Hockey ( altfrz. Hoquet , "Shepherd stock") is a with hockey sticks executed ball game on turf (nowadays mostly on artificial turf) as field hockey and indoor as indoor hockey is played. Hockey has been an Olympic sport since 1908 . The world hockey federation is the Fédération Internationale de Hockey .
Starting with traditional hockey, which is also known as land hockey in Switzerland and Austria , other hockey sports have emerged , of which ice hockey is the best known, others are: bandy , roller hockey , inline / skater hockey , floorball / floorball , street hockey , unicycle hockey and wheelchair -Hockey .
Spread and history
Hockey is a team sport . In Central Europe , in addition to field hockey , indoor hockey is also played (only in the winter months), although the rules differ slightly from those of field hockey. For a long time, international hockey was dominated by the former British colonies of India and Pakistan , which traditionally had highly technical players. Since the late 1980s, hockey has been increasingly shaped by athletics and tactics. The European countries Netherlands , Spain and Germany as well as Australia are currently considered to be leaders in men's hockey. For the women, Australia , the Netherlands and Argentina are currently the strongest nations .
The oldest written hockey rulebook in the world, the Rules of Harrow , was published in England in 1852 . The first hockey club was founded in Blackheath, England, in the 1840s. Today, Hamburg is the stronghold of German hockey, with the largest number of club players and the most successful teams. The first competition in Germany, however, was played in Bonn, in 1896 between English students from the Bad Godesberg pedagogy and Germans from the Bonn Royal High School . The first competition of the women's team of the Berlin Women's Hockey Club took place as early as 1899 . Also first in Berlin, the Berlin Hockey Association was founded in 1902 as the first regional hockey association in Germany. In 1908 a team from Uhlenhorster HC took part in Germany's first Olympic hockey tournament.
On December 31, 1909, the German Hockey Association was founded in Bonn . The Austrian Hockey Association (ÖHV) was founded in 1913 and the Swiss Land Hockey Association in 1919, which was renamed Swiss Hockey in 2015 . On January 7, 1924, seven nations (Belgium, France, Spain, Austria, Switzerland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary) founded the world association FIH ( Fédération Internationale de Hockey ). The head office is in Lausanne . In the early 1950s, hockey began in the hall as well. The rules were drawn up in Austria and Germany and still apply in principle unchanged today, but have been adapted to current developments in recent years.
The often (also critically) noted fact that women who play hockey wear skirts stems from the fact that hockey is one of the oldest sports that women could ever access. You were playing hockey as early as 1900, but then in ankle-length skirts. With the change of customs, the skirts could be adapted bit by bit to the sporting requirements. The fact that in the German-speaking area people generally speak of women's hockey, not of women's hockey, is based on the comparatively long tradition. In the hockey countries, apart from India and Pakistan, such as B. Netherlands, Great Britain, Australia, Argentina, South Korea, Germany, hockey is practiced by women in a similar range and density of performance as men.
As of January 1, 2019, there were a total of 85,950 hockey players in Germany, organized in 376 clubs.
In hockey, special protective equipment is only allowed for the goalkeeper . Only certain pieces of equipment are permitted for field players in order to prevent injuries. A club jersey is also worn. Equipment must be worn correctly during the game, if not, the referee can pronounce a penalty for “incorrect equipment”.
- Indoor or field hockey sticks
- Jersey with player number
- Field or indoor hockey shoes
- short pants (men) / short skirt (women)
- Shin guards (not required by the rules, but are usually worn by all field players)
- Mouthguard (not prescribed by the regulations, sometimes a very expensive custom-made product by the dental technician, but mainly cheaper but less protective versions are available in stores and also common)
- Protective glove (common in the hall but voluntary, rarely worn in the field; the protective glove is always on the left hand due to the usual stick position)
- Face masks for the defenders (for penalty corners, optional)
- Leg guards (kicker, rails)
- Neck ruff / larynx protection
- Helmet with grid
- Stick glove
- Goalkeeper's blade (special hockey stick)
To be able to play, the goalkeeper only needs head protection, rails and kickers.
In hockey, two teams each consisting of ten field players and one goal player (six field players and goalkeeper in the small field and five field players and goal keeper in the hall) compete against each other. In addition, up to five alternating players are allowed, who can change at any time ( interchanging ). It can be changed as often as you want. It used to be played on natural grass (and exceptionally on hard courts, etc.), but now high-quality hockey is almost exclusively played on artificial turf (an advantage is, for example, the level surface, which enables faster speed and better ball control, as well as the fact that the turf is not dependent on the weather ). In contrast to other ball sports, hockey is basically a disembodied game. H. the opponent must not be pushed aside or actively blocked.
Field hockey games last 4 × 15 minutes in the adult area, with a 40-second time-out when a penalty corner is imposed and after a goal has been scored. If the penalty corner is repeated, no new time-out is granted. The time is stopped for longer interruptions. In the youth sector as well as tournaments there may be different regulations, for example two halves or shorter playing times.
The cue ball must not touch the foot or anything other than the flat side of the club. Only the goalkeeper is allowed to fend off the ball with his body within his own shooting circle. In the event of unintentional rule violations by the defending team within the firing circle, there is a penalty corner, also known as a “short corner”. In the case of deliberate violations, a seven meter penalty will be imposed.
In field hockey, the ball may be played high if it is not dangerous for the players. Only the goal, the ball may highly beaten , otherwise only geschlenzt be. If a player wishes to accept a ball that has been thrown high, other players must not come closer than five meters until the ball has been accepted and is on the ground under the player's control. If it is unclear who is closest to the ball, the player has the right to the ball belonging to the team that did not kick the ball up.
The field hockey playing field is 91.4 × 55 m (≙ 100 × 60 yards), smaller for indoor hockey. The two halves of the field are each divided by a quarter line 22.9 m from the goal line. 6.40 m (≙ 7.00 yards) in front of the center of the goal is the so-called seven-meter point (for penalty kicks). Small field hockey is also played outside of regular game play .
goal of the game
The goal is to shoot the ball (usually a plastic ball with a circumference of 22.4 to 23.5 cm, i.e. 7.1 to 7.5 cm in diameter, previously made of leather or pressed cork) into the 2.14 m high goal , The ball may only be played with the flat side of the stick and the shot on goal may only be made in the shooting circle marked in front of the goal. This shot circle is an imaginary semicircle starting from the center of the goal with a radius of 14.63 m (field hockey, indoor hockey: 9 m).
A specialty in hockey is the so-called penalty corner or "short corner". In both field and indoor hockey, a penalty corner occurs in the event of a rule violation by the defending team in the shooting circle or in the event of gross rule violations outside the shooting circle.
In the case of a penalty corner, up to four players plus the goalkeeper of