrpottkanaken , Bohren & the Club of Gore are also known beyond Mülheim.
In addition to its own collections, the Mülheim an der Ruhr Art Museum can draw on the important art collection of Nobel Prize winner Karl Ziegler and offers an attractive exhibition program in the Association of 20 RuhrKunstMuseen. Art galleries such as the Galerie an der Ruhr and numerous municipal and private artist studios and the Theater an der Ruhr make Mülheim an der Ruhr in North Rhine-Westphalia a real city of art.
The Mölmsch Platt as a local dialect has almost disappeared in its meaning. This variety of the dialect group of Kleverland, which is widespread in the Netherlands and the Lower Rhine, is an Ostberg dialect that is only spoken by a few older Mülheimers in their home groups. On the other hand, the Mölmsche Heischelied Ssinter Määtes Vöögelsche can still be heard many times on Martinstag .
The typical Mölm specialties have been preserved: endive dore-in ( endive among each other) with panhas , steelmoos (stick sauce) and ssuure kappes with witte boahne (sauerkraut with white beans). The Echt Mölmsch , a Mülheim beer specialty comparable to the Kölsch , which was not brewed for several years from 1995 onwards, has been produced again since 2008.
In 2017 the Mülheim director and screenwriter Alexander Waldhelm presented his debut film "Pottkinder - ein Heimatfilm", which shows the peculiarities of the Mülheim people in their environment.
The Theater an der Ruhr was founded in 1980 by Roberto Ciulli and Helmut Schäfer . The theater is located in Gut Raffelberg and is one of the city's most important cultural institutions thanks to its national reputation. Since its foundation, the Theater an der Ruhr has been a model that has avoided the structural weaknesses of the state and city theaters and, because of its flexibility, is an example of modern cultural institutions. International relations are well developed: the theater has made guest appearances in over thirty countries around the world and invited a similar number of theaters from abroad to its international theater landscapes. In 1999 the Theater an der Ruhr was the first theater from the West to return to Tehran after 1979 as part of its “Silk Road” project. The Theater an der Ruhr regularly hosts the Unruhr Theater Youth Club Festival . The VolXbühne - Ensemble of Generations at the Theater an der Ruhr as a citizens' stage for Mülheim and the Ruhr area has been part of the Theater an der Ruhr since 2013 .
The town hall is the venue for the annual plays competition that has been held in May / June since 1976 . As part of the Mülheim Theater Days, a jury decides on the award of the Mülheim Dramatists Prize to new plays in the theater world, whereby only the plays themselves and not the productions should be evaluated. The competition contributes to the fact that every year several plays - mostly the world premieres - from all parts of the German-speaking theater space can be seen in Mülheim.
Mülheim also has a large open-air stage , which was opened in 1936 and was long forgotten before a sponsoring association initiated the revival as an open-air center in 2000 - especially in the context of the 2010 Capital of Culture .
In addition to Bochum , Düsseldorf and Cologne , Mülheim an der Ruhr is a regular venue for the Impulse theater festival , which invites off-productions from independent stages from Germany , Switzerland and Austria .
In the Ringlokschuppen cultural center , theater productions are increasingly being used.
Finally, the two amateur playgroups that both established themselves in 1990 are worth mentioning. The theater group for seniors, Theater Mülheimer Spätlese, with over thirty active members between the ages of fifty and over eighty has developed into one of the largest senior theaters in Germany. It has numerous in-house productions. It takes part in festivals across the country and lets senior theaters outside of Germany perform in its own venue. The "Mülheimer Backstein-Theater" with over eighty members on and behind the stage achieves almost professional quality. Every year several performances take place in the "Great Casino of the Evangelical Hospital".
