Table tennis

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Olympic Doubles Final in London (2012)

Table tennis is a ball sport that originated in England towards the end of the 19th century .

A matt green or matt blue table tennis table with net set , a matt white or matt orange table tennis ball made of plastic (formerly celluloid) with a prescribed diameter of 40 mm (+/-) and a table tennis racket with black red toppings needed. The racket is mostly held in the shakehand grip, but the penholder style is particularly common in Asia . Competitions are played in singles, doubles and mixed. A set ends as soon as a player has scored eleven points and is at least two points ahead. Each player has two serves in a row, after which the right to serve changes. A game is played with three winning sets ("Best-of-Five") in regular game play, while in large tournaments there are four winning sets ("Best of Seven").

The most important tournaments in addition to the Olympic Games and the one to biennial continental (e.g. European ) and World Championships are the World Cup , the World Tour Grand Finals and the World Cup qualification tournaments such as the European ranking tournament Europe-Top-16 . In terms of the time between two ball contacts, table tennis is the fastest setback sport in the world.


An early form of table tennis was first played in England in 1874 , when the British major Walter Clopton Wingfield made the sport game "Sphairistike" (Greek: "Let's play") on which table tennis is based, popular. Like many other sports, table tennis first appeared as social entertainment. The game developed from "normal" tennis and was mainly played outdoors by the English nobility . A rubber ball with a flannel coating or a ball made of cork was used . Soon they renamed the game in lawn tennis to (lawn tennis). Because of the notorious rainy weather in England, the game was finally moved to the apartment and tables were used as a tennis court. A string served as a “net”, badminton rackets, books or frying pans were used as rackets. As a result, the game was renamed again, it was now called room tennis and is considered to be the actual birth of table tennis. In 1875 the English engineer James Gibb published the first rules of the game.

Parker Bros. ping pong set

1891 brought James Gibb from a business trip from the United States colorful celluloid with balls. From now on, the term "ping pong", which appeared for the first time in 1878 because of the noise of the ball, replaced the term indoor tennis . Various manufacturers created other names such as Gossima , Whiff Whaff , Flim Flam and finally Table Tennis . In 1891 the businessman John Jacques de Croydon, a friend of Gibb, applied for a patent for the term “ping pong” at the English patent office . The name "ping pong", which is still colloquial in many countries today, was bought by the game manufacturer Parker Brothers in 1901 , registered as a trademark and has since no longer been freely used in competitions or in stores.

The first national championship took place in Hungary in 1897. Around 1899 a simplified version came to Japan and then to China , Korea and Hong Kong . In China, table tennis advanced under the official name of "Ping Pong Ball" to the undisputed national sport No. 1 with meanwhile over ten million active club players. In 1899 the 1st Berlin Tennis and Ping-Pong Society was founded, and in 1900 the first Ping-Pong Cafe opened on Viktoria-Luise-Platz in Berlin. In 1901 the first tournament on German soil took place in Hamburg-Uhlenhorst.

In 1900 the first table tennis club was founded in England. In 1901 the national ping pong association was founded in England . The association introduced a revolutionary innovation by inventing the modern serve, in which the ball must first land on its own half of the table tennis table. The reason for this change was that it was becoming more and more difficult for the referees to judge whether a service was regular or not. Due to the lack of naming rights to "ping pong", the association was dissolved again in 1904. In 1902, E. C. Goode invented a rubber flooring with pimples. Also in 1902, the English typewriter representative and enthusiastic table tennis player Edward Shires presented the game in Vienna and Budapest .

First international ping-pong tournament (1902)

The first international ping-pong tournament was held in Vienna in March 1902. It lasted three days and was - as the Viennese weekly newspaper Dasinteresting newspaper reports - particularly popular with women. Deviating from today's usual dimensions - 274 cm × 152.5 cm - smaller tables with a length of 184 cm and a width of 92 cm were used in this tournament. A net at a height of at least 15 centimeters to a maximum of 20 centimeters was to be stretched across the middle of the table. Side wings on the net were allowed, but they had to be attached to the outside of the net posts so that they elongated the net on both sides and thus prevented the ball from being hit around the net posts. According to the tournament regulations, the played table had to be free on all sides and no chandelier was allowed to hang over it , as this - as explained in the rules of the game - would otherwise run the risk of being hit by the ball. The men’s victory went to Edward Shires, while the women’s first prize was won by Grete Pietrzikowski.

Richard Bergmann (1950)
Jan-Ove Waldner (2012)

After the First World War , the fashionable pastime of ping-pong developed into a competitive sport of table tennis. The focus of the competition shifted to Central and Eastern Europe. Until the 1950s, table tennis was regarded as a “Jewish sport” in Europe and the USA, as Jewish officials and players had a significant influence on the development and spread of the competitive table tennis sport. The German-Jewish sports functionary Georg Lehmann was a co-founder and first president of the German Table Tennis Association (DTTB) from 1925 to 1929 . Lehmann was also the initiator of the International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF) founded in Berlin in 1926 . The first president of the ITTF from 1926 to 1967 was the British-Jewish top player and functionary Ivor Montagu , who in 1927 also founded the English Table Tennis Association (ETTA).

The first table tennis world champion was the Hungarian-Jewish player Roland Jacobi in 1926 , who, together with the Hungarian-Jewish world champion Zoltán Mechlovits (1928), played a decisive role in the founding process of the ITTF. Who is still known today as "Mr. Tabletennis ”, the revered Hungarian-Jewish Victor Barna became individual world champion in 1930, 1932, 1933, 1934 and 1935 and won a total of 23 world titles in singles, doubles and mixed between 1929 and 1954. The Jewish player Richard Bergmann , who initially played for Austria and later for England, won the men's singles world championship in 1937, 1939, 1948 and 1950. The Hungarian Jew Miklós Szabados was six times world champion in doubles with Victor Barna between 1929 and 1935. Also outstanding world-class players of Jewish origin were the three-time vice world champion Aloizy Ehrlich , László Bellák , Erwin Kohn , Tibor Házi , Paul Flußmann , István Kelen and the American table tennis legend Marty Reisman . Among the women, too, table tennis players of Jewish origin dominated, such as the individual world champions Anna Sipos (1932, 1933) and Ruth Aarons (1936, 1937) as well as the eight-time vice world champion Magda Gál . The Romanian-Jewish player Angelica Adelstein-Rozeanu was world champion in women's singles six times in a row between 1950 and 1955 and is still the most successful table tennis player of all time with a total of 17 world championship titles.

Probably because of the expected defeats of German against Jewish players, the German men were not allowed to take part in the table tennis World Cup in 1934 . It was feared that the “superior Nordic race” could embarrass itself against “inferior peoples”. Also in 1935 the men's team did not participate in protest against Ireland , Northern Ireland and Wales competing with their own teams. It was not until 1936 that a men's team was sent again to advertise the upcoming Summer Olympics in Berlin .

