2016 Summer Olympics

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Games of the XXXI. Olympics
2016 Summer Olympics logo
Um mundo novo
(A new world)
Venue: Rio de Janeiro ( Brazil )
Stadion: Maracanã Stadium
Opening ceremony: 5th August 2016
Closing ceremony: August 21, 2016
Opened by: Michel Temer
Olympic oath : Robert Scheidt (athlete)
Martinho Nobre (referee)
Adriana Santos (trainer)
Disciplines: 42 (28 sports)
Competitions: 306
Countries: 207
Athletes: 11,238 (of which 5,057 women)
London 2012
Tokyo 2020
Medal table
space country G S. B. Ges.
1 United StatesUnited States United States 46 37 38 121
2 United KingdomUnited Kingdom Great Britain 27 23 17th 67
3 China People's RepublicPeople's Republic of China China 26th 18th 26th 70
4th RussiaRussia Russia 19th 17th 20th 56
5 GermanyGermany Germany 17th 10 15th 42
6th JapanJapan Japan 12 8th 21st 41
7th FranceFrance France 10 18th 14th 42
8th Korea SouthSouth Korea South Korea 9 3 9 21st
9 ItalyItaly Italy 8th 12 8th 28
10 AustraliaAustralia Australia 8th 11 10 29
... ... ... ... ... ...
24 SwitzerlandSwitzerland Switzerland 3 2 2 7th
78 AustriaAustria Austria - - 1 1
Complete medal table

The 2016 Summer Olympics (officially the XXXI Olympiad Games ) were held in Rio de Janeiro from August 5th to 21st, 2016 . The Brazilian city ​​was the first in South America and - after Mexico City in 1968 - the second in Latin America to host the Summer Olympics .


Seven countries responded to the IOC's appeal

The International Olympic Committee (IOC) invited on 16 May 2007, all 203 National Olympic Committees to abandon themselves to bid for the 2016 Olympic Games and to propose venues. By the end of the application period on September 13, 2007, seven cities had submitted all the necessary documents to the IOC. On this basis, on June 4, 2008, the Executive Board of the IOC declared the cities of Chicago , Tokyo , Rio de Janeiro and Madrid to be official candidates. The decision by the members of the IOC was made in Copenhagen on October 2, 2009 : Chicago and Tokyo received the fewest votes in the first two ballots and were eliminated. At 6:50 p.m., Rio de Janeiro was officially announced as the venue for the 2016 Games.

The results of the ballots are set out below:

Bids for the 2016 Summer Olympics.svg

place country Round 1 round 2 Round 3
Rio de Janeiro BrazilBrazil Brazil 26th 46 66
Madrid SpainSpain Spain 28 29 32
Tokyo JapanJapan Japan 22nd 20th -
Chicago United StatesUnited States United States 18th - -

Suspicion of corruption in the award

The Brazilian federal police carried out a major raid on Sugar Loaf Mountain on September 5, 2017, and had evidence in the house of the President of the Brazilian Olympic Committee Carlos Arthur Nuzman and at the headquarters of the “Comitê Rio 2016 “Ensured.



Location map
Riocentro (aerial photo 2014)

The sports facilities were located in four zones within Rio de Janeiro: Maracanã , Barra , Deodoro and Copacabana . The opening and closing ceremonies, like the soccer finals, were held in the Maracanã Stadium, and the athletics competitions in the João Havelange Olympic Stadium . In addition to the sports facilities in Rio de Janeiro, there were four stadiums in other cities as venues for the preliminary round football matches.

A test competition in track cycling planned for March 2016 in the Rio Olympic Velodrome had to be postponed to the end of April because the track was not completed on time. While the President of the UCI World Cycling Federation , Brian Cookson , doubted whether the new date would come about, he was certain that the cycling track would be ready for the start of the Olympic competitions.





Forte de Copacabana

Football stadiums

On March 16, 2015, FIFA named the stadiums for the women's and men's Olympic soccer tournaments. The seven venues were spread across six cities. In addition to Rio de Janeiro with two stadiums, the venues were Brasília, São Paulo, Belo Horizonte, Salvador da Bahia and Manaus. With the exception of the Nilton Santos Olympic Stadium, all stadiums were also the venue for the 2014 World Cup .

Olympic Village

The Olympic Village was built near the Riocentro and the Olympic Park in Barra.


The official logo of the Games was unveiled on the evening of December 31, 2010 during the New Year's Eve celebrations on Copacabana Beach.

The logo, designed by the Tátil agency in Rio, shows three people holding hands. The outlines are based on a view of the Sugar Loaf from Botafogo Bay. The color green can be seen as a metaphor for nature, yellow for the sun and blue for the sea; also these are the colors of the flag of Brazil . The logo has the motto Paixão e Transformação (“Passion and Change”).

All medal winners were presented with a sculpture of the logo in addition to the medals at the award ceremony.