The Mülheim an der Ruhr art museum was founded in 1909 on the initiative of Mülheim's patron, local researcher and art collector Robert Rheinen (1844–1920). The museum will be closed until mid-2020 due to extensive renovation. A temporary museum has been set up nearby. Important works of art of classical modernism and international contemporary art are shown in changing individual, group and themed exhibitions. The highlights of the collection are paintings by the artists Max Beckmann , Oskar Kokoschka , Karl Hofer , Hans Purrmann , Heinrich Campendonk , Erich Heckel , Alexej von Jawlensky , Otto Mueller , Karl Schmidt-Rottluff , Franz Marc , August Macke , Emil Nolde , Lyonel Feininger , Wassily Kandinsky , Paul Klee , Oskar Schlemmer and Max Ernst . Regular exhibitions with the graphic stock Ernst Barlach , Marc Chagall and above all Pablo Picasso (Suite Vollard). In 1981 an important collection of Expressionists and Classical Modernism from Nobel Prize winner Karl Ziegler was added; also the gift from the Mülheim doctor Karl G. Themel, which includes a Heinrich Zille collection. With these two collections and the quality of the purchasing policy of the city and the state of North Rhine-Westphalia from around 1945 - the “municipal collection” has been world-class since then - the museum is one of the twenty RuhrKunstMuseen . The art historian Beate Reese has been running the museum since 2009 .
In 2012 the private KuMuMü - Art Museum Mülheim was founded at Ruhrstrasse 3. In 2019 the museum was expanded and renamed KuMuMü Kulturmuseum Mülheim. Changing exhibitions and the permanent collection of contemporary art are shown. The sponsor is the Mülheimer Kunstverein and Kunstförderverein Rhein-Ruhr kuz also KKRR.
The Aquarius Water Museum at Styrum Castle is one of the anchor points of the Route of Industrial Culture , whose theme route 12 connects the highlights of industrial culture and history in the Ruhr landscape.
The largest walk-in camera obscura in the world was set up - also in 1992 - in a water tower near the roundhouse , which on a clear day provides interesting views of the city. Since September 2006 the museum on the prehistory of the film has been set up on the lower floors of the water tower. With numerous exhibits it is dedicated to the question of “how the images learned to walk.” In October 2008, the monastery museum opened in Saarn monastery, which tells the story of the Life in the monastery and its surroundings over a period of 1200 years is documented with finds that were obtained there through excavations.
Other museums in Mülheim are the office museum in the tower of the town hall (closed since 2013 and stored in the depot), the leather and tanning museum in a disused leather factory and the local history museums in the Tersteegenhaus (closed since 2018 due to disrepair) and in Broich Castle.
In the last few decades the Saarn Monastery has developed into an important cultural center. In addition to the sacred concerts that are noted beyond the city limits, the annual Saar organ days with internationally known performers are to be highlighted. But also as a cultural meeting point for young and old with painting and photography courses, dance events, children's theater, cabaret and pop concerts, the Saarn Monastery is of particular importance for the city. Mention should also be made of the citizens' hall with cafeteria, the extensive parish library and the monastery museum (see below).
The Protestant old town with the Petrikirche on the church hill has an even longer cultural tradition. Here worked Gerhard Tersteegen and church musician, one of which in particular Siegfried Reda has to be mentioned as a composer. He found - to this day - worthy successors whose series of sacred organ and choir concerts in the Petrikirche enriches the cultural life of the region.
The Autonomous Center Mülheim has been a self-administered youth culture center since 1998 , where parties, concerts, theater performances and workshops take place. In addition to a pub and an internet café, it offers a meeting place for many local and regional groups from Antifa to Zeche23 ( CCC ). The macroscope in the city center is another cultural initiative in the city.
Last but not least, the Heinrich-Thöne-Volkshochschule, the Broich Castle and the Ringlokschuppen , a socio-cultural center in the former locomotive shed , which was converted in 1995 , where concerts, cabaret, theater performances and other cultural events take place regularly and which also has a restaurant houses. The three facilities are grouped - together with the converted former water tower (Camera Obscura) - around the upper (western) part of the MüGa site.
Mülheim an der Ruhr continues to develop into an art city. The “ Galerie an der Ruhr / Kunsthaus Mülheim Ruhrstrasse ” is located in the Villa Schmitz-Scholl right next to the Ruhranlage and Ruhrpromenade. 3 “/ Ruhr Gallery with various studios in the historic house of Tengelmann founder Wilhelm Schmitz-Scholl in Ruhrstrasse 3, which was later also used by the industrialist Carl Nedelmann . Here is u. a. the collection of the painter Edith Polland-Dülfer , the collection of the Flemish painter Fernand Luickx and works by other artists in the private "KuMuMü - Kulturmuseum Mülheim an der Ruhrstrasse 3". Another art house is planned in the Styrum district, in an old school building that is due to be decommissioned in 2021. In 2017 the cultural center "Art and History" was founded at Oberstraße 27.