From 1952, Japanese players became leaders for a few years. They developed the penholder grip, in which the bat is held between the index finger and thumb. In addition, the Japanese covered their clubs with thick foam mats, which made the game much faster, and invented topspin based on this. In the early 1960s, Erich Arndt was the first German player to master topspin. From 1959 onwards, domination in Asia shifted from Japan to China, which has since been the dominant table tennis nation internationally. With a few exceptions ( Stellan Bengtsson 1971, István Jónyer 1975, Jan-Ove Waldner 1989, 1997, Jörgen Persson 1991, Jean-Philippe Gatien 1993, Werner Schlager 2003) all world champions in men's singles have come from Asia since 1954 . In women's singles since 1956, all women world champions have come from the Asian countries of China, Japan, North or South Korea without exception.

Timo Boll in action (2010)

The two-time individual world champion Jan-Ove Waldner from Sweden is referred to as the “Mozart of table tennis” and is considered by many to be the best player table tennis has ever produced. Waldner is an Olympic champion, six-time world champion, eleven-time European champion, seven-time Top 12 winner and two-time World Cup winner. The most successful German single table tennis player to date is Timo Boll . The multiple European champion and World Cup winner Boll temporarily led the men's world rankings in 2003 and 2011. In March 2018, Boll was able to take this position again when he replaced the second most successful German table tennis player, Dimitrij Ovtcharov, as No. 1 in the world rankings. At the table tennis world championship in Dortmund in 1989 , Jörg Roßkopf and Steffen Fetzner became world champions in men's doubles and are thus the only German men to date who have been able to achieve a world championship title in table tennis. In the women's field, multiple world champion Ding Ning is currently the world's best player. The most successful German players are the record national player and multiple European championship winner Nicole Struse , as well as Olga Nemes and Wu "Dudu" Jiaduo, who originally came from China . The only German world champions are Erika Metzger and Mona Rüster , who won the gold medal in women's doubles in 1929.


DTTB (1925)
Berlin (1930)
TT World Championship in Ljubljana (1965)
Netherlands versus China (1977)
Ma Lin (2013)
  • 1921 Foundation of the Table Tennis Association in England
  • 1925 Foundation of the German Table Tennis Association (DTTB) in Berlin
  • 1925 First official German championships in men's and women's singles in Berlin
  • 1926 Foundation of the Austrian Table Tennis Association (ÖTTV)
  • 1926 Foundation of the International Table Tennis Federation ITTF in Berlin
  • 1926 First World Championship in London . Roland Jacobi and Zoltán Mechlovits qualified for the final . Jacobi played in long trousers and a white shirt - he was persuaded to at least take off the bow tie - and was the first table tennis world champion after the 3-0 victory.
  • 1927 Renaming of the English table tennis association to the English Table Tennis Association (ETTA)
  • 1930 The American Ping Pong Association only permitted members to use Parker Brothers' game material . That is why two other associations were formed in the USA in 1933: US Amateur Table Tennis Association and The National Table Tennis Association. In 1935 the three associations first merged to form the US Table Tennis Association, which was renamed USA Table Tennis in 1994.
  • 1933 The Kiel TTK Grün-Weiß became the first German men's team champion
  • 1949 After the Second World War, on 29./30. July the DTTB was re-established in Bad Homburg.
  • 1950 The German table tennis federation DTTB and the table tennis federation of the GDR each applied for membership in the international table tennis federation International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF). The ITTF rejected this and called for the two associations to act together. As a result, the Working Committee for German Table Tennis was founded on June 8th . In 1951 he successfully applied for the admission of "all of Germany" to the ITTF. At the world championship in Vienna in March 1951, Germans took part for the first time after the war. In the following years all-German championships were held: 1951 at the Berlin radio tower , 1952 in East Berlin (German sports hall), 1953 in Herford . In 1957 an all-German team appeared again at the World Cup in Stockholm ; Heinz Schneider (Thuringia) was third in the individual.
  • 1951 On March 11th, the DTTB was reassigned to the world association ITTF .
  • 1957 Foundation of the European Table Tennis Union (ETTU) based in Wasserbillig in Luxembourg
  • 1958 On August 2, 1958, the DTTB and the table tennis association of the GDR became separate "provisional members" of the ITTF. When the DTTB was commissioned to host the European Championships in 1962 in 1960 , it set West Berlin as the venue . The GDR protested against this, and all Eastern European countries announced a boycott of the event. In fact, there was a boycott in 1962 on the grounds that West Berlin did not belong to the Federal Republic. Only Yugoslavia did not participate in the boycott. In November 1964, the European Championships in Malmö ( Sweden ) caused the next scandal because the DTTB selection carried the sign “Väst-Tyskland” and the East German team the sign “GDR” at the opening event. In 1965 attempts were made to improve relations again on the part of the Federal Republic: The DSB subsidized east-west sports traffic. Nevertheless, table tennis lost its importance in the GDR, especially after the competitive sport resolution in April 1969, according to which table tennis was no longer one of the sports worth promoting. In 1972, the GDR still took part in the European championships, but then stayed away from all European and world championships. Participation in competitions in which non-socialist countries were represented was prohibited.
  • 1958 First European championship
  • 1964 The former world class player Aloizy Ehrlich introduces the first table tennis robot he developed during the European Championships in Malmö .
  • 1966/67 Introduction of the table tennis Bundesliga for men
  • 1972/73 Introduction of the table tennis Bundesliga for women
  • In 1988 table tennis celebrated its premiere as an Olympic sport at the Summer Olympics in Seoul
  • 2000 The General Assembly of the ITTF decides to enlarge the table tennis ball from 38mm to 40mm in diameter
  • 2001 The General Assembly of the ITTF resolves a revolutionary change in the counting method at the World Cup in Osaka with 104: 7 votes in order to make the game more exciting and thus to achieve a greater media presence for the sport of table tennis. If sets have been played up to a score of 21: x, a set ends since September 1, 2001 (beginning of the 2001/2002 season) at a score of 11: x. Instead of the previous five, each player only has two serves in a row. A game goes in regular point game operation with three winning sets ("best-of-five") or four winning sets ("best-of-seven") in large tournaments such as the World Cup or European Championship.
  • 2002 On July 1st, 2002, a new surcharge rule comes into effect following a decision by the ITTF. Core content: It is forbidden to cover the ball with your body, arm, shoulder or clothing.

Basic equipment


The racket is available in many different designs. The playing surface is mostly oval and consists in the middle of multiple glued wood. There are also variants with carbon, kevlar or fiberglass veneers. There are different racket versions for the shakehand preferred by Europeans - and the penholder racket position preferred by Asian players . The shakehand bats are available in four common handle shapes: straight, concave, anatomical and conical. The penholder clubs are manufactured in two versions - for the Japanese and the Chinese penholder style.

Each club must have different colors on the front and back of the club face; bright red and black are required so that the opponent notices the turning of the club and can react accordingly to different surfaces. If both sides are to be used for striking, there must also be an ITTF approved surface on both sides. If a player only uses one side of the club (especially with the classic penholder), only this side must be provided with an approved surface (red or black). However, the other side must then be in the other color. Rubbers usually have a sponge under the rubber surface, which has a significant impact on the way the ball flies. There are different types of rubbers: backside, short pimples outside, anti-topspin, long pimples and pimple rubber even without a sponge pad. A competitive player's racket costs between € 120 and € 300.