The official mascot of the games was a mythical creature called Vinicius , which the Brazilian agency Birdo had designed together with the mascot of the Paralympics.


Torch relay

The Olympic flame was lit on April 21, 2016 in the presence of IOC President Thomas Bach in the sacred grove of ancient Olympia with a parabolic mirror by the rays of the sun. The Olympic torch relay ran across Greece and also brought the flame to the Athens refugee camp Eleonas , where it was carried by the 27-year-old Syrian refugee and swimmer Ibrahim Al Hussein , who had lost half his lower leg in a bombing. The torch was then brought to Lausanne , Switzerland , the seat of the International Olympic Committee, before reaching the Brazilian capital, Brasília , on May 3rd . The first torchbearer on Brazilian soil was the two-time Olympic volleyball champion Fabiana Claudino , who received the torch from Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff . An approx. 20,000 kilometer long torch relay through 330 cities in the host country began from Brasília.

Opening ceremony

Raising the Olympic flag

The opening ceremony took place on August 5, 2016 with an extensive cultural program and the traditional invasion of the participating athletes from 206 nations and ten athletes with refugee status in the Maracanã Stadium. The athlete Kipchoge Keino from Kenya was awarded the newly created Olympic Laurel Award for his services to education, development, culture and sport . The controversial interim president Michel Temer formally opened the games to whistles from the audience. The Olympic oath was taken by Robert Scheidt , Martinho Nobre and Adriana Santos . Vanderlei de Lima then lit the Olympic flame with a torch.

Graduation ceremony

Graduation ceremony

The two and a half hour graduation ceremony took place on the evening of August 21 at the Maracanã Stadium and began with fireworks. Again there was a cultural program and the entry of the athletes. For Germany the canoeist Sebastian Brendel carried the flag into the stadium, for Switzerland the mountain biker Nino Schurter . Due to a special regulation of the IOC, the sailing duo Thomas Zajac and Tanja Frank carried the flag into the stadium for Austria. Marathon winner Eliud Kipchoge was honored as the last Olympic champion. Rio's Mayor Eduardo Paes waved the Olympic flag one more time and handed it over to IOC President Thomas Bach, who handed it over to Yuriko Koike , the representative of the next host of the Olympic Summer Games in Tokyo . The Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe was also present (in the outfit of the Japanese computer game character Super Mario ). At 10:18 p.m. local time, Bach officially declared the games over, and eight minutes later the Olympic flame also went out.


From around the world

After the IOC recognized the two National Olympic Committees of Kosovo and South Sudan, they were also allowed to take part in the Olympic Games for the first time and send athletes to Rio. This led to a new participation record of 206 nations.

Suspension of associations

Suspension of the Kuwait National Olympic Committee

The Kuwait NOK was suspended by the IOC for the third time since 2007 because of repeated interference by the government, which is why the Kuwaiti Olympians started under the Olympic flag. On June 23, 2016, the Kuwait government brought a lawsuit against the IOC in a Swiss court for damages amounting to one billion US dollars (the equivalent of around 880 million euros). The reason given was that they felt they were being treated unfairly because they had shown a serious willingness to work together from the start.

Partial exclusion of Russia

On July 24, 2016, the 15-member IOC Executive Committee, headed by Thomas Bach, announced a partial exclusion of Russia from the Olympic Games. Russian athletes who provided evidence that they were not involved in the Russian state doping system were allowed to participate in the games. The Russian athletes who were not allowed to take part in Rio were not affected by this decision. The WADA McLaren Report found evidence of years of systematic doping in Russia, including for the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi . WADA had recommended the IOC to exclude Russia from the Olympic Games in Rio.

The Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) overturned on August 5, 2016, the IOC decision to athletes who have taken doping substances in the past, generally excluded from the games. The verdict came about because the Russian swimmer Julija Jefimowa and the two rowers Anastassija Karabelschtschikowa and Ivan Podschiwalow had brought their double punishment before the CAS. The three athletes had already passed their doping ban, but were excluded from the games by the IOC decision of July 24, 2016. The International Sports Court did not issue a direct start permit, but referred to the sports associations.

The World Athletics Federation IAAF had already confirmed on June 17, 2016 the ban on Russian athletes for international competitions from November 2015. The IAAF gave Julija Stepanova and Darja Klischina permission to start because one of them was a whistleblower who was instrumental in clearing up the Russian doping scandal and the other had trained outside of Russia and tested negative for doping. On July 21, 2016, the International Court of Justice dismissed a lawsuit by the Russian National Olympic Committee and 68 Russian athletes against the ban and upheld the IAAF's decision. The IOC ethics committee welcomed Julija Stepanova's commitment to clarifying the Russian doping scandal, but since she had taken doping substances herself in the past, after the decision of the IOC on July 24, 2016, she was not allowed to participate in the games, even though she was two years old The suspension for doping had already expired. The IOC invited her as a guest to the Olympic Games to assure her of its support. Stepanova declined this invitation, however, and stated that after the decision of July 24, 2016, she saw the IOC's “zero tolerance policy” as lip service for the public.