Finally, the old turning shop should be mentioned here, the house of clubs, which mainly attracts automobile and railroad fans. Parts of the historic hall were made accessible by the members of the sponsoring association with public funding.
The oldest preserved buildings are Broich Castle and Saarn Monastery . The old town of Mülheim on the church hill offers just a hint of the tranquility of the old Lower Franconian architecture, because apart from a few half-timbered houses around the Tersteegenhaus and the Petrikirche, the old building fabric was largely destroyed during the Second World War, but also later demolished. By contrast, the historical buildings were largely spared from the war in the eastern outskirts of the old town and in the more noble residential areas on the banks of the Ruhr, where the houses from the Wilhelminian era and Art Nouveau are still dominant. In addition to the almost continuous development with Art Nouveau houses on Ruhrstrasse, Friedrichstrasse and Kaiserstrasse as well as their side streets, the Villa Josef Thyssen on the Dohne and Haus Urge on the Kahlenberg should be highlighted. On the northern edge of the city center is the historic town hall , the tower of which is a landmark of the city.
The water station with its famous flower clock is located near the center on an island in the river. From here, in the summer months, the ships of the White Fleet go up the Ruhr to Kettwig and the Baldeneysee in Essen .
The building on Kahlenberg, which was used as a youth hostel until 2010, opened in 1890 (foundation stone was laid in 1889) as a restaurant on Kahlenberg and was converted into a youth hostel in 1952. The youth hostel has been closed since the end of 2010 and apartments have been built in the listed building.
Other interesting buildings are the Altenhof , the Bismarck Tower , the factory buildings of the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Hütte, the old malt factory , the old grain distillery in Broich, the Catholic Church of St. Mary's Birth and the St. Laurentius Church in the Mintard district. The Speldorfer Church and the historic buildings in the Saarn district are also worth seeing . In the district of Heißen are the listed mining settlement Mausegatt and the RheinRuhrZentrum , Germany's largest covered shopping center when it was built .
Monuments and art
Parks, green spaces and forests
According to the landscape plan of the city of Mülheim, around 49.7% of the city area was water and green areas in 2001 (water 2.5%, forest 17.2%, green spaces 4.8%, agriculture 24.2%, cemeteries 1%). Of the green spaces, 19 areas with a total of 1,191.6 hectares are under nature protection. This includes in particular parts of the Saarn-Mendener Ruhraue (including Kocks Loch ) and the side valleys of the Ruhr with their side valleys (Siepen), such as Schmitterbachtal, Rossenbecktal , Forstbachtal , Rumbachtal , but also part of the Hexbachtal (tributary to the Emscher ), areas around the Wambach (tributary to the Rhine) and the Winkhauser Bachtal .
The Hexbachtal could be preserved as a local recreation area and partly as a nature reserve, because the construction of the A 31 motorway was prevented by the efforts of citizens ( action group A 31 ) in 1980 .
The agriculturally used green areas have been regularly reduced by building requests from the owners, combined with local political interests (individual interests?) And are still being reduced. While in the south of Menden in 2012 citizens were able to prevent the development of an ecologically valuable area, two controversial development plans above the Rumbach Valley are currently (February 2013) being disclosed.
The Mülheimer Gartenschau (MüGa) extended, starting from the city center, along the Ruhr for a few kilometers, both north and south. For the state horticultural show in 1992, essentially previously industrially used areas and wasteland were converted. Even after the official end of the garden show, the former MüGa site forms a 66- hectare recreational area close to the city, which extends as a kilometer-long green belt along the Ruhr.
At the city limits to Duisburg, the Broich-Speldorfer Wald , together with the Duisburg city forest , forms an approximately 30 square kilometers large contiguous forest area in the border area between the cities. On the Mülheim side, the forest covers an area of 1,627 hectares, of which around 1,000 hectares are municipal property and form the Mülheim city forest.
The listed old town cemetery with its tombs of simple citizens, city and church superiors and entrepreneurial families is an important testimony to the Mülheim city history and a document of historical burial culture. To the southwest of it and directly adjacent is a park, the heart of which is the Mülheim an der Ruhr open-air theater . It is characterized by old trees, large meadows and small, partly hidden gardens. Despite its location close to the city, the park has retained its natural atmosphere.