Dimensions of a table tennis table

A competition-grade table is 2.74 m (9 ft ) long and 1.525 m (5 ft) wide. The playing surface can be made of any material. The surface must be exactly 76 cm above the floor. The table is divided into two equal halves of 1.37 m × 1.525 m (4.5 ft × 5 ft) with a net. A table tennis ball, which is dropped from a height of 30 cm, has to jump 22 to 25 cm high on it. Each half is divided lengthways into two halves by a 3 mm wide line (center line) . There are also 20 mm wide white lines along the edges of the table: the base line (parallel to the net) and the side lines (at right angles to the net). The surface of the table must not reflect and must be dark. Usually dark green and blue tables with a playing surface made of wood are used.

A table must comply with DIN EN 14468 (until 2005 DIN 7898). Since July 1995, manufacturers have had to apply for approval from the German Table Tennis Association (DTTB).


The net set consists of "the net, its suspension and the posts including the clamps with which they are attached to the table" ( ITTR B 2.1 ). The 15.25 cm (6  in ) high net is stretched in the middle of the table and attached to the table on the right and left with a clamp each. For the mains voltage, it is specified that the net may sink a maximum of 10 mm if it is loaded in the middle with 100 g.


Scope at the German Open in Magdeburg (2014)

The space that has to be available for each table is called leeway. According to the rules of the world association ITTF Section B 2.3, the international scope is 14 m long, 7 m wide and 5 m high. At federal events (German championships, Bundesliga, etc.) it is 12 m long, 6 m wide and 4 m high. The respective association can specify different dimensions for lower classes.

For example, in the West German Table Tennis Association there is a rule that championship games only need 10 m in length and 5 m in width. In addition, the respective sports committee / relay manager of the respective district, district, etc. can also issue a special permit before the season if the minimum dimensions cannot be adhered to for structural reasons.


3-star balls made of celluloid, diameter 40 mm

Until December 31, 2017, the ball was made of celluloid or similar plastic material, is hollow and has a diameter of 40 mm. A weight of 2.7 grams is prescribed, with a tolerance of 2.67 g to 2.77 g being permissible. Since January 1, 2018, only plastic balls have been produced worldwide due to the flammability of celluloid. It is available in different qualities, which were originally differentiated from each other by the number of stars printed on it. This division into balls with one, two or three stars is almost irrelevant in club operations today. The best quality with the smallest deviations from the norm in weight, hardness and rounding receives three stars. Since the decision of the DTTB to only allow this best quality for competition operations, there is no longer a market for balls in the 1 or 2 star categories - except in the hobby area. The rest of the production - including the balls that used to be marked with 1 or 2 stars due to only minor deviations - has since been often assigned to training balls. Balls in the colors matt white and matt orange are approved for play. When training - especially when using ball buckets or training robots - the cheaper training balls are often used, because here the ball consumption is extremely high due to wear and tear in the machine and trampling. Multi-colored balls are also used in beginner training.

Basic rules

In the individual competition, two players compete against each other and in the double competition, four.


Timo Boll on serve

The following basic rules apply to the surcharge:

  • At the beginning, the ball must lie freely on the open palm of the server.
  • The server then throws the ball almost vertically at least 16 cm high.
  • The server must hit the falling ball in such a way that it first hits its own half of the table, then jumps over the net onto the opponent's half of the table and hits it once (or touches the edge of the table there).
  • The ball must be visible to the opponent at all times during the service phase. The service must also be executed in such a way that the referee or the assistant referee can judge the correct execution from his position.

If a correctly executed service touches the net set, this is not considered an error, but the service is repeated. If the ball touches the net and falls back into the server's playing field, this is a mistake and the opponent receives a point. In contrast to tennis , there is no second attempt if the ball does not make it into half of the opponent. If the server throws the ball up but then misses it with the racket or catches it again, it is also counted as a fault.

In an individual competition, 3 or 4 winning sets are played out, depending on the division or league. This means that the first player to win 3 or 4 sets has also won his game. A set goes on until one of the players has scored 11 points. However, the set has to be won by 2 points, so it goes with a score of 10:10 to 12 and so on. After each set, the players change the side they are playing from. Should the last possible set (with 3 winning sets the 5th, with 4 winning sets the 7th) have to be played, the sides are switched again when one of the players has scored 5 points.

The right to serve changes after two points. If a set has to be extended when the score is 10:10, the players serve alternately after each point. The right to serve is drawn before the first set. At the beginning of the following sets, the player who was the first to return in the set before is the server.


After serving, the ball must always be hit directly over or around the net set so that it hits the opponent's half of the table or touches the edge (surface of the table - not from the side) there. The opponent lets the ball bounce once and then plays it back over or around the net set to the other side.

A rally is over as soon as a player makes a mistake. The following applies as an error:

  • Flying ball : stopping the ball, i.e. touching it over your own half of the table or, if it is flying in that direction, with the racket, clothing or body before the ball has touched the table (after a net serve, however, the service is repeated recognized).
  • let the ball land more than once on your own half of the table when serving,
  • cover part or all of the ball with a part of the body when serving (from the point of view of the opposing player),
  • deliberately (not in one stroke) touching the ball with your own stick more than once,
  • touch the table with your free hand during the rally (the free hand is the hand that is not holding the bat),
  • touch the net with any part of the body,
  • move the table,
  • do not return the ball directly to the opposing half of the table, but rather
    • meet your own table half beforehand,
    • hit next to, over the table or in another direction or
    • touched something else beforehand (e.g. the hall ceiling)
    • don't even touch the ball.

If a player makes a mistake, then one point is awarded to the opponent. In addition, a rally is ended if the referee interrupts the game or, in the case of the exchange method, also called time play (see below), the rally is not ended in time.


Referee with scoring board

A set ends when a player has eleven winning points and is at least two points ahead, for example 11: 4, 11: 9, 12:10, 13:11. If the score is 10:10, the set is extended. The right to serve changes after each point. The extension ends when a player has gained two points ahead.

Until 2001 a set went to 21, and the right to serve changed after every 5 points.


A game consists of several sets. In regional or supraregional team fights, three winning sets are usually required for victory. A game then ends after a maximum of five sets (3: 2) (“ best-of-five ”). In particularly important competitions such as national championships or European or world championships, however, four sets ("best-of-seven") are played. After each sentence the sides are switched at the table. In the decisive last set, i.e. with a score of 2: 2 (or 3: 3 with four winning sets), the sides are switched when the first player has reached five points.

Time game

The alternation method (also known colloquially as the time game) starts when a set has not yet ended after ten minutes and at least 18 points have not been played in this set. With the change method, the right to serve changes after each point. The winning point is awarded in the same way as in normal play, with one exception: if the server's opponent has successfully returned the ball 13 times, he receives the point. This means that during a rally the ball is thrown back and forth a maximum of 13 times. If there are still more movements to be played, these are also carried out using the alternation method. The ten minutes represent the pure playing time. In the event of interruptions - for example due to injury, material damage, "towel breaks", time-outs or if the ball leaves the game box, etc. - the clock must be stopped.