Special proof of doping for Kenyan and Russian athletes

On June 21, 2016, the IOC announced that Kenyan and Russian athletes would only be allowed to participate in the Rio Games due to latent doping allegations if they had proven not to have used doping substances. Thomas Bach , the IOC President, justified this measure as follows: "There are serious doubts about the presumption of innocence in favor of Russian and Kenyan athletes".

Cases of doping during the games

The testing of athletes was already started during the ongoing games. It could be proven that the Chinese swimmer Chen Xinyi , the Bulgarian athlete Silvia Danekova and the Polish weightlifter Tomasz Zielinski had consumed illicit drugs. All three were banned from the games on August 12, 2016.

The Kyrgyz weightlifter Isat Artykow (weight class up to 69 kg) was convicted of doping on August 18th. Traces of strychnine were found during a doping control . Artykow had to surrender the bronze medal, the fourth placed in the competition moved up. The Moldovan canoeist Serghei Taranovschi was also convicted of doping, but was allowed to keep the bronze medal until the legal proceedings were concluded. This was concluded in February 2017 with the withdrawal of the medal and a four-year ban.

Blocking and withdrawal of starting places for weightlifters

After the World Weightlifting Association had already banned the Bulgarian National Association for widespread doping in November 2015, it withdrew a starting place for women and men from the associations of Kazakhstan and Belarus on June 22, 2016. The decisive factor was the renewed testing of doping samples from the last two Summer Olympics with refined methods: 20 of a total of 55 athletes who subsequently tested positive were weightlifters.

Participation of athletes under a neutral flag

In the wake of the refugee crisis in Europe , the IOC announced that athletes who have fled their home country will be allowed to compete in Rio. This is the first time that the IOC has made it possible for refugee athletes to take part in the Olympic Games. In March 2016, the IOC specified these plans to the effect that a team consisting of five to ten recognized refugees should take part in the games as Team Refugee Olympic Athletes under the Olympic flag .

Overview by nations / teams

Athletes from 206 nations and ten athletes with refugee status have qualified for the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro. Since the Kuwaiti National Olympic Committee was banned, the athletes from Kuwait competed as independent Olympic participants. List of participating nations ( italics : the athletes from these countries are under special observation because of latent doping allegations; the number of athletes qualified for Rio is shown in brackets):

Europe (5117 athletes from 50 nations)
America (2554 athletes from 41 nations)
Asia (1926 athletes from 43 nations)
Africa (1014 athletes from 54 nations)
Oceania (740 athletes from 17 nations)
Others (19 athletes)
(Number of athletes)
* first participation in summer games

Competition program

A total of seven sports competed for inclusion in the competition program: golf , rugby (in the 7th variant), squash , karate and inline skating as well as baseball and softball . A pre-selection for rugby and golf was made at an executive meeting on August 14, 2009 in Berlin . After the IOC was presented and voted on at the 121st IOC session on October 9, 2009 in Copenhagen, both sports were included in the Olympic program.

306 competitions (161 for men, 136 for women, 3 mixed and 6 open competitions) were held in 28 sports / 42 disciplines. This was 2 sports / disciplines and 4 more competitions than in London in 2012 . The changes are detailed below:

  • Golf became Olympic again after 112 years with one competition each for men and women.
  • Sevens rugby was included in the Olympic program for men and women after rugby union was Olympic several times until 1924 .
  • In fencing , the team competitions in women's florets and men's sabers were replaced by women's sabers and men's rapiers.
  • In freestyle wrestling , the lightweight for women was replaced by the bantamweight and two additional weight classes (welterweight and light heavyweight) were added, while for men, one of the weight classes with the featherweight was deleted.
  • Also in Greco-Roman wrestling , featherweight was one of the weight classes for men.
  • In sailing , the women's class replaced Elliott 6m with 49er FX and canceled the men's Star class - the mixed class Nacra 17 was added.