The largest annual event is the Saarner Kirmes, which takes place in the first week of July in the floodplains between the banks of the Ruhr and the center of the Saar . Over a total of nine days, the over 100 showmen set up their attractions on the fairground on Mintarder Straße. Since 2016, the Saarner Kirmes no longer takes place on the old "Saarner Kirmesplatz", but has been relocated to the MüGa and the parking lot of the city hall directly on the Ruhr. The unique flair of a fair right on the water invites you to linger. Since the change of location, the fair takes place only on four days instead of nine days as before.
The Saarner Organ Days and the Mülheim Jazz Festival, which takes place in mid-June on several stages in the city center, as well as Burgfolk and Castlerock at Broich Castle , enjoy national fame . In addition to the plays , the White Nights in Raffelbergpark are another cultural highlight . On several evenings, the Theater an der Ruhr plays its most famous plays in the open air for free.
The Wednesday series in the open-air stage in Mülheim an der Ruhr has developed into a popular event tip in the Ruhr area scene. Under the motto “culture out of the hat”, the association regulator production organizes every Wednesday acoustic live concerts with regional and international musicians with free admission from May to September.
The Ruhr is the venue for the annual dragon boat festival , which with up to 15,000 visitors is one of the largest fun sport regattas in Europe and for the youth festival Voll die Ruhr, which has been taking place since 1910 .
The Ruhr Reggae Summer has been organized around the Styrum outdoor pool and the Ruhr Stadium since 2007 , with over 10,000 fans camping and celebrating in the Ruhr meadows for three days. Once a year, on World Children's Day, a large children's festival takes place on the MüGa site, in which many independent organizations take part. On the last Sunday of the summer holidays, there is a closing party at Witthausbusch with many offers for young and old. On December 6th, the Nikolausmarkt takes place in Saarn, for which the main shopping street in this district is regularly closed in full.
The activities of the Mülheim sports clubs are pooled in the Mülheimer Sportbund a. d. Ruhr e. V., which in turn is part of the Landessportbund Nordrhein-Westfalen e. V. is connected. It is the independent community of sports clubs based in Mülheim an der Ruhr.
The most successful sports club in Mülheim is the hockey and tennis club Uhlenhorst e. V. The traditional club is one of the most important hockey clubs in Europe. Since 1950, 18 German championships on the field and one championship in the hall have been won. In addition, the national champions won nine European Cups in a row between 1988 and 1996 - a series success that no other team had achieved in this competition before. With the resignation of Carsten Fischer in 1997, the HTCU lost its most famous player. At that time he was the record holder in the German hockey goalscorer list with 259 international matches for Germany and 154 goals.
Another traditional Mülheim sport is rowing . The Mülheim water sports club and the Mülheim rowing society together form the Mülheim / Ruhr racing rowing community. The rowers have already caused a stir internationally several times. The RRGM rower Tim Wooge was able to shine as a batsman three times in the legendary Boat Race between Oxford and Cambridge. Mark Kleinschmidt, on the other hand, won silver in Germany eighth at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta . In addition, numerous titles at German championships, but also at European and world championships, go to the account of RRGM rowers. The Mülheim Bundesliga eight also rows in the 1st rowing Bundesliga .
In the past, 1. FC Mülheim was nationally successful in football . He was Niederrheinmeister in 1952, 1953, 1971 and 1972, played in the Regionalliga from 1972 to 1974 and in the second division from 1974 to 1976 . The most famous players were Holger Osieck , who now works as a trainer, and Norbert Eilenfeldt , who later played for Arminia Bielefeld , FC Schalke 04 and 1. FC Kaiserslautern .
Currently the most successful Mülheim football club is VfB Speldorf , which played in the Oberliga Niederrhein in the 2013/14 season , but was relegated and now, in the 2019/2020 season, plays in the Niederrhein regional league . In 1956 VfB was in the final of the German amateur championship against Spvgg. 03 Neu-Isenburg in the Berlin Olympic Stadium . The game was lost 2: 3. At that time, some Speldorfer players such as Theo Klöckner and Helmut Hirnstein were known far beyond the city limits of Mülheim.
The handball players of the lawn sports club Mülheim e.V. set a unique team record. V. came about between 1980 and 2000. They are the only team in the German Handball Federation whose members, from youth to senior citizens, have played together in a club without change for twenty years.
The chess club SV Mülheim-Nord is currently (2013/14) playing its tenth season in the Bundesliga. In 2004 the promotion to the top German league was successful.