If both players agree, they can continue a game as an alternation method even if the net playing time of ten minutes has not yet been reached. You can even start the game immediately as a game under the conditions of the switch method, only this may no longer be introduced if 18 points have been reached.

When the exchange method begins, the second referee in the box takes over the task of the stroke counter (if the game was led by only one referee, a stroke counter is provided to him). He counts loudly and clearly the successful hits of the receiver. If he has successfully returned the ball thirteen times, the rally is interrupted and he receives the point.

The switching method was introduced to limit the duration of a game. In particular, if two players play very carefully or passively, it can happen that the introduction of the switching method is achieved. At the table tennis world championship in 1936 in the game between Alex Ehrlich and Farkas Paneth the first rally was only decided after 130 minutes. ( Detailed description of this match in the article Aloizy Ehrlich ) In the same tournament, a coin toss had decided the game between Vasile Goldberger-Marin and Michel Haguenauer , because both were completely exhausted after seven and a half hours - at this point it was 5: 3 in the fifth set. As a result, the time game was introduced in 1937 - the duration of a set was limited to half an hour. The rule was later changed so that a set ends after 20 minutes and the player in the lead wins the set. In the event of a tie, the next point decided. In 1961 the European table tennis association ETTU and the DTTB sports committee set the maximum playing time of a set at 15 minutes. Then the change method started. This regulation came into force on October 1, 1961.

Doubles / mixed

In doubles, two players each play against each other. The same basic rules apply as for the individual with the following special features. It can be played as men's doubles, women's doubles and mixed (one female and one male person together on a team). The ball must be served diagonally to the left, i.e. from the right side of the table of the server to the right side of the table of the receiver. In a rally , unlike in tennis , the players have to take turns playing the ball.


A and B play against X and Y. Then a correct rally would be A, X, B, Y, A, X, B, Y. After two serves, the right to serve changes to the other team. However, the order of the players during a correct rally remains the same throughout the set; H. X always plays to B, regardless of whether it is serving or during the rally. This also results in the returning side swapping positions when changing the right to serve. In the second set the line-up would have to be changed so that Y, B, X, A, Y, B, X, A (or X, A, Y, B, ... - the serving team can change the server at the beginning of each set determine) would be a correct rally. The line-up changes after each set and again in the fifth set after the change of side.

In doubles, a rally ends for the same reasons as in singles, but also if a player plays the ball twice in a row. An exception to the rule that the players in a doubles must take turns playing the ball applies to teams of two wheelchair users. After the first return in the rally, they are allowed to return any balls that they reach. However, no part of the wheelchair may protrude beyond the imaginary extension of the center line of the table. In Germany, this exception rule also applies to double pairs of a wheelchair user and a standing player.

Playing techniques

Werner Schlager (2006)

There are several ways to try to earn profit points. In principle you can play offensively, all-round or defensively. An offensive game designed for security and placement is called an all-round game. Today we are mostly dealing with offensive players: You try to mislead your opponent with offensive, forward rotation strokes (spin: topspin, sidespin ...) and shots. If he is also offensive, he tries to respond by blocking close to the table (such as Wilfried Lieck and Olga Nemes ) with counterspin or shots. Due to the two-color rule for racket coverings introduced in 1986, pure defenders can hardly be found in the higher divisions, as the attacking players can estimate the spin even before the defensive player's kickback using the color of the covering and can immediately play a hard hit. Before the change, the attackers had to prepare with a slow topspin, which gives the defender time to react to the stroke. Legendary representatives of this style of play were Eberhard Schöler , Engelbert Hüging and John Hilton . Eberhard Schöler even managed to penetrate the top attackers in the world, and in 1969 he only just missed the world championship title. Hüging and Hilton, who operate with the newly developed antitopspin and long pimple rubbers, were only able to achieve local successes (German and European champions), as the two-color rule and the ever faster rubbers only succeeded in an offensive game aimed at directly gaining points. Before and after Schöler's success, only aggressive offensive players dominated with one exception. At the 2003 World Championships in France , the Korean Joo Se-hyuk played his way through a tactical mix of mostly aggressive attacking but also quite effective defense up to the final , where he lost to the Austrian Werner Schlager . Joo Se-Hyuk and the naturalized Austrian Chen Weixing play a modern defense game in which the defense is only played tactically and every opportunity for topspin and final hit is used.


Describes the rotation of the ball around its own axis. A distinction is usually made between undercut, overcut, side cut, the rotation around the flight axis, and their combinations of side undercut or side overcut.


Four phases of topspin:
1. Ball rises
2. Ball falls
3. Ball bounces flat and with a twist
4. Ball is blocked

The topspin is one of the most important attack strokes in table tennis. The ball is touched with an extremely fast upward movement - almost without any advance. The resulting forward rotation creates a trajectory that is curved downwards and makes the ball bounce flatter than normal when it hits. Since the trajectory due to the curvature is shorter at the same speed than with an "uncut" hit, the ball can be hit at a higher forward speed without the ball falling behind the opposing rear edge of the table. A ball hit with topspin also bounces off the opponent's racket sharply upwards - so it can only be blocked with the racket leaning forward strongly, or played back far behind the table either with an undercut or with a short upward movement with the club face closed.

An "early top spin ball" is also possible; in contrast to conventional topspin, the ball is not hit in the descending phase, but at the highest point with a slight or maximum possible advance. The ball then gets a higher spin and more speed, but can only be played on light or high undercut balls. The angle of the club when the ball hits it also plays a decisive role here.


During the undercut, the ball is touched with an extremely fast downward movement and little forward movement, giving it a backward rotation which, depending on the intensity, provides a more or less strong lift, which extends the flight path. The forward speed is slow and is further reduced by the backward rotation when hitting the table. This stroke can be used to return a spin ball, thereby slowing down the game or avoiding fast attack balls, either by placing the ball flat or by strong rotation that causes the ball to bounce off the opponent's racket and down Makes slamming balls or the so-called "shot" impossible, since the ball only needs to be played with little feed and maximum topspin.

Cut defense

The player, standing more or less far behind the edge of the table, makes a movement corresponding to the undercut ball. In contrast to the conventional undercut ball, however, the ball is accepted very deeply, sometimes just before it touches the ground. This allows the ball to be given maximum undercut without the buoyancy generated thereby carrying it beyond the opposing half of the table. It is also important to keep the club open to a greater or lesser extent, which most effectively converts the speed and spin of the incoming topspin (ball) into an undercut. Long pimple rubbers are best suited for this type of game.


A variant of topspin with a side cut. The ball is touched with a tangential club movement - with a more or less horizontal component. This gives the ball a more or less sideways rotation. This ball is mainly used as an emergency or serve, since in modern table tennis there is no reaction time for such balls. Some players, however, who have acquired a lot of feel and control through a lot of experience and training, use the sidespin when defending balloons, so that it then, often surprising for the opponent, jumps to the side or deflects the trajectory of the shot next to the table. With a lot of practice, the stroke speed can also be adjusted to that of topspin, which significantly increases the spin. So it serves as an unexpected top spin return.