The Olympic sports / disciplines

Number of competitions in brackets

Time schedule

Time schedule
discipline Wed.
Olympic rings without rims.svg Opening ceremony
Badminton pictogram.svg badminton 1 1 2 1 5
Basketball pictogram.svg basketball 1 1 2
Archery pictogram.svg Archery 1 1 1 1 4th
Boxing pictogram.svg Boxing 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 4th 13
Fencing pictogram.svg fencing 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 10
Football pictogram.svg Soccer 1 1 2
Weightlifting pictogram.svg Weightlifting 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 15th
Golf pictogram.svg golf 1 1 2
Handball pictogram.svg Handball 1 1 2
Field hockey pictogram.svg hockey 1 1 2
Judo pictogram.svg Judo 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 14th
Canoeing Canoeing (flatwater) pictogram.svg Canoe racing 4th 4th 4th 12
Canoeing (slalom) pictogram.svg Canoe slalom 1 1 2 4th
Athletics pictogram.svg athletics 3 5 4th 5 5 4th 6th 7th 7th 1 47
Modern pentathlon pictogram.svg Modern pentathlon 1 1 2
Cycling Cycling (track) pictogram.svg train 1 2 2 1 1 3 10
Cycling (BMX) pictogram.svg BMX 2 2
Cycling (mountain biking) pictogram.svg Mountain bike 1 1 2
Cycling (road) pictogram.svg Street 1 1 2 4th
Equestrian sport Equestrian Dressage pictogram.svg dressage 1 1 2
Equestrian Jumping pictogram.svg Leap 1 1 2
Equestrian Eventing pictogram.svg versatility 2 2
Wrestling Wrestling Freestyle pictogram.svg Freestyle 3 3 2 2 2 12
Wrestling pictogram.svg Greco-Roman 2 2 2 6th
Rowing pictogram.svg rowing 2 4th 4th 4th 14th
Rugby sevens pictogram.svg Sevens rugby 1 1 2
Shooting pictogram.svg shoot 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 15th
Swimming Open water swimming pictogram.svg Open water swimming 1 1 2
Swimming pictogram.svg swim 4th 4th 4th 4th 4th 4th 4th 4th 32
Synchronized swimming pictogram.svg Synchronized swimming 1 1 2
Water polo pictogram.svg Water polo 1 1 2
Diving pictogram.svg Diving 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8th
Sailing pictogram.svg sailing 2 2 2 2 2 10
Taekwondo pictogram.svg Taekwondo 2 2 2 2 8th
Tennis pictogram.svg tennis 1 2 2 5
Table tennis pictogram.svg Table tennis 1 1 1 1 4th
Triathlon pictogram.svg Triathlon 1 1 2
Gymnastics Gymnastics (artistic) pictogram.svg Gymnastics 1 1 1 1 4th 3 3 14th
Gymnastics (rhythmic) pictogram.svg Rhythmic sports gymnastics 1 1 2
Gymnastics (trampoline) pictogram.svg Trampoline exercise 1 1 2
volleyball Volleyball (beach) pictogram.svg beach volleyball 1 1 2
Volleyball (indoor) pictogram.svg volleyball 1 1 2
Olympic rings without rims.svg Closing ceremony
decisions 12 14th 14th 15th 20th 19th 24 21st 22nd 17th 25th 16 23 22nd 30th 12 306
Color legend
  • Opening ceremony
  • Competition day (no decisions)
  • Competition day (x decisions)
  • Closing ceremony
  • tickets

    In October 2014, the Organizing Committee announced the entry prices for the Olympic and Paralympic Games . Accordingly, the cheapest ticket cost 13 euros, around 3.8 million tickets were offered at a price of around 23 euros or less. The cheapest tickets for the opening and closing ceremonies cost 66 euros. This meant that the tickets should also be affordable for the local population. A total of around 7.5 million tickets were available for 717 events in all 28 sports as well as the opening and closing ceremony.


    Olympic Broadcasting Services served as the host broadcaster for these games. The Japanese television broadcaster NHK , in cooperation with OBS, broadcast footage of the games, including the opening ceremony and selected events, in 8K resolution . There were 85 hours of video content in 360 ° - virtual reality created format. In the United States, the US television network NBC offered 4K content that was down-converted from the 8K material and supported HDR and Dolby Atmos to participating television providers.

    In August 2009, the International Olympic Committee signed an agreement with Grupo Globo for the domestic broadcasting rights for the 2016 Summer Olympics. It includes broadcasting on free TV on Rede Globo and on pay TV as well as the digital rights to the games. Globo has sublicensed parts of the free-to-air rights in Brazil to Rede Record and Rede Bandeirantes . IOC board member Richard Carrión described the agreement as “unprecedented” and said that “because of the collaboration with the leading media organizations in Brazil [...] this is a great deal for Olympic fans in the region. There will be a tremendous increase in the number of Olympic action programs, both during and off season, and Brazilians will have more choices about how, when and where to watch their Olympics. "

    The rights for television broadcasting in Germany were held by ARD and ZDF . ARD and ZDF broadcast a total of 280 hours live on television, alternating daily. They also offered around 1,000 hours of live streaming on all devices (PC, tablet, smartphone) as well as a large range of video-on-demand . In Switzerland, SRF broadcast two , RTS Deux and RSI LA 2 . There were also six other channels on the Internet and in the Swiss Radio and Television app . In Austria, the games were broadcast on ORF eins and ORF SPORT + .

