Tennis is a return game played by two or four players. If one player plays against another, it is called a singles , if two players play against each other, this is called a doubles , whereby depending on the composition of the men’s doubles (two men), women’s doubles (two women) or mixed doubles ( mixed ) are mentioned. This sport, which used to be considered an elitist in Germany, has now also achieved outstanding importance as a popular sport. Tennis has been part of the Summer Olympics again since 1988 .
The French forerunner of today's game, Jeu de Paume , was first played in monastery courtyards and later in ball game houses on a rectangular field. The players gave their indication by hitting the ball over the net against a wall that ran along the field. The audience sat on the opposite wall. Lines divided the field into four fifteen-inch (almost forty centimeters) wide, parallel strips on either side of the net.
In Paris, numerous commercial tennis facilities were built between 1500 and 1600, where the owners rented or sold the equipment necessary for the game. The facilities were used as recreational facilities by a wide variety of sections of the population.
The English major Walter Clopton Wingfield had his type of tennis, which he called Sphairistikè (Greek word for ball games), patented in 1874 . For the first time, binding rules were defined. Since it was played on grass, the game was also called lawn tennis . Tennis, which is still common today, was created with new rules in the course of the first championships in Wimbledon (London) in July 1877.
With the advent of professional tennis in the mid-1920s, only amateurs were allowed to participate in many major tournaments. In 1925 tennis was removed from the Olympic program. In 1968 the restriction was lifted (see also Open Era ), whereby large tournaments, such as the US Open or the French Open , gained considerable financial importance. Tennis has been an Olympic discipline again since 1988.
The origin of the word tennis is uncertain. Anatoly Liberman believes that the most likely etymology is the theory also favored by Walter W. Skeat , that it is based on a French, or rather an Anglo- Norman exclamation * tenez! go back, so the imperative plural of tenir ("hold") with the meaning "take, hold (the ball)!", which is not attested in this form and meaning. This theory is supported by the fact that the game was a pastime of the predominantly Anglo-Norman-speaking aristocracy, as well as the fact that the word was stressed on the second syllable in Middle English . In addition, the earliest evidence is a manuscript dated around 1440 of a poem by John Gower with the spelling tenetz .
Other theories derive the word from German Tenne or dance , from Latin taenia ("head bandage") or from the French place name Tennois . It is also worth mentioning the imaginative conjecture of the lexicographer Frank Chance that the decapitated Christian martyr Dionysius of Paris , or St. Denis in French , was once the patron saint and namesake of the game: in iconography , he often carries his head like a ball in his hands.
A tennis racket consists of a wound with a tape handle , the shank and the head , into which the off string is clamped existing face. In the past, tennis rackets were made exclusively of wood. After metal frames made of aluminum or steel briefly appeared in the 1960s, today's frames are mainly made of carbon fiber reinforced plastic , which ensures low weight combined with high rigidity . Tennis strings are usually made of nylon or polyester , which have a longer lifespan than the natural gut strings rarely used in modern professional tennis . A tennis racket weighs around 280 to 350 grams. According to ITF regulations , it can be a maximum of 27 inches (73.7 cm) long and 12.5 inches (31.7 cm) wide. Different sizes (from about 750 cm² up to 625 cm²) are common for the club surface; a larger club surface offers a larger optimal point of impact ( sweet spot ) for the ball and allows a less force-intensive style of play, while a smaller surface improves ball control.
Tennis balls usually consist of a rubber bladder filled with excess pressure, over which a felt cover is stretched. As soon as the overpressure has escaped from the ball after a certain period of time, the jumping properties decrease significantly and the ball must be replaced. In addition, there are pressureless balls whose jumping properties are based on the use of different rubber layers. In official tournaments, pressure balls are used almost exclusively. While tennis balls used to be common in black or white, with the advent of television broadcasts of tennis games in the 1970s, light yellow balls, which are easier to see on color televisions, became popular. At the Wimbledon Championships until 1986 only white balls were used.