The transitions between topspin and sidespin are fluid, however, as every shift of the axis of rotation from vertical to horizontal results in a mixture of topspin and sidespin. You can even provide the push ball with a side spin, which, due to the low speed of the ball, results in a strongly curved trajectory and difficulties in receiving the ball.


When shooting, the ball is hit at the highest point (or in the ascending part just before the highest point) of the trajectory on the opposing side of the table. By hitting the ball frontally, spin is largely avoided and a very elongated, almost straight flight path is created. The spin of the incoming ball, which leads to angular deviations due to rotation, is compensated for by opening the racket (for undercut balls) or closing the racket (for topspins). Both techniques naturally produce a small proportion of spin - its influence on the flight path is negligibly small anyway at the high speed. Due to the stretched trajectory, only balls can be "shot" which at some point in their trajectory reach a point above the net level. Theoretically, balls can also be "shot" in the falling part of the trajectory if the ball is still high enough at the point of impact. In practice this turns out to be rather difficult. The shot from the falling part of the trajectory is also used more often against balls from a balloon defense. The early hit of the ball - combined with the high speed of the shot increases the (time) pressure on the opponent.

Balloon defense

The player stands far behind the table and plays the ball back extremely high with topspin or variable sidespin. As a rule, this is how the player tries to fend off repeated hard topspins or shots. This technique is often used by attacking players with very fast rubbers, which make the backspin defense ineffective when pushed away from the table. Although the ball flies in very high, it is difficult to play aggressively against balls from the balloon defense, because the ball is difficult to hit because of the not slow speed of fall and the vertical trajectory and difficult to control because of the topspin. An additional complication is that the ball bounces off much flatter than it arrives.


Opportunity to fend off a topspin: The player stands close to the table and tries to let the ball bounce against the strongly closed racket without moving it significantly; this causes the ball to slow down and reverse its spin. He uses the long topspin movement of the opponent to get the point by placing the ball well. As a variant, there is the aggressive block, also known as counterball, in which the racket is not held passively, but - in order to put the opponent under pressure - a short pushing movement is made forward.


Straight, low-spin ball at medium to high speed. Used by European players almost exclusively for importing. For the Asian penholder players of earlier years as well as Milan Orlowski, who only operated close to the table with non-slip pimple-outside rubbers, it was the preferred means of play design, as the rallies can be performed extremely quickly and quickly. In the world rankings has, however, now prevailed also among the Penholdern the topspin play as decisive stroke technique, since by material advancement of the blades and rubbers and gluing table close to block and counter balls have become almost impossible. However, speed glueing before the start of the game and during a game is no longer permitted according to the rules of the ITTF since September 2008.


The flip is a ball that is played over the table with a tilting motion from the wrist. The classic flip takes place just behind the net, while a player returns a briefly placed ball by playing the ball with a corresponding wrist movement on the opposing half of the table. A basic distinction is made between the forehand flip and the backhand flip. The flip is played on under- or side-cut balls that are too short or too flat for topspin or shot. The flip is particularly used for aggressive setbacks. It mainly uses the rotation of the serve for a quick and well-placed return, which is to prevent a topspin attack by the opponent and is the most technically demanding stroke in table tennis. While this stroke was rarely used in the past, today it is of central importance, especially in top table tennis. Modern types of players use the backhand flip for almost every return and also play it when their forehand side has been served.


Undercut ball played over the table. In higher classes it is almost only used as a safe return on difficult serves or strong undercut balls. Even modern defenders strive (at least when serving) to be the first to “attract” (switch to topspin play) in order to take the initiative away from the opponent.

Training games

Imperial game

The Kaiserspiel is a popular form of training in table tennis.

Any number (at least four) players play against each other. The games are played simultaneously on different tables set up side by side. At the beginning, an emperor table and a beggar table (sometimes also a loser table ) are determined, both of which must be at the ends of the row of tables. The participating players then split up in pairs on the available tables. If the number of players is more than twice the number of tables, some players sit out initially. Then the tables are played on points. When a previously agreed goal has been achieved (for example: a set has ended at a table or a certain time unit has ended) the player who determines this or the trainer calls "stop" and all games are ended with the current score, except those that are tied at the time. These games continue to be played until a winner is determined. The respective winner at the table moves one table further towards the Kaiser table, the respective loser one table towards the beggar table. The winner of the emperor table remains at his table and is the new emperor, the loser of the beggar table may sit out to allow one of the previously missing players to enter the game. Then the games start again. This process is repeated until the available time has expired.

Especially in youth training, the Kaiserspiel is often used to use the punching techniques practiced in the previous training unit in a manner similar to a competition. This can be done, for example, in such a way that the player descending from the Kaiser table may only play forehand topspin and the player ascending from the beggar table may only answer with a block ball (of course, all other combinations are also possible).

In addition, the Kaiserspiel is suitable for getting away from rigid and (mentally) strenuous training and using fun game variants ( penholder , ping-pong, playing with the other hand, playing without a bat, 'Headi' game, etc.) some fun and To let distraction come.

The advantage (in some situations also the disadvantage) of the Kaiserspiel is that after a while the players play against each other with approximately the same skill level. If the coach wants to compensate for the disadvantage and ensure that the stronger players play more often against the weaker ones, he can simply change direction at a certain point and declare the imperial table to be the beggar's table. The stronger players then have to fight their way back to the imperial table.

Half-table game

As an emergency solution (too many players / too few tables), the game at half the table has a concentration and precision-enhancing effect. Four players are playing at a table with two balls. Each player only has one half of the table available. The game can be played in parallel or diagonally. Ball collisions occur more often with the diagonal variant. The players learn

  • to place the ball accurately and
  • Not to be distracted by ambient noise or peripheral movements (audience / table next to you).


  • Topspin game
  • Balloon game
  • Service King
  • Partner board
  • marathon
  • Power game
  • 7-point transfer game
  • two-handed table tennis
  • Black and white game

Exercise equipment

The so-called "ball robot" is a widely used training device. The machine places table tennis balls at different points on the training player at certain intervals, speeds and with various cut variants. The use of a robot as a means of perfecting the strokes and for endurance training is almost unproblematic. Table tennis training equipment is used to support learning the basic strokes for competitive table tennis or to improve stroke reliability and endurance. Depending on the basic type of stroke, such as topspin, push ball, serve, appropriate training equipment is used in club training.

Number of active players by country

country Number of licensed players
China People's RepublicPeople's Republic of China People's Republic of China 10,000,000
RussiaRussia Russia (former USSR ) 3,000,000
GermanyGermany Germany 670,000
IndonesiaIndonesia Indonesia 385,000
JapanJapan Japan 300,000
United KingdomUnited Kingdom United Kingdom 220,000
FranceFrance France 191 202

Game operations and associations

Table tennis is played both as a hobby at home in the garden, garage or cellar and organized nationally and internationally within clubs . The way of playing of hobby players differs in the speed and - also due to the different club material - in the technique clearly from the way of playing of competitive players.


The German Table Tennis Association has almost 10,000 clubs with around 670,000 members. Women’s and men’s singles, women’s and men’s doubles and mixed doubles are played. In the 2009/2010 season, 49,255 teams took part in the game.