Mülheim is a stronghold of badminton in North Rhine-Westphalia and has several successful badminton clubs, such as TSV-Viktoria Mülheim or 1. BV Mülheim , which was German team champion thirteen times in a row between 1968 and 1980. The federal base for the women's singles and doubles disciplines is also located here. From 1980 to 1982 and again since 2005, the city is the venue for the annual German Open . In addition, the German Badminton Association is also based in Mülheim.
The Post SV Mülheim was with his table tennis -Herrenmannschaft several years in the Bundesliga represented. With the exception of the seasons 1988/89 and 1991/92, in which the team was relegated to the second division, they played in the first division from 1987 to 1998. Then the club withdrew from the Bundesliga.
The Rad-Club Sturmvogel from 1898 e. Is one of the oldest clubs . V. Mülheim an der Ruhr .
In the Speldorf district on the border with Duisburg near the Duisburg-Kaiserberg motorway junction is the Raffelberg horse racing track run by the Mülheimer Rennverein . It was founded in 1910, making it one of the oldest sports facilities in Mülheim. Until 2003, the Diana Prize , the German Mare Derby, was held here.
The Ruhrstadion in the Styrum district, located directly between the A 40 and the railway tracks in the direction of Duisburg, is Mülheim's largest sports field. The stadium was built in 1925. It had a cinder track and a lawn playing field. In 1974 a covered grandstand with 2000 seats was built on a straight. The games of 1. FC Mülheim in the regional league (1972–1974) and later in the second division (1974–1976) took place here in the 1970s .
The capacity at that time was 20,000 places. However, the stadium was never sold out. In the 1990s it threatened to deteriorate and was renovated. The standing bars in the curves have been removed and a few standing trusses have only been built on the back straight. It holds 6,000 spectators and was the venue for the home games of the national division Galatasaray Mülheim. It was modernized by the 2010/11 season, the cinder track was removed and artificial turf was laid. Since then, the home games of the Lower Rhine division VfB Speldorf have taken place there. Right next to it is Mülheim's largest outdoor pool , which was reopened as a natural pool in 2006 .
Innogy sports hall
The sports hall was officially opened as the RWE sports hall in February 2005 after a construction period of around a year. It stands in the same place as the old sports hall on Carl-Diem-Straße (design: Heinz Goesmann 1969) and can be divided into four separate playing fields. For public events, 2500 instead of the previous 1100 seats are available. The first major event in the new hall was the German Open Badminton Championships in March 2005, which will also be held here in the following years. In 2008 and 2009 the DFB Futsal Cup took place here. It has been operating under the name Innogy Sporthalle since 2016.
Transport and infrastructure
According to a study carried out by the European Commission in 2003 as part of the Urban Audit II project (Quality of Life in the Regions of Europe), which looked at the accessibility of 258 cities from the 25 EU countries, Mülheim an der Ruhr moved to Frankfurt am Main , Düsseldorf , Darmstadt and Mainz ranked fifth and are therefore on the same level as Brussels and Paris .
The good transport connections to Mülheim within Europe can be seen in the city's central location in the “ Blue Banana ”. The proximity to the international airport Düsseldorf, the short distances to the regional airports in Dortmund and Weeze and the own airport establish the close air traffic connection of the city. For the rail, the restriction applies that the Mülheim main station is only important for regional traffic with a few exceptions. This disadvantage is compensated for by the proximity to the Essen and Duisburg railway hubs. For private transport, there is a quick connection to long-distance roads that surround the city in the form of a triangle.
Rail and bus transport
Mülheim was connected to the railway network in 1862 by the Ruhr area line Witten / Dortmund – Oberhausen / Duisburg of the Bergisch-Märkische Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft .
Today's main station is a regional and S-Bahn station , and some IC / EC long-distance trains stop, but no ICE. In addition, there are two other stations, Mülheim-Styrum and Mülheim West , which are served by S-Bahn traffic; Regional trains on the RB 33 and RE 49 lines also stop in Styrum.