    Criticism and controversy

    Zika virus

    Due to the significant increase in microcephaly cases registered in Brazil from October 2015 to mid-January 2016 , which was attributed to Zika infections in the mothers of the children affected, the Brazilian government advised pregnant women not to attend the games in January 2016. Epidemic researchers feared that the Summer Olympics could fuel the spread of the Zika virus across the globe. In this regard, there were concerns as to whether and to what extent athletes and visitors can be protected from the virus. The organizing committee tried to protect the athletes and visitors from the virus and to minimize the risk of infection through preventive and control measures.

    On May 27, 2016, 151 scientists from all over the world wrote to the WHO explaining the dangers of the worldwide spread of the Zika virus caused by tourists. They called for the 2016 Summer Olympics to be relocated within the country or the continent, or at least to be postponed, because it is irresponsible to let the Games take place and thus risk a global epidemic .

    According to the WHO, however, there was no risk to public health. The Zika virus will not spread faster due to the Olympic Games, also because winter will prevail in the southern hemisphere in August . However, the WHO expressly pointed out that pregnant women should generally avoid the area around Rio de Janeiro . Long, light-colored clothing should also be worn and mosquito repellent should be applied to avoid mosquito bites. Condoms should be used during sexual intercourse because of the risk of infection .

    Some athletes, especially from the sports of golf and tennis, justified their decision not to participate in the Summer Olympic Games with the risk of infection with the Zika virus.

    In other sports, some athletes chose to take extra precautions against the Zika virus. The South Korean Olympians were equipped with special clothing.

    Polluted bays and beaches

    Marina da Glória , the venue for the sailing competitions

    The bays in Rio de Janeiro are heavily polluted. For decades, untreated sewage from the metropolis has been channeled into the bays via the numerous, in some cases already biologically dead, tributaries. The restoration of the water quality was one of the biggest environmental promises in connection with the bid to host the 2016 Olympic Games. The organizer, the city administration and the state of Rio de Janeiro invested several hundred million euros in the rehabilitation of the sewage systems and the water bodies. The city promised to clean 80 percent of the wastewater by the start of the Olympic Games; In March 2016, the organizer corrected the forecast and stated that water pollution could be reduced by around 65 percent by the time the games start. In connection with the state financial crisis, however, the environmental protection programs were neglected.

    In the months leading up to the Games, numerous athletes were already complaining about the pollution, and the water there was still considered to be hazardous to the health of Olympians and visitors. Athletes who trained on site in 2014 and 2015 developed fever, diarrhea and vomiting. In 2015, the Associated Press news agency had the venues of open water swimmers , canoeists, rowers, sailors, triathletes and windsurfers examined by the virologist Fernando Spilki. All of the venues examined had such poor water quality that they endanger the health of the athletes and can trigger diseases such as diarrhea, vomiting and respiratory diseases. The lagoon Lagoa Rodrigo de Freitas , which is used as a competition site for rowing and canoeing, contains between 14 million and 1.7 billion adenoviruses per liter according to the studies . According to the Associated Press news agency, authorities on the southern California coast are already sounding the alarm when 1000 adenoviruses per liter are measured.

    The KPC germ , a pathogen that is multi-resistant to antibiotics, was detected as early as 2014 in Guanabara Bay , the venue for the surfing and sailing competitions . In August 2015, during a test regatta in Guanabara Bay, the German sailor Erik Heil was infected with a multi-resistant germ, he had infections on his legs and hips.

    According to a study published in mid-2016, “super bacteria” ( MRSA ) were found on five beaches off the capital, Rio de Janeiro : They presumably end up in the sea via hospital sewage.

    Bad condition of the Olympic village

    At the opening of the Olympic Village on July 24, 2016 - a good two weeks before the start of the Summer Olympic Games - many athletes and delegation members described the state of the Olympic Village as unsafe and uninhabitable. The Australian Olympic team and many Brazilian athletes then announced that they would boycott the move into the Olympic village and continue to stay in the surrounding hotels. The organizing committee then assigned several hundred workers to solve the problems as quickly as possible; Olympic teams from Brazil, Italy, the Netherlands and the US paid additional workers from their own budget.


    In some cases, the behavior of the Brazilian audience attracted criticism. The American soccer goalkeeper Hope Solo was booed every time the ball was touched because of a tweet about the Zika virus in the Olympic soccer group game USA versus New Zealand. The French pole vaulter Renaud Lavillenie , who fought for the gold medal in the Olympic pole vault final against the local hero Thiago Braz , was whistled by the audience during the competition and later at the award ceremony. IOC President Thomas Bach condemned the behavior of the audience on Twitter as “shocking behavior by viewers”.

    Outstanding debts

    By 2017, all outstanding debts of around 100 million reais (30 million euros) of the organizers were still not paid. The creditors were offered material goods as payment, and they were asked to forego 30 percent of their claims. Due to the outstanding debt, the organizing committee could not be dissolved as planned in June 2017.