According to the official rules, a tennis ball must weigh between 56.7 g and 58.5 g and have a diameter of 6.54 cm to 6.86 cm.
The tennis court is rectangular and is divided into two halves by the net. The dimensions of the playing field were originally defined in English feet (1 ft = 0.3048 m). It is 78 ft (23.77 m) long and 27 ft (8.23 m) wide for the single game and 36 ft (10.97 m) wide for the double game. The playing field is delimited by lines, the so-called baselines and sidelines . The lines are part of the playing field; d. H. If the ball falls (even partially) on one of the lines, it is still in play.
The baselines run parallel to the net, the side lines at right angles to it. Are parallel to the network on both sides at a distance of 21 ft (6.40 m) the service lines . In the middle of the field, the service center line leads from the net to the service line . The area between the net and the service lines is also unofficially known as the T-field (service center line and service line form the letter “T”) or half-field (service line divides the half of the game in the middle). Accordingly, the service line is also known as the T-line . The two faces of a T-field are called service fields . Small court tennis is played within these service fields, especially in the children 's area.
The net should be 3 ft (0.914 m) in the center, 3.5 ft (1.07 m) at the ends and at least 3 ft (0.914 m) on both sides of the field of play. The network is wider for double games than for single games. Single games can also be played with the wider network variant.
The area between the baseline and the fence is approximately 18 ft to 21 ft (5.50 m to 6.40 m) in length. The width of the area between the side line and the fence is approximately 10 ft to 12 ft (3.04 m to 3.66 m).
The most common surfaces on tennis courts are red sand (usually brick dust ), carpeting , plastic granulate, lawn or artificial turf . The hard court is very common, especially in North American countries . In the open air, clay courts are predominant; indoors, games are usually played on hard, granulate or carpeted courts.
At the beginning of a rally there is a service . When serving, the ball must be played in the diagonally opposite smaller field of the opposing half of the field, the service field. If this does not succeed on the first attempt, the serving player has a second attempt. If this also fails, the opponent receives one point ; in this case one speaks of a double fault . If the ball touches the net when serving and then hits the service area, the service is repeated. The server may only enter the tennis court after the ball has touched the racket, otherwise he will commit a foot error .
After the serve, the goal of tennis is to regularly return the tennis ball played by the opponent into his own half of the field over the net in his half of the field. Regular means that
- the player plays the ball over the net with the racket; sideways past the net is also legal;
- the ball has touched the ground a maximum of once before it is played and then does not land in its own half of the field;
- the ball touches the ground in the opponent's half of the field, unless the opponent plays it beforehand ( volley );
- the player does not touch the ball with any part of the body;
- the player does not touch the net with any part of the body or the stick;
- the player hits the ball only once with the stick.
The player who last played the ball in accordance with the rules receives one point . That is why the rally itself is called a point.
Structure and counting method
A game consists of several rallies in which the players must score points, the first point win by a player being counted as 15 , the second as 30 and the third as 40 (see section History of Scoring ). A fourth point win by a player decides the game for him if he then has a lead of at least two points, i.e. after the scores 40: 0, 40:15 and 40:30 (or vice versa). When the score is 40:40, one speaks of the debut . The next point is called an advantage . If the player who gained the advantage also wins the next point, then the game goes to him. If his opponent succeeds in winning the point, the score is again “debut”. It is then played until a player who "has the advantage" also scores the next point; i.e., after a debut, a player must score two points in immediate succession.
In order to win a tennis encounter (also called a match or game ), a predetermined number of sets must be decided for yourself. Usually two winning sets are played, in men's tennis at major tournaments ( Grand Slam , Davis Cup and in the final of the Summer Olympics up to 2016 ) also three. A set is divided into individual games. A player wins a set if he has won 6 games and has a lead of at least two games won, e.g. B. at scores 6: 4 or 7: 5. If both players have won 6 games, a tie-break is usually played, which decides the set.
The right to serve is available to only one player within a game; it changes in the following game. The side of the field from which the service is to be performed changes after each point, whereby the first service must be performed from the right-hand side from the point of view of the server. The right side of the field is also known as the entry side , the left side as the advantage side .
The players change sides of the field if the total of games played in the set is odd.
Until 1970, a set could only be won with a difference of two games (even if the score was 6: 6). Since the serving player has an advantage within a game and the right to serve changes after each game, it could take a relatively long time until a set was won. This made a live broadcast in particular incalculable for television stations. For this reason, the tie-break was introduced in 1970. In the tie-break, every mistake is counted as a point; the counting with 15, 30, 40 points is not applicable. A tie-break is won if a player wins at least seven points and is at least two points ahead. The right to serve changes if the sum of the points played is odd. After every six points played, the players change sides.
Match tie break
For some years now, to shorten the game, the possibly necessary third set has been played in doubles or mixed (sometimes also singles) as a "match tie-break", similar to the tie-break. A match tie-break is won if the player wins at least ten points and is at least two points ahead.
In professional tennis, it is common to have a chair umpire sitting on a high chair on one side of the pitch. He is supported by several linesmen who indicate that the ball is "out" with a loud exclamation and an outstretched arm. If the ball lands just inside the field, the linesman will indicate this by forming the letter “V” at knee level with elongated arms. However, the referee has sole decision-making power and can overrule the decision of a line judge ( English overrule ).
Previously, it was also power inverter used, who sat at both ends of the network and pointed the referee to a network of contact of the ball at impact. With the introduction of technical aids, line rectifiers are no longer required today.
There is also a head judge who is not on the field. He can be called by a player if the player believes that the referee's decision violates the tennis rules. The head referee may not overrule the factual decision of the referee (e.g. whether a ball was "out" or not), but only the consequences for the further course of the game resulting from the tennis rules. In addition, he will be consulted by the referee in the event of violations of the code of conduct ( Code Violation , see below), especially if this results in a player being disqualified.
In large tournaments, the hawk-eye system is used in order to reduce disadvantages for the players due to wrong decisions by the referees or linesmen . Each player receives per set a fixed number of so-called. Challenges (of English. To challenge sth. , Just call into question '), which will enable him to Hawk Eye system to make a decision by the check. If it turns out that the player was right, depending on the clarity of the game situation, the referee either awards a point directly or allows the ball to be repeated; the number of challenges the player has in this case remains the same. If the player is wrong in his assessment, a challenge will be withdrawn.
Depending on the tournament, a player receives two to three challenges per set; if the set has to be decided by a tie-break, each player receives an additional challenge. In sentences where there is no tie-break is played (so-called. Advantage - or benefit records), each player receives after every twelve games played, so the score at 6: 6, 12:12, etc., restore the original number of challenges .
A referee can punish a player if he violates the Code of Conduct . Among other things, this prohibits
- Insulting the referee, opponent or the public
- unsportsmanlike conduct
- Game delay
- Leaving the pitch without the referee's permission
The referee issues a warning for the first code violation , the next one loses points. The third offense results in a game loss. From the fourth violation, the referee can disqualify the player (loss of a match) or impose another loss of a game. In particularly severe cases, the referee can disqualify the player on the first offense.
- In the seniors and in doubles, a tie-break is often played instead of a decisive third set . In some associations of the DTB (for example in Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria), no third set is played in association games (women and men). Instead, a so-called match tie-break is played on ten points (alternatively: seven points). A match tie-break is also played at the US Open and, since 2007, at the Australian Open in the third set of the mixed competition.
- At the French Open , the Davis Cup and the Olympic Games, no tie-break is played in the decisive set, but two games must be gained.
- No-ad (short for "no advantage") or deciding point rule: It is used primarily in doubles competitions and serves to shorten the individual service games. If the deciding point is used, when the score is 40:40, the next point decides whether the game is won. It is then not necessary, as usual, to have a two-point lead to win. Another special feature is that at the deciding point the returning party has the choice of which side the server serves; this is also announced by the referee with “Deciding point, receiver's choice”. In mixed there is no “receiver's choice”. Man to man and woman to woman always serve here.
- The lost game of the server is called a break ; the service advantage was "broken". A break represents a special advantage because of the importance of the service. If the player who suffered the break wins the next service game of his opponent, this is referred to as a rebreak .
- Decisive points are called break ball (if the win leads to a break), set point or match point .
- A set played without a loss point (6: 0, in each case after winning games to 0, therefore 24 points won in a row) is called a golden set . In the history of professional tennis, this perfect set has so far only been achieved by the players Bill Scanlon (1983), Jaroslawa Schwedowa (2012), Julian Reister (2013) and Stefano Napolitano (2015).
- Fast4 Tennis is a format initiated by Tennis Australia in 2014 that results in a shorter tennis game that uses different rules compared to traditional tennis rules. Single games are played as best of three (3 winning sets), short sets (first 4 won games) with a short tie-break at 3: 3 (first 5 points; sudden death, if both have reached 4 points).
History of counting
There are two explanations for the history of counting. Mostly it is assumed that the counting goes back to money stakes and game betting in the 14th century in France. For example, you put a large denier , which in turn had a value of 15 denier . In a set, which at that time often consisted of four games, four times 15 “deniers” were placed: 15 - 30 - 45 - 60.
Another explanation relates to the lines on the field of play. Each time a player scored a point at the jeu de paume , he would move one line further, gradually getting closer to the center of the field. The game started at the 0 inch line. When a player won a point, they would advance to the 15 "line, then the 30" line, and then the 45 "line. Only then did he win the game. Since this line was found to be too close to the grid, the last indication was set back to a 40-inch line.
In both cases, the shorter pronunciation was replaced by "40" in the 16th century because of "45".
In English , the score “0” is denoted by the word love . A game in which the opponent scores zero points is therefore also called a love game . The expression love for "no points" can be traced back to 1742. It arose from the phrase playing for love, which was already in use in the 1670s , meaning to play for love, i.e. not to play for money. According to Duden, it was shortened from the phrase to be love .
Basic beat types
As with other return games, the basic types of hitting are forehand, backhand and serve.
With the forehand , the ball is played on the side of the hitting hand (right-handed for a right-hander, left-hander for a left). As a rule, the forehand strike is initiated with a backward movement and the ball is ideally hit about waist-high to the side in front of the body. In the past, the so-called western grip was also widespread, in which the ball is hit far in front of the body. As a rule, the forehand is played and taught with one hand. Monica Seles and Fabrice Santoro were among the few players who played the two-handed forehand .
In the backhand (Engl. Backhand ) the ball is (ie to the left in a right-handed left-handed right) hit on the batting opposite side. A backhand strike can be performed with one or two hands. The two-handed backhand only became known in the 1970s. This is often recommended for beginners as it is easier to learn to perform than one-handed backhand. Meanwhile, the two-handed backhand is also prevalent among professional players. The exception is the backhand slice , which is usually hit with one hand.
The impact (engl. Service ) initiates the ball change. From a position behind the baseline, the ball must be struck into the opposite service area. The lines belong to the service court. Crossing or touching the baseline before hitting the ball is illegal. Each server has two tries; after an unsuccessful second attempt, the point belongs to the opponent. After a game, the right to serve changes. As with a baseline stroke, the serve can be played with different rotations depending on the tactical design. A distinction is made between a flat and fast serve with only a slight forward spin, a topspin and a slice serve.
The best angle of impact and therefore the highest ball speed is achieved when the ball is thrown above head height and hit at the highest possible point. In modern men's tennis, speeds of over 200 km / h are often reached with the first serve. The world record is held by the Australian Sam Groth and is 263 km / h.
During the stroke, the player can influence the ball's own rotation, which in turn determines the flight curve and the jumping behavior of the ball. A distinction is made between drive (hardly any self-rotation), topspin (rotation in the direction of flight) and slice (rotation against the direction of flight).
A drive is a basic stroke with only a small amount of self-rotation of the ball. The club head hits the ball at an angle of approximately 90 degrees. This stroke, common with beginners and hobby players, is the most intuitive and energy-saving. However, due to its flat trajectory, it has the disadvantage that more powerful hits from the baseline often no longer occur in the opposing field and go out. A driftball is the least problematic for the opponent because the principle of angle of incidence equals angle of reflection applies here, and the opponent can better calculate the point of impact. One advantage of the driftball is its maximum flight speed, which forces the opponent to react extremely quickly and run.
The topspin is now the most common stroke variant in modern tennis. Topspin describes a forward rotation of the ball, which is generated by sweeping the club face over the top ("top") of the ball. The club surface is therefore inclined slightly downwards at the point of impact (less than 90 degrees). This creates buoyancy. This causes a stronger, vertical curvature of the flight curve, which extends the flight time of the ball. Topspin balls are therefore slower than drive balls. In addition, topspin balls have a different bounce behavior. The ball bounces flatter and faster in relation to the flight curve, which makes it more unpredictable than a drive stroke. Long-played topspin balls force the opponent to either move further behind the baseline or, alternatively, to hit the ball further forward at a higher height above the ground, which is often difficult. Playing with topspin requires not only good technique but also significantly more strength. The risk of hitting the ball with the racket frame through the forward inclined racket surface is significantly higher than with the drive.
When slicing, the ball experiences a backward rotation ( backspin ). This allows the ball to fly very flat over the net and hardly bounces off when it hits the ground. On the one hand, it can serve as a preparatory strike for a net attack, as it gives the player more time to advance to the net due to the longer flight of the ball. On the other hand, the slice can be used to buy time out of a defensive situation, for example when accepting a hard serve. It can also be used to vary the tempo of the game in order to throw the opponent out of the rhythm. A slice can usually only be played slowly, as otherwise it “sails” out of bounds due to the flat trajectory.
Further field names
Return (German name check ) is the name of the blow, with the back played the ball after the opponent's service - returned - is. In addition to the serve, the hardest hit in tennis, the return is of the utmost importance. Both types of strokes are "opening strokes" with which the rally is initiated. A weak return allows the opponent to build up pressure with the serve and determine the rally. Most of the time, the returning player is only able to passively hold out the club ("block") with a short backward movement on the first serve. He tries to take the pressure of the opposing serve with him and to give the return the desired direction. The second serve - usually hit with less force - can then be attacked by the returning player.
The movement of the ball is similar to the service movement. It is an overhead strike at high speed. It is usually played in response to an opponent's attempt at praise and is considered the most powerful attack.
A passing stroke, also known as a passing ball (forehand or backhand), is a stroke with which the ball is played past the opponent who is positioned near the net and is inaccessible to him.
When praising, the player tries to overcome the opponent who has reached the net with a ball that is hit high. If the hit is too flat or hit too short, the opponent can respond with a smash hit. Occasionally - if the praise is played too high and too slowly - there is still enough time to run back and hit the ball with forehand or backhand. Higher-class players therefore play the praise with topspin. As a result, even a ball played high as praise reaches a high flight speed and is therefore practically impossible to run if it is technically clean. The top spin lob is one of the most technically difficult strokes and can therefore hardly be observed in amateur tennis.
Praise is a special case of the moon ball, in which a ball is purposely played very high over the net in order to take speed from the rallies and allow the player to rebuild.
With a drop shot , the ball is played in such a way that it "falls" just behind the net. Similar to the slice, the stop ball is played with a backward spin, which means that on the one hand it hardly bounces off after hitting the ground, and on the other hand it no longer jumps forwards but backwards if possible. A stop ball is mostly used when the opponent is particularly far behind the baseline and can be very effective due to its surprising effect.
Volley (German name: Flugball ) describes a stroke in which the ball is returned before it hits the ground. Usually this shot is played close to the net, so that the player has to get into position quickly - usually with a split step . There are various special forms.
The Drive Volley is a volley blow, in which you can not "push" the ball into the box, but - as with the forehand - runs through at high speed and spin. Andre Agassi and the Williams sisters Venus and Serena made this hit popular . While drive volleyball is common in women's tennis, it only plays a subordinate role in modern men's tennis.
A volley stop is a blow technique in the opponent from a stroke, a stop ball is. The difficulty of the stroke is to take the ball out of speed and place it just behind the net.
A half-volley or half-flight ball is a stroke in which the ball is hit shortly after it has bounced. For the most part, this punch is only used in emergencies, as it is difficult to put pressure on the opponent with this punch.
The pike Volley is a special special form of volleyball, in which an attempt is made to reach a Passierschlag the enemy still using a jump to the side and as to bring the ball is still in the field of the opponent. This blow became known through Boris Becker . Originally a youth coach Beckers developed this stroke to increase the reach of young players on the net. Becker kept this stroke in his repertoire and, to the amazement of his opponents and the spectators, used it successfully in international tournaments (e.g. 1985 at Wimbledon ).
A cross ( German transversely ) batted ball is a ball which is played in each of the diagonally opposite corner of the square. A right-hander therefore plays a cross-hit forehand to a right-handed opponent on the forehand (or backhand to backhand). Since the diagonal of the court is longer than the sideline, harder and therefore wider balls can be hit across.
A longline (dt. Along the line ) struck ball is a ball that is played in the opposite corner of the court. That is, the ball flies parallel to the touchline. A right-handed player therefore plays a longline hit forehand to a right-handed opponent on the backhand (or backhand on forehand). If the executing player is to the side outside the field, a longline shot can also be played sideways past the net post in accordance with the rules.
Strikes and mistakes
A Winner (dt. Also winning strike ) is a ball that was played so placed that the opponent has no way to return it.
Ace and Service Winner
An ace is a service into the field that cannot even be touched by the opponent. He therefore also automatically counts as a winner. If the surcharge leads to a direct point, but can still be reached, this is called a service winner . Both talent and experience play a major role in beating an ace.
Not only the speed of service is of great importance here, but also recognizing in which direction the receiver could move.
In addition, the tennis court and its surface play an immense role here. The optimal basis for an ace is a hard court. The worst option would be a clay court, because here the ball is slowed down by the sand and the opponent gains more time to react. The highest probability of scoring an ace is found in lawn tennis.
Forced Error and Unforced Error
As unforced error (dt. Unerzwungener , avoidable or minor error or errors without necessity ) is called a blow with which a player loses the point because of its own fault, without this being enforced by the previous impact of the opponent. Can he, however, the ball due to a previous hard, placed or otherwise difficult to not return regularly meet to be played or reaching beat the opponent, it is called a Forced Error (dt. Forced error ). The transitions between avoidable and forced errors can be fluid in individual cases. The classification is therefore often subject to the discretion of the respective statistics manager or commentator.
As a double error (engl. Double fault ) is a dot loss of the turnup ends designated by two irregular cuffs. A double error also counts as an Unforced Error.
Serve and volley
In a serve-and-volley game, the player follows his serve (service), tries to get as far as possible to the net and finish the rally with a volley. This strategy is particularly promising on fast surfaces, especially on lawns. The attacker's position close to the net shortens the opponent's reaction time; often the attacking player can already score with the first volley. For a successful serve and volley game, two basic variants of the service game are possible. On the one hand, the serve can be played with great hardness. The opponent then has only a short reaction time, he can often only "block" the serve, that is, he can only pass the club passively without his own backward movement. The ball is then only moderately controlled and played back without twist, which enables the server to play back the volley at high speed and in a well-placed position. The disadvantage of the high impact hardness is that the server also has relatively little time to advance towards the net. He usually has to hit the first volley at the level of the T-line in the so-called half-field. If the serve is well placed, this is not a problem because of the often high trajectory of the return. If the receiver guesses the direction of the service or if it is badly placed, the server is often forced to half volley, as the returning player can play the ball "on his feet" with topspin. Typical representatives of this style of play are tall players, such as Boris Becker and Goran Ivanišević .
As a second variant, the serve can be played with less speed, but high accuracy and a lot of cut . The pressure on the opponent then unfolds through the stronger angles; the receiver has greater problems returning the ball and is often pushed out of the center of the court with the serve. Because of the lower speed of service, the server has more time to get to the net. This gives him a better position for the first volley, can almost always play the ball from top to bottom and is rarely forced to half volley. The service is usually played with a forward spin (kick). Because of the high take-off, it is also difficult for the returner to hold the ball flat, as he has to play it from top to bottom. The disadvantage of this variant is that it is rarely possible to score with the serve. The attacker needs an excellent volley game in order to be able to maintain the pressure with the first volley. Typical representatives of this variant were Stefan Edberg or John McEnroe .
In the past, serve-and-volley tactics were used by many world-class players. Since today's players are also able to play extremely powerfully from the baseline, this strategy has lost its importance, at least in individual competitions.
In the baseline game, both players stay on the baseline. They try to gain an advantage by playing the ball on the side further away from the opponent or against the direction of travel. With this tactic you usually only achieve a point gain when several well-placed hits are played in a row. The strokes are mainly played with topspin, and more rarely with slice.
Chip and Charge
The receiver responds directly to the serve with an attack ball (chip) and then immediately goes to the network (charge). There he tries to decide the rally by volley. This play is used almost exclusively against the second serve. If this sequence of strokes is used in a tactically wise manner, it puts the opponent under pressure, as this could be induced to risk more on the second serve.
(Engl. For in inside-out balls from inside to outside ) the player avoids each pre- or, more commonly, the backhand by "wraps around" the blow. When the backhand is circulated, the ball is played diagonally from the backhand side with the forehand. The aim is to keep the pace high with the often more powerful forehand or to avoid the more uncertain shot. More rarely, the ball is played along the sideline instead of diagonally. In this case it is called an inside-in hit .
Professional tennis is determined by international tournaments that take place all year round and are mostly played in the knockout system . The umbrella organization for these tournaments is the WTA for women and the ATP for men . Points are awarded for the tennis world rankings at the tournaments . The world ranking position of the players in turn determines the eligibility to participate or the position to be placed in the individual tournaments.
The most prestigious tournaments in tennis are the four Grand Slam tournaments, which are held by the ITF World Tennis Federation , as well as the ATP World Tour Finals (men) and the WTA Tour Championships (women) at the end of the season. The next category for men is the ATP Masters Series with nine tournaments.
Grand Slam tournaments
Tennis associations in Germany, Austria and Switzerland
In Germany, tennis is organized by the DTB , the German Tennis Association, which is divided into regional associations. He organizes the league games, the tournaments, the national team ( Davis Cup or Fed Cup team) and also trains tennis coaches.
Team competitions, the so-called media games , are organized in all age groups by the regional associations or the districts subordinate to them . In amateur leagues from district classes for recreational athletes up to association or regional leagues, competition for promotion and relegation takes place. The superstructure with a focus on professional tennis (for active men and women) is made up of the 1st and 2nd national leagues, which are organized by the DTB.
In Austria, the ÖTV (Austrian Tennis Association) is registered as a subsidiary of the ITF.
In Switzerland, Swiss Tennis acts as the national umbrella organization.
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- Online Etymology Dictionary: love
- Duden online: love