In rail transport run from Central Station Regional Express , - regional train - and train -lines along the Rhine ( Dusseldorf , Cologne , Aachen ), the Niederrhein ( Krefeld and Mönchengladbach ), the eastern Ruhr area ( Dortmund and Hamm ) and Westphalia ( Munster , Bielefeld , Soest and Paderborn ). Also Osnabrück is reached directly. See the list of local rail transport lines in North Rhine-Westphalia . Local rail passenger transport (SPNV) is operated by DB Regio NRW and Abellio Rail
In long-distance traffic there are IC / EC connections free of charge from / to Aachen, Berlin, Innsbruck, Munich, Oberstdorf and Stuttgart. (Status: 09/2014)
In terms of local road transport , Mülheim has a network of city railways, trams and city bus routes from the Ruhrbahn . The Ruhrbahn was created in 2017 from the MVG (Mülheimer Verkehrsgesellschaft) and the EVAG (Essener Verkehrs AG) . There are tram connections to Essen, Oberhausen and Duisburg, a light rail connection to Essen and various bus connections to Essen, Oberhausen, Ratingen and Düsseldorf.
The Essen / Mülheim airfield is located in the southeast on the border with Essen . In 1935 it was expanded as the central airport for the Ruhr area and flights were offered to many major European cities. After the Second World War, the square was used as a repair airport by the Allies because - unlike Düsseldorf Airport - it is mostly fog-free. The Düsseldorf airport nevertheless became the center of civil aviation in North Rhine-Westphalia. The airfield became famous through the impact airships of the WDL Luftschiffgesellschaft , which are manufactured here and used for sightseeing flights and advertising purposes. In addition, they are used intensively for training flights at various flight schools such as the technical college for aircraft pilots (FFL). In addition, Air Berlin had its prospective pilots trained by TFC Flugbetrieb und -technik Beratungsgesellschaft mbH.
The urban area is framed by three highways. In the north, the A 40 , which leads from Duisburg to Dortmund, is the expressway with one of the highest traffic volumes (> 130,000 vehicles / day) in Germany. The junctions here are: Mülheim an der Ruhr, MH-Styrum, MH-Dümpten, MH-Winkhausen, MH-Heißen and MH-Heimaterde The A 52 from Essen to Düsseldorf runs in the southeast of Mülheim and crosses the Ruhr with the Mintard bridge . To the west of the metropolitan area that connects A3 motorway junctions Kaiserberg junction , called the Ruhr and "spaghetti nodes" and Breitscheid . The B 1 by measuring the entire urban area from southwest to northeast. South of the Ruhr, this federal road has been given the nickname Caravanstrasse . More than 25 dealers offer mobile homes, mobile homes, garden houses, caravans and related items. The B 223 branches off from the B 1 and leads through the city center to Oberhausen.
The Ruhr cycle route also leads through Mülheim.
Mülheim's Rhine-Ruhr port is one of the most efficient ports in the Ruhr area , along with the Dortmund and Duisburg ports. It has a water surface of 86,000 square meters, a developed bank length of 3.1 kilometers and is connected to the Duisburg-Ruhrorter ports , the Rhine-Herne Canal and the Rhine via the Lower Ruhr . On the Ruhr there is a regular scheduled service between the Mülheim water station and Essen-Kettwig from spring to autumn .
The city's economy has always been characterized by the intersection of the Ruhr with the Hellweg, and accordingly the focus of the economy on trade and the service sector was and is . The economic development of Mülheim at the beginning of the industrial revolution in the 19th century was completely different from that of the other cities in the Ruhr area due to the favorable traffic situation. The Ruhr, the most traveled German river until the middle of the 19th century, was the basis for initial prosperity and rapid growth. In addition to the leather industry, which settled with its tanneries on the left bank of the river, the first entrepreneurially managed collieries in the Ruhr area followed in the course of the flourishing Ruhr shipping with its coal trade. But Mülheim was also the first city in the Ruhr area to end coal mining and steel production forever.
The traditional orientation as a trading location and the convenient location in the center of the Rhine-Ruhr region , combined with the good infrastructure, led to a broad and diverse economic structure. In 2016, Mülheim an der Ruhr, within the city limits, achieved a gross domestic product (GDP) of € 5.646 billion. In the same year, GDP per capita was € 33,188 (North Rhine-Westphalia: € 37,416 / Germany € 38,180). In 2017, there were around 81,600 people in employment in the city. The unemployment rate in December 2018 was 6.9% and thus slightly above the average for North Rhine-Westphalia of 6.4%.
|Agriculture / forestry||0.70||0.70||0.70||0.55||0.55||0.55|
|Commerce, transport, communication||27.95||29.55||29.55||28.40||29.05||29.55|
From 1953 to 2018 one of the largest energy purchasing cooperatives in Germany, the Gesellschaft für Stromwirtschaft eG (GfSt), had its administrative headquarters in the listed administrative building at Delle 50-52 that it built. Today the cooperative, based in Düsseldorf, advises energy-intensive companies on the procurement of electricity and natural gas.