National team competitions
Clubs of the men's table tennis Bundesliga in the 2017/2018 season

National team competitions are organized in different leagues within which one can move up or down. The division and evaluation in the lower classes is the responsibility of the responsible national association, so that due to the different number of players and playing strengths, not all league names of all associations can be compared with one another.

In league operations, point games take place according to a certain system. In most divisions, men's teams consist of six players who compete against each other in the so-called pair cross system . It is played first in three doubles, then in six to twelve singles, until a team has nine wins and thus nine points. If neither team has reached nine points after these 15 games at most, a double decision decides whether to win or draw. Slightly modified systematics sometimes apply in women's and youth operations, in the highest divisions and in cup games.

The following game classes exist in Germany:

  • 1. Bundesliga - single track (men and women); The men's table tennis Bundesliga with the series champion Borussia Düsseldorf and traditional clubs such as the TTC Zugbrücke Grenzau is one of the strongest leagues in Europe, primarily because of the guest players and the highest number of world top 100 players. In the women's category, ttc berlin eastside has been the German champion without interruption since 2014 and has also been champion of the ETTU Champions League three times since 2014 .
  • 2nd Bundesliga - single track (men and women)
  • 3rd Bundesliga - two-pronged (men and women)
  • Regional league - four parts (men and women)
  • Oberliga - 9 leagues (men and women)

The sub-league divisions are very different from regional association to regional association, both in terms of their classification and naming, but are mostly divided into play classes at association, district and district level. A new structure will be introduced at the start of the 2014/15 season (from July 1, 2014). The 2nd national leagues will be single-track. Two single-track 3rd leagues (north and south) are created below this.

Individual championships

Individual championships are organized at the respective association levels: district championship, district championship, state championship and, finally, the German championship .

There are also ranked tournaments and cup games, also on the respective levels. Furthermore, there are usually large numbers of general tournaments divided into game classes. The tournaments are carried out according to a system specified in the competition regulations .


The game operation is subject to the Austrian table tennis association ÖTTV .

Common game systems are:

  • 3 against 3 singles + 1 doubles (Swaythling Cup system with doubles) with termination in the event of a win after 7 games at the earliest (results 7: 0, 6: 1, 6: 2, 6: 3, 6: 4, 5: 5)
  • 4 against 4 singles with termination after the 9th win (results 9: 0,… 9: 7, 8: 8)
  • 2 against 2 singles + 1 doubles (Corbillon Cup system) with termination after the 3rd win - is often used in central championships.
  • In some classes a junior player and / or an Austrian is required.
  • The use of young people in men's teams is not subject to any restrictions, that of women only to a few restrictions.

Women's, senior, and youth team competitions are often held as central championships. All teams play several rounds against each other at the same time in one place, so that the entire championship is handled in a few dates.

There are the following men's divisions in Austria:

  • 1. Bundesliga (former State League A)
  • 2nd Bundesliga (former State League B)

After that, the other game classes are regulated differently in each federal state.

In Lower Austria there are:

  • DONIC League (= regional league)
  • 2nd national league (2 ×)
  • Oberliga (4 × regional)
  • Lower league (7 × regional)
  • including classes in each region as required (currently 2 to 7)


The table tennis association at European level is the European Table Tennis Union ( European Table Tennis Union ETTU). The ITTF Congress (“Annual General Meeting”) held by the International Table Tennis Federation is responsible for the rules . This body usually meets at the table tennis world championships and advises on rule changes.



The ranking list for German table tennis players has been published by the German Table Tennis Association (DTTB) since 1930. Until the mid-1980s, it was drawn up manually by an evaluation committee. Since 1985 the DTTB has been using a computer program in the men's area to determine the ranking positions. The computer program goes back to Albert Hill, the specifications come from the DTTB. After Hill's death, Christian Franzel continued to develop the program in 1990. Since the system has already been used by the table tennis company JOOLA , the ranking list is officially named JOOLA Computer Ranking List.

If they are successful in the following official competitions, players can earn ranking points:

  • national individual championships
  • national team championships
  • national ranking tournaments

When determining the points, the expected performance of a player is taken into account, which depends on the strength of the opponent. The playing strength of German opponents is read from the JOOLA computer ranking list. A win against a much weaker opponent is not counted. International results are also not taken into account. If at least 15 game results are available, five of which are rated, then the ranking position can be calculated. Otherwise the player will not be included in the ranking.

This can lead to surprising effects. In 1999 Qianhong Gotsch had to compete almost exclusively against significantly weaker opponents in the 2nd Bundesliga, which is why these matches were not counted. Therefore, too few evaluated results were available. As a result, Qianhong Gotsch, who was one of the best German players at the time, was not included in the ranking. Also Timo Boll in 2009 fell from the rankings because fewer than five games could be counted. Boll had played against much weaker opponents too often.

At the end of the months of September to May - i.e. during the table tennis season - a new ranking list is created, which evaluates the results of the last four evaluation months. For example, the October ranking includes the months of April, May, September and October. The June ranking is the DTTB's annual ranking.

Since 2011, the results of all German athletes who are active in an association that uses the Click-TT results program have been evaluated. A TTR value (TTR = table tennis rating) is determined daily for each active person . The ranking list is derived from these TTR values.

All-German rankings after the Second World War

After the Second World War, the all-German ranking was drawn up annually by the German Table Tennis Sports Working Committee , to which representatives of the DTTB and the table tennis section of the GDR belonged. In 2005 a ranking list for seniors was published for the first time. This is updated three times a year.


First, the ETTU created the European rankings according to a system that was criticized as not being transparent. At the end of the 1980s, Zlatko Čordaš designed the so-called Corda system. After that, the placement of each player in official international tournaments was rated with a fixed number of points. The ranking was based on the total of points. In this way, the resulting ranking was comprehensible. The European ranking was later derived from the ITTF world ranking by leaving out the non-European players.