    Reuse of the Olympic Park

    The organizers promised in advance that the Olympic Games would be sustainable by continuing to operate or reusing the specially created infrastructure. The implementation of this promise is made extremely difficult by the dire financial situation of the city and the state of Rio de Janeiro . The concepts for the subsequent use of the Olympic Park were poorly implemented or did not work.


    • In two basins, the water turned green due to increased algae growth. The cause was the introduction of too much hydrogen peroxide into the pool.
    • A camera broke from its anchorage on ropes and fell into the Olympic Park. Seven people were slightly injured.
    • Canoe trainer Stefan Henze from Germany died as a result of a traffic accident. The other two occupants of the taxi were slightly injured.
    • US swimming athlete Ryan Lochte , who won gold in the men's 4 x 200 meter freestyle, and three of his teammates claimed to have been threatened with a gun and robbed; the perpetrators wore police uniforms. According to investigations, Ryan Lochte and his three teammates had rioted drunk at a gas station and caused property damage. To cover this up, they faked a robbery.
    • Hope Solo , goalkeeper of the US women's football selection, made harsh comments after the quarter-final against Sweden and described the opponents as a "bunch of cowards" after the game due to their defensive style of play. The United States Soccer Federation (USSF) banned her for six months.

    See also

    Web links

    Commons : 2016 Summer Olympics  - Album with pictures, videos and audio files

    Individual evidence

    1. 100 Women: Do the Olympics have a gender gap? In: BBC.com. BBC , October 23, 2017, accessed September 21, 2018 .
    2. ^ German press agency : Chicago, Madrid, Tokyo and Rio in the final. In: faz.net. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung , June 4, 2008, accessed January 26, 2015 .
    3. Buying votes for Rio 2016: Raid on Olympia boss and arrest warrants , Olympic Games, on: Leichtathletik.de, from September 5, 2017, accessed on September 5, 2017
    4. track: Olympic test event hangs in the balance. In: rad-net.de. rad-net GmbH, March 9, 2016, accessed on March 11, 2016 .
    5. Hockey pitches for Rio 2016 Olympic Games are unveiled. In: fih.ch. Fédération Internationale de Hockey , November 20, 2015, accessed April 27, 2016 .
    6. WPI designed olympic canoe slalom venue challenging athletes at Rio 2016 Games. In: whitewaterparks.com. Whitewater Parks International, accessed August 20, 2016 .
    7. FIFA confirms football venues for Rio 2016 Olympic Games. In: rio2016.com. Comitê Olímpico Brasileiro , March 16, 2015, accessed on November 12, 2016 .
    8. Map of the organizers with all sports facilities (except golf) ( Memento from February 6, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
    9. Danielle Rocha: Rio-2016 mostra sua cara e lança em Copacabana a logomarca dos Jogos. In: globoesporte.globo.com. O Globo , January 1, 2011, accessed August 18, 2016 (Portuguese).
    10. Tatil: Paixão e Transformação ( Memento of 30 August 2011 at the Internet Archive )
    11. Tobias Buyer: Olympia 2016 in Rio: Search for the Brazilian way. In: faz.net. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung , August 15, 2012, accessed on August 23, 2016 .
    12. Instead of flowers: What do medal winners actually get in Rio's hands? (No longer available online.) In: mopo.de. Hamburger Morgenpost , August 14, 2016, archived from the original on August 18, 2016 ; accessed on August 18, 2016 .
    13. Fire for Rio 2016: A refugee as an Olympic torchbearer. In: faz.net. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, April 27, 2016, accessed on May 5, 2016 .
    14. Julio Segador: Olympic Flame in Brazil: Flickering Flame in Times of Crisis. In: tagesschau.de. Tagesschau.de , May 3, 2016, accessed May 5, 2016 .
    15. The Flagbearers for the Rio 2016 Opening Ceremony. In: olympic.org. International Olympic Committee , August 5, 2016, accessed August 14, 2016 .
    16. Olympic graduation: Rio says goodbye with a rain party. In: spiegel.de. Spiegel Online , August 22, 2016, accessed August 24, 2016 .
    17. Sports information service : Olympia: Kosovo at the start of the Olympics from 2016. (No longer available online.) In: zeit.de. Die Zeit , December 9, 2014, archived from the original on January 27, 2016 ; Retrieved February 20, 2016 .
    18. ^ German press agency: South Sudan was accepted into the IOC as the 206th country. In: sueddeutsche.de. Süddeutsche Zeitung , August 2, 2015, accessed on August 27, 2020 .