The former Kraftwerk Union (KWU), founded by Siemens AG and AEG in 1969, now part of Siemens AG as Sector Energy (formerly Power Generation ), is of great economic importance in Mülheim. After both the KWU and the Mannesmannröhren-Werke were subject to shrinking processes, an industrial park with a focus on logistics has been established on the vacated space next to the Siemens Technopark .
Until the takeover by Vodafone AG in January 2000, Mannesmannröhren-Werke AG was one of the largest employers in Mülheim. At weddings, in the early 1970s, up to 12,000 people were employed here. Today the Mannesmannröhren-Werke belongs to Salzgitter AG . The large pipe plant is now owned by Europipe GmbH , a joint venture between Salzgitter AG and Dillinger Hütte . The continuous rolling mill is operated by Vallourec & Mannesmann Tubes , a subsidiary of the Vallourec Group .
Other mining companies that were able to maintain their place after extensive restructuring measures are the companies Thyssen Schachtbau , a mining company (drilling, shaft construction and operation of mines), Friedrich-Wilhelms-Hütte , Pfeiffer Drako GmbH, Vesuvius GmbH and also the Hugo Stinnes GmbH .
The Aon Jauch & Hübener GmbH , a subsidiary of US-based Aon Corporation , has its NRW branch in Saarn and based in Mülheim Rhineland-Westphalian Waterworks Company (RWW) supplies since 1912 an area of over one million customers, from the Dutch border in the north to the Bergisches Land in the south. From 1918 until it moved to Bochum in 2009, the Roeser Group , a medium-sized group of companies in the field of medical technology and health services, was based in the city.
Founded in 1965 and the first headquarters of the Mülheimer Gesellschaft für Stromwirtschaft and Villa Schmitz-Scholl as Syntana Handelsgesellschaft E. Harke GmbH & Co. KG (chemicals for a wide variety of applications), the Harke Group is now an international marketer and distributor and opens up global markets industrial sales and procurement markets for their customers and suppliers. In addition, the group of companies offers related contract filling and production as well as extensive services and a. in life sciences and chemicals distribution.
The largest non-profit organization in Mülheim is located in Selbeck. The Theodor Fliedner Foundation built “Das Dorf” in 1987 - a residential complex in which 600 old and young people with and without disabilities live together.
Research and education
The Max Planck Institute for Coal Research is one of the oldest research institutions of its kind. Founded in 1912 for coal research, it was the first Kaiser Wilhelm Institute outside Berlin. Its director since 1943 was Karl Ziegler , who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1963 for his work in the field of polymers .
The Max Planck Institute for Bioinorganic Chemistry is younger. It was built in 1958 and was called the Max Planck Institute for Radiation Chemistry until June 5, 2003 . It was realigned in mid-2012 and has since been called the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion . The city of Mülheim an der Ruhr is a "Corporate Supporting Member" of the Max Planck Society.
The IWW Center for Water (actually: Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wasserforschung) is a water research institute in Mülheim an der Ruhr and an affiliate of the University of Duisburg-Essen . It has been conducting interdisciplinary , national and international research in the water sector since 1986 . The spectrum of activities ranges from basic research to practical application development, with a focus on applied research, practical advice, advanced training and knowledge transfer.
In autumn 2008, the state government of North Rhine-Westphalia decided to found the Ruhr West University of Applied Sciences , which has its main location in Mülheim and a branch in Bottrop . In the winter semester of 2009, the first 250 students began their dual studies with an engineering focus at the Mülheim site - initially in makeshift interim buildings in the Siemens technology park . The new building for the college was built on the western side of the Ruhr in the Broich district . The campus was officially opened on June 6, 2016, and a large campus festival was held on June 11 to mark the occasion.