Successes of German players and teams

useful information

Record rallies and games

  • In 2018 Dominik Rautert (Germany) from TTV Preußen completed 47 Lünen, 1,249 official competition games. The world record was recognized by the RID (Record Institute Germany). He achieved this number of games through the tournament series “andro-WTTV-cup”. In this series he played a straight 200 tournaments.
  • At the World Championships in Prague in 1936Alex” Aloizy Ehrlich (Poland) and Farkas Paneth (Romania) “fought” for a single point for 2 hours and 12 minutes ( detailed description of this match in the article Aloizy Ehrlich ). In the same tournament, the match between Michel Haguenauer (France) and Vasile Goldberger-Marin (Romania) was canceled by the tournament management after 7.5 hours when the score was 5: 3 in the 5th set.
  • The longest team game was played in Prague in 1936 . The final of the Swaythling Cup between Austria and Romania started on Sunday, March 15th (11 a.m.) and ended on the following Wednesday. In the end, Austria won.
  • The longest rally in the Guinness Book of Records is an 8-hour, 30-minute and 6-second back and forth between the Americans Max Fergus and Luke Logan, which took place on August 26, 2013 at the Sports Enhancement Academy in Stoughton (Wisconsin ) took place. Also in Stoughton, this record of 8 hours, 40 minutes and 10 seconds was beaten by Daniel Ives and his father Peter by more than 10 minutes, but there is still no entry in the Guinness book.
  • An even longer rally of 8 hours and 34 minutes and 29 seconds did not make it into the Guinness Book of Records. This was achieved on August 31, 2009 in Japan by the players Kōji Matsushita and Hiroshi Kamura-Kittenberger.
  • Alan Cooke and Desmond Douglas (both GB) made 170 ball contacts within a minute at the International British Championships on February 28, 1986 in Newcastle . That's almost three ball contacts per second. This was surpassed on February 7, 1993 in Ipswich (Great Britain) by the sisters Jackie Bellinger and Lisa Lomas , who hold the current record with 173 ball contacts.
  • The world record in continuous table tennis between two players is more than 105 hours. In mid-September 1979 Helmut Hanus and Volker Fernath played 105 hours and 8 minutes outdoors in Stuttgart. In 1984 Jean-Marie Sins (30 years old, Alsace) played against 20 different opponents for 150 hours, 14 minutes and 53 seconds.
  • The longest individual match was played by Uwe Geiger and Thomas Opiol (both from Schömberg) from Baden-Württemberg from April 14 to 21, 1985; they played a total of 168 hours.
  • Roland Merklein, Volker Fernath, Hilmar Küttner and Helmut Hanus from Stuttgart played the longest double with 102 hours from May 23rd to 27th, 1980.
  • In September 2001 the 1st TTC ketch set a 24-hour record in table tennis. Two players played one after the other at a table over a period of 24 hours, with each player only allowed to play once and for a maximum of 10 minutes. 1036 players took part, including the Dutch international Trinko Keen .
  • In May 2008, under the motto “A village plays table tennis”, the SG 1908 Oberbiel played table tennis for 200 hours without interruption at at least two tables. The SG thus sets the German record for the longest uninterrupted mass sporting event.


Table tennis world champion and Wimbledon winner Fred Perry
Stellan Bengtsson (1972)
  • Fred Perry became table tennis world champion in 1929 . He later switched to tennis and became known for his victories at Wimbledon.
  • Ann Haydon-Jones , who lost all three World Cup finals in singles, doubles and mixed in the fifth set in 1957 , was in the top ten in tennis for twelve years from 1960 and won Wimbledon.
  • In 1993 twins won a German championship for the first time: Melanie and Yvonne Wenzel (Hachmühlen) won the title in the student doubles. In the same year they won silver in doubles at the European Youth Championships in Ljubljana.


  • After the Second World War, people in Germany mistakenly played with a net height of 15.5 cm (instead of 15.25 cm). France made the German functionary Fritz Rosinus aware of this wrong net height in 1948, whereupon he arranged for the correct net height for future events.
  • The term "fastest setback sport in the world" used in connection with table tennis is not correct in every respect. There are setback sports in which the gaming device reaches even higher maximum speeds. In badminton, for example, a smash ball was measured at 493 km / h. When playing tennis , speeds of over 250 km / h can be achieved. In table tennis, the maximum speed of the ball is around 180 km / h. However, the flight time of the ball is shorter than in other sports because of the still high speed and the short flight path. Depending on the speed and distance of the players from the table, it can only be 10 to 30 hundredths of a second, which results in very short remaining reaction times.
  • Bouncy balls (today: shots) were previously prohibited because of the risk of injury to the opponent.
  • The largest round trip to date (September 2019) took place on June 5, 2019 in the Merkur Spiel-Arena in Düsseldorf. 2,074 children and young people played at 105 tables for 15 minutes.
  • A professional player loses up to 3.5 kg per day of competition during a tournament. During one set (with 11 points) he consumes about twice the energy of an athlete who runs 100 m in 10.2 s. At the European Championships in Prague in 1976 , the highest weight loss a player experienced was 8 kg.
  • In October 1954, a table tennis competition was broadcast on television for the first time. The Südwestfunk showed the international match between Germany and Switzerland in Baden-Baden.
  • Even today, so-called “hardbat tournaments” are still taking place, especially in the USA, but also again in Germany, in which only clubs with rubber studs without a sponge are allowed. A legendary hardbat champion was Marty Reisman , who was still in the absolute world class at the age of 67.
  • Another table tennis variant has been developing since around 2010, which should minimize the influence of the racket material and the spin on the game. It is called ping-pong in England and got the name Clickball in Germany . Here all players get the same simple wooden club from the organizer, which is covered on both sides with fine sandpaper. World championships are also held in "Clickball".
  • Another variant is the "4-person table". It's like mixing table tennis with tennis. The playing area consists of 4 table tennis tables (2 × 2) placed next to each other. The net is significantly higher (32 cm) and the rules of the game and the way the points are counted is slightly different than in normal table tennis, similar to tennis. World championships are also held in the "4-person table".
  • In the 1930s, the bacon board game developed as a summer and outdoor variant .
  • In 1989 the DTTB released a song called "Magic Ball", which was the official anthem of the World Cup in 1989 in Dortmund.
  • In 1991 the Greek musician "Stamatis" released an instrumental piece called "Ping-Pong". At the beginning of the piece you could only hear one table tennis rally - electronically highlighted with reverb.
  • Joachim Kreck created a 14-minute short film table tennis at the cutting table , based on a match between Peter Stellwag and Stellan Bengtsson in October 1980. The film was released in 1982 and was awarded the title Particularly Valuable by the Wiesbaden Film Evaluation Office .
  • In the 1950s and 1960s, the United States and the People's Republic of China tried "normal" diplomatic means to improve relations; the so-called Warsaw Talks did not bring the hoped-for results. The table tennis players came to the rescue here. During the 1971 World Championships in Nagoya ( Japan ), China invited American TT players to Beijing . This visit was followed by meetings of high-level politicians ( Nixon 1972), which eased tension and improved relations. These events are now known as ping pong diplomacy .
  • April 6th, 2015, was chosen to be the international world table tennis day.


Special stamp for the TT World Cup 1989
GDR postage stamp (1987)
  • The first postage stamps with a table tennis motif were issued by Nicaragua in 1949. In Germany, with a face value of 120 + 60, the first motif stamp appeared on February 21, 1985 in Berlin as part of the series For Sport .
  • The first franking imprints were used by the Franz Krebs company, sporting goods factory in Hanover-Linden with the text "HANNO table tennis" from August 1931.
  • The first special postmark in the world, with an image of a table tennis racket and a table tennis net, was used in Jizaka / Japan in September 1948 for the national Japanese championships.
  • For the 25th table tennis world championships in 1959 in Dortmund, the first German special postmark with a table tennis motif was used by the Deutsche Bundespost from March 27 to April 5.
  • The first postcard (color lithograph) from Germany is known from 1910. Illustration framed with Art Nouveau elements: a man in a tailcoat and a woman in evening dress playing table tennis. Text on the postcard: The New Table Tennis. Legally protected spring tensioning device suitable for every table. A. Sala, Berlin S. W.
  • On March 14, 1985, the Swedish Post issued a postage stamp on which Jan-Ove Waldner is depicted ( Michel catalog no. 1326). This postage stamp was issued on the occasion of the 1985 World Table Tennis Championships in Gothenburg.
  • On September 27, 2013, a foreigner was honored for the first time with a stamp from the People's Republic of China, Jan-Ove Waldner. The stamp was issued in two editions (one Swedish and one Chinese) at the same time and sold 3,000,000 copies on the first day in China alone.