    19. Westfälische Nachrichten : Billion dollar lawsuit: Kuwait is banned in Rio and demands spectacular compensation for Olympic bans , sports, Kuwait City, sid, June 24, 2016,
    20. Björn Goldmann: When there is no anthem and the flag does not appear. In: derwesten.de. Westdeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung , August 12, 2016, accessed on August 15, 2016 .
    21. German press agency: Olympic participation: Kuwait sued IOC for damages. In: sueddeutsche.de. Süddeutsche Zeitung, June 23, 2016, accessed on August 3, 2020 .
    22. ^ Kuwait sues IOC for $ 1bn over Olympic suspension. In: aljazeera.com. Al Jazeera , June 23, 2016, accessed July 28, 2016 .
    23. Mercy for Russian Olympians: IOC allows trunk team. In: n-tv.de. n-tv , July 24, 2016, accessed on August 11, 2016 .
    24. Olympic Games: IOC does not exclude Russia from the Olympics. In: zeit.de. Die Zeit, July 24, 2016, accessed on July 24, 2016 .
    25. Olympic Games in Rio: Russian athletes are allowed to start - partially. In: fr-online.de. Frankfurter Rundschau , July 24, 2016, accessed on July 24, 2016 .
    26. Michael Reinsch and Christoph Becker: McLaren Report: Hospitality in Russian. In: faz.net. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, July 17, 2016, accessed on July 17, 2016 .
    27. ^ Doping report: WADA for Rio without Russia. In: tagesschau.de. Tagesschau.de, July 17, 2016, accessed on July 17, 2016 .
    28. ^ Sports court contradicts IOC: New judgment - Are Russia's dopers allowed to go to Rio? In: faz.net. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, August 5, 2016, accessed on August 5, 2016 .
    29. Rio 2016: Olympics without athletes from Russia. In: faz.net. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, June 17, 2016, accessed on June 18, 2016 .
    30. IAAF only allows Klischina Olympic start. In: rio.sportschau.de. Sportschau , July 10, 2016, accessed on July 11, 2016 .
    31. CAS confirms ban on Russian athletes. In: sueddeutsche.de. Süddeutsche Zeitung, July 21, 2016, accessed on July 22, 2016 .
    32. Sports: Whistleblower Yuliya Stepanova is not allowed to take part in the Olympic Games. In: n24.de. N24 , July 24, 2016, accessed July 24, 2016 .
    33. Summer Games in Rio: Whistleblower Stepanova defends herself against IOC. In: spiegel.de. Spiegel Online , July 27, 2016, accessed July 27, 2016 .
    34. ^ IOC puts Russia and Kenya under special guard until the Olympic Games. In: sport1.de. Sport1 , June 21, 2016, accessed June 22, 2016 .
    35. Stephen Wilson: 3 athletes sanctioned for failed drug tests at Rio Games. In: olympics.cbc.ca. CBC / Radio-Canada , August 12, 2016, accessed August 13, 2016 .
    36. Kyrgyzstan convicted of doping - weightlifter has to surrender Olympic bronze. In: tagesschau.de. Tagesschau.de, August 18, 2016, accessed on August 18, 2016 .
    37. swp.de
    38. Rio 2016 C-1 1000m (canoe single) men - Olympic Canoe Sprint. In: olympic.org. Retrieved December 10, 2016 .
    39. Moldova's Serghei Tarnovschi receives a four year ban , on canoeicf.com, February 3, 2017. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
    40. Because of doping: World Federation wants to ban Russian weightlifters for the Olympics. In: spiegel.de. Spiegel Online, June 23, 2016, accessed June 23, 2016 .
    41. ^ German press agency: IOC: Refugee athletes at the Olympics. In: focus.de. Focus , October 27, 2015, accessed March 23, 2016 .
    42. ^ Team of Refugee Olympic Athletes (ROA) created by the IOC. In: olympic.org. International Olympic Committee, March 2, 2016, accessed March 23, 2016 .
    43. Golf and rugby will be Olympic in 2016. (No longer available online.) In: dosb.de. German Olympic Sports Confederation , October 9, 2009, archived from the original on March 5, 2013 ; Retrieved April 3, 2016 .
    44. Olympic Games: Tickets for Rio 2016 are available from 13 euros. In: rad-net.de. rad-net GmbH, October 8, 2014, accessed October 10, 2014 .
    45. Todd Spangler: Olympics in VR: NBC to Present 85 Hours of Virtual Reality Content on Samsung Devices. In: variety.com. Variety , June 30, 2016, accessed August 19, 2016 .
    46. ^ Carolyn Giardina: Rio Olympics: NBC Plans 4K and High Dynamic Range for Opening Ceremony Coverage. In: hollywoodreporter.com. The Hollywood Reporter , May 26, 2016, accessed August 19, 2016 .
    47. IOC reaches agreement for 2014 & 2016 broadcast rights in Brazil. In: olympic.org. International Olympic Committee, August 27, 2009, accessed August 19, 2016 .