The city also has a wide range of general education schools. There are 29 primary schools, four special schools and four secondary schools and three secondary schools ( Realschule Broich , Realschule Stadtmitte and the Realschule on Mellinghofer Straße ). In addition, there are a total of eleven secondary schools , including five grammar schools ( Karl-Ziegler-Schule , Otto-Pankok-Schule , Luisenschule , Gymnasium Broich , Gymnasium Heißen ), three comprehensive schools , two vocational colleges (including the vocational college in the city center ) and the Waldorf school in Heißen . The adult education center offers over 770 advanced training courses, which are attended by almost 10,000 participants. In the city's music school, fifty full-time and part-time teachers teach almost 2,000 students early musical education and instrumental courses.
The large national newspapers Westdeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung and Neue Ruhr Zeitung report on regional events in Mülheim through their respective local editorial offices. From 1949 to 1955 there was the Mülheimer Tageblatt, which was published from 1955 under the title Ruhrnachrichten and discontinued in 1976. The Mülheimer Woche advertising paper , which only brings regional news, is distributed free of charge to all households on Thursdays and weekends.
The regional broadcaster Antenne Ruhr supplied the two cities Mülheim an der Ruhr and Oberhausen with entertainment and regional news since September 1st, 1990. On August 5, 2007 the station was split up and now broadcasts as Radio Mülheim and Radio Oberhausen .
Well-known sons and daughters of the city
Of the personalities who were born or worked here, various merchants and founding personalities deserve special mention. These include the globally active entrepreneurs and industrialists Johann Dinnendahl (* 1780), Mathias Stinnes (* 1790), Carl Nedelmann (* 1867), Hugo Stinnes (* 1870), Fritz Thyssen (* 1873) and Kurt Conle (* 1918). The later ADAV chairman Wilhelm Hasenclever (* 1837) , who lived in Mülheim and became politically active, should also be mentioned from this period .
Mülheim also produced an impressive number of personalities in the cultural and religious fields: the preacher, spiritual poet and songwriter Gerhard Tersteegen (* 1697), the doctor and writer Carl Arnold Kortum (* 1745), the writer and teacher Hermann Adam von Kamp ( * 1796), the composer August Bungert (* 1845), the painter and caricaturist Hermann Haber (* 1885), who was murdered in the Auschwitz concentration camp , the painter and sculptor Otto Pankok (* 1893) and the painter Werner Gilles (* 1894) , Hermann Prüßmann (* 1899), the author and painter Erwin Bowien (* 1899), Heinrich Siepmann (* 1904) and Daniel Traub (* 1909).
Well-known personalities of the recent past are the head of the " Central Office for Jewish Emigration in Amsterdam " Ferdinand from the Fünten (* 1909), who took part in the Holocaust, the art patron Udo van Meeteren (* 1926), the sculptor Ernst Rasche (1926– 2018), the artist Edith Polland-Dülfer (1931–2018), the show master Wim Thoelke (* 1927), the theater maker Roberto Ciulli (* 1934), the composer and church musician Wolfgang Hufschmidt (1934–2018), the jazz musician Helmut Schlitt ( * 1934), the artist Peter-Torsten Schulz (* 1944), the author and long-time NDR TV game director Doris J. Heinze (* 1949), the social democratic politicians Cornelia Rundt (* 1953) and Monika Griefahn (* 1954), the entertainer Helge Schneider (* 1955), the former North Rhine-Westphalian Prime Minister Hannelore Kraft (* 1961), the soccer players Hans-Günter Bruns (* 1954) and Willi Landgraf (* 1968), the soccer goalkeeper André Lenz (* 1973), the Cabaret artist René St einberg (* 1973), the hockey player Tina Bachmann (* 1978), Manuellsen (* 1979) musician and rapper, the pianist and composer Aris Alexander Blettenberg (* 1994) and the soccer player Marvin Schulz (* 1995).
The city of Mülheim an der Ruhr has made twelve people honorary citizens since 1880 . These are the Prussian field provost Peter Thielen (1880), the Mülheim Reichstag deputy Friedrich Hammacher (1888), the Reich Chancellor Otto von Bismarck (1895), the industrialist August Thyssen (1912), the Mülheim mayors Paul Lembke (1928) and Heinrich Thöne (1960), the district master craftsman Max Kölges (1962) and the chemist and Nobel Prize winner Karl Ziegler (1963). The honorary citizenships of Paul von Hindenburg (1933), Adolf Hitler (1933), Emil Kirdorf (1935) and Adolf Wirtz (1941) were revoked in 1995 by the city council of Mülheim. No honorary citizenship has been granted since 1963.
Old town ( church hill )
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