See also


  • Johnny Leach : This is how you play table tennis. Gerd Hatje publishing house, Stuttgart 1952.
  • Jürgen Schmicker: The big book about table tennis. Schmicker, Schwalmtal 2000, ISBN 3-9807311-0-3 .
  • Manfred Schäfer, Winfried Stöckmann, Norbert Wolf and others: A game for life. 75 years of the German Table Tennis Association [1925–2000] . Ed .: German Table Tennis Association. Frankfurt am Main 2000, ISBN 3-00-005890-7 (224 pages, commemorative publication).
  • Horst Biese: In love with a small ball. AGON-Sportverlag, Kassel 2001, ISBN 3-89784-188-6 .
  • Glenn Östh , Jens Fellke: How do you become number 1 in table tennis? - Secret of Swedish world champions. Meyer + Meyer, Aachen 1992, ISBN 3-89124-158-5 .
  • Matthias Sauer: Table tennis for trainers. The table tennis training book for successful youth work. PINGS, Hanau 1989, 1999, ISBN 3-927811-01-7 .
  • Jack Carrington : Progressive Table Tennis Bell, London 1970, ISBN 0-7135-1598-8 .
  • Prof. Radivoj Hudetz : Everything about table tennis technique. Tibhar, Saarbrücken 1984.
  • Walter Bucher / Harry Blum (Red.): One thousand and fourteen (1014) forms of play and exercise in table tennis. Hofmann, Schorndorf 1986.
  • Manfred Grumbach: Table tennis elementary school for schools and clubs / Part 1: Basic course. Hofmann, Schorndorf 1975,
  • Manfred Grumbach: Table tennis elementary school for schools and clubs / Part 2: Advanced course. Hofmann, Schorndorf 1980.
  • Peter Luthardt, Manfred Muster, Gunter Straub: Table tennis: the trainer book , Schorndorf: Hofmann 2016, ISBN 978-3-7780-2660-1 .
  • Ralf Michaelis / Martin Sklorz: Correct table tennis (=  BLV Sportpraxis ). 6th, revised edition. blv, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-405-16638-1 .

Web links

Commons : Table tennis  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: table tennis  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. a b Thomas Matzke: Effects of the rule changes in table tennis with special consideration of the medial effectiveness of the sport , page 26, Master's thesis at the Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald from September 7, 2008 ( Memento from November 21, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) (accessed on October 4, 2012) (PDF; 3.2 MB)
  2. Horst Friedrich: Ping-Pong - The table tennis game around the turn of the century, self-published, Bonn in the distribution of Flying Kiwi Verlag, Flensburg, 1989, pp. 7–8, ISBN 3-926055-02-2 .
  3. According to Table Tennis Collector 59 (PDF; 3.9 MB) p. 5, the London company Hamleys received the patent on August 6, 1901.
  4. Ping Pong . In: The Golfer . Arthur Fuller, New York 1902, 12 (Dec).
  5. DTS magazine , 1974/21 p. 20
  6. Sheri Cioraslan: Until the 1950s, Table Tennis Was Considered a “Jewish Sport” , USA Table Tennis, June 18, 2014 / Encyclopedia of Jews in Sports , 1965
  7. ^ Rainer Jungblut: The driving force? Jewish players and functionaries in table tennis in Essen (1925–1939) (PDF; 851.98 kB). Kalonymus, 2012, issue 2, page 9ff.
  8. DTS magazine , 1978/5 p. 10
  9. DTS magazine , 1964/23 West issue p. 5
  10. ^ Resolution at the general assembly of the IOC on October 1, 1981 in Baden-Baden - DTS magazine , 1981/20 pp. 3–4
  11. Frank Best: Only eleven points per set - does that help table tennis? Hamburger Abendblatt, June 12, 2001
  12. Inquiry: That is why it was shortened to eleven points., September 23, 2013
  13. tischtennis magazine , 2008/7 regional north p. 4
  14. a b  ( page no longer available ) Template: dead link /! ... nourl
  15. DTS magazine , 1993/11 p. 38
  16. a b magazine DTS , 1974/13 p. 17
  17. Ossi Brucker: 30 years of international rules , DTS magazine , 1957/1 West issue p. 14
  18. DTS magazine , 1961/18 issue West p. 1 u. 14th
  19. Index 2.08.03
  20. ↑ Competition rules (WO) of the DTTB (status: 12.06.2010) ( Memento from February 1, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) p. 80
  21. tischtennis magazine , 2010/1 p. 4
  22. Bundestag resolves single-track 2nd leagues and introduction of League 3 ( Memento from March 16, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
  23. ^ Walter Grein: Table tennis . Verlag Deutscher Tischtennis-Sport, Hanover 1953, p. 40
  24. ^ Albert Hill (born 1933, died December 16, 1988); Article in DTS magazine , 1989/1 p. 41
  25. ^ Christian Franzel (* July 7, 1969) computer scientist, 1988 and 1990 German team champion with Borussia Düsseldorf , from 1990 Post Mühlheim, DTS magazine , 1991/9 p. 12
  26. DTS magazine , 1999/8 p. 47
  27. DTS magazine , 2010/1 p. 6
  28. Magazine DTS , Edition 1956/1 S. West 20
  29. Senior ranking list is available at (free registration required)
  30. 1249 single a year! Lüner sets fabulous record (accessed on March 26, 2019)
  31. Guinness Book of Records (accessed March 25, 2014)
  32. your world record: Longest rally of all time (accessed on March 25, 2014)
  33. JS: World record: Longest rally over 8.5 hours! , Report in (accessed on September 17, 2013)
  34. DTS magazine , 1993/4 p. 30
  35. DTS magazine , 1985/1 p. 22
  36. DTS magazine , 1985/5 p. 6
  37. DTS magazine 1980/11 p. 4
  38. Schwetzinger Zeitung, September 10, 2001 + DTS magazine , 2001/10 p. 7
  39. DTS magazine , 1993/5 p. 36
  40. DTS magazine , 1993/8 p. 50
  41. DTS magazine , 1948/19 p. 1
  42. Badzine Magazine: New world speed record. August 23, 2013, accessed February 23, 2016 .
  43. Tennis: World record: serve at 263 km / h Focus Online , accessed on January 17, 2013
  44. tischtennis magazine , 2019/9 Region 3 p. 5
  45. Magazine DTS 1976/8 page 8
  46. DTS magazine , 1954/21 p. 3
  47. DTS magazine , 1982/12 issue Süd-West p. 9
  48. World Table Tennis Day - April 6th. Retrieved on April 6, 2020 (German).
  49. ^ World Table Tennis Day - International Table Tennis Federation. Retrieved April 6, 2020 .
  50. Detailed description of the two stamps in: DTS magazine 1957/19 West issue p. 3
  51. DTS magazine , 1985/2 p. 38