    48. ^ Zika virus: Brazil advises pregnant women against attending the Olympics. In: tagesschau.de. Tagesschau.de, February 2, 2016, accessed April 18, 2016 .
    49. Zika virus: Olympic venues to be inspected daily before and during games. In: bbc.com. British Broadcasting Corporation , January 29, 2016, accessed July 5, 2016 .
    50. Zika virus: Scientists call for the Rio Olympics to be relocated. In: spiegel.de. Spiegel Online, May 28, 2016, accessed June 1, 2016 .
    51. Zika virus: 150 researchers recommend postponing the Olympics. In: diepresse.com. DiePresse.com , May 28, 2016, accessed June 1, 2016 .
    52. Jordan Spieth joins list of top golfers skipping Rio Olympics. In: cnn.com. CNN , July 11, 2016, accessed July 12, 2016 .
    53. ^ Christian Albrecht Barschel: The list of cancellations for the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro. In: tennisnet.com. A Team Media GmbH, August 2, 2016, accessed on August 2, 2016 .
    54. ^ Rio Olympics: South Korea unveiled anti-Zika uniform. In: cnn.com. CNN, April 29, 2016, accessed July 5, 2016 .
    55. Song Ji-hoon, Park Lin, Choi Hyung-jo: Olympic athletes face Zika virus in Rio. In: koreajoongangdaily.joins.com. JoongAng Daily, August 3, 2016, accessed August 6, 2016 .
    56. a b c d e Carsten Upadek: Olympia 2016: Super bacteria in front of Rio's beaches. In: deutschlandfunk.de. Deutschlandfunk , June 19, 2016, accessed June 20, 2016 .
    57. ^ Thaís Herrero, Jan Hendrik Hinzel: Not yet suitable for competition. In: contario.net. Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung , accessed on July 9, 2016 .
    58. Liz Clarke: USOC, athletes navigate questions swirling around Rio's contaminated water. In: washingtonpost.com. The Washington Post , March 9, 2016, accessed July 9, 2016 .
    59. The disgusting Olympic broth from Rio makes you sick. In: welt.de. Die Welt , July 30, 2015, accessed July 9, 2016 .
    60. Brad Brooks, Jenny Barchfield: AP Investigation: Olympic teams to swim, boat in Rio's filth. In: ap.org. Associated Press, July 30, 2015, accessed July 9, 2016 .
    61. Tatjana Pokorny: Erik Heil fell ill after a test regatta. In: yacht.de. YACHT editorial team, August 27, 2015, accessed on July 9, 2016 .
    62. Australians refuse to move in: Olympic village in Rio is "uninhabitable". In: ntv.de. n-tv, July 25, 2016, accessed July 25, 2016 .
    63. Rio de Janeiro: Australians declare Olympic village uninhabitable. In: zeit.de. Die Zeit, July 25, 2015, accessed on July 25, 2016 .
    64. Jonathan Watts: Rio 2016: more than half of Athletes Village buildings still to pass safety tests. In: theguardian.com. The Guardian , July 25, 2015, accessed July 26, 2016 .
    65. Olympic women's soccer tournament: Hope Solo booed because of Zika tweet. In: spiegel.de. Spiegel Online, August 4, 2016, accessed August 19, 2016 .
    66. Ronald Tenbusch: Brazilians boo the French - until the tears come. In: welt.de. Die Welt, August 17, 2016, accessed on August 19, 2016 .
    67. ^ German press agency: The whistles of the Brazilians. In: handelsblatt.com. Handelsblatt , August 8, 2016, accessed on August 19, 2016 .
    68. Rio wants to pay off debts in tangible goods , Luxemburger Wort , April 8, 2017.
    69. 2016 Games: Rio remains in debt after the Olympics . In: Spiegel Online . July 10, 2017 ( spiegel.de [accessed July 8, 2018]).
    70. RP ONLINE: One year after the 2016 Olympics: The disastrous legacy for Rio de Janeiro. Retrieved July 8, 2018 .
    71. Ivo Marusczyk: Rio and the legacy of the Games . In: Deutschlandfunk . ( deutschlandfunk.de [accessed on July 8, 2018]).
    72. Green water in the Olympic pool: hydrogen peroxide made the algae grow. In: spiegel.de. Spiegel Online, August 15, 2016, accessed on August 21, 2016 .
    73. Several injured people - the camera in the Olympic Park crashes. In: tagesschau.de. Tagesschau.de, August 15, 2016, accessed on August 18, 2016 : “A panorama camera crashed in the Olympic Park in Rio de Janeiro. Seven people were injured mostly slightly. The mobile camera was attached to steel cables. The accident occurred near the three Carioca arenas in the Olympic Park. "
    74. ^ After doubts about the attack: Brazilians prevent US swimmers from leaving the country. In: spiegel.de. Spiegel Online, August 18, 2016, accessed August 18, 2016 .
    75. US soccer player: US association bans Hope Solo for six months. In: spiegel.de. Spiegel Online, August 25, 2016, accessed August 25, 2016 .
    76. Hope Solo Suspended from US WNT for Six Months. In: ussoccer.com. United States Soccer Federation , August 24, 2016, accessed August 25, 2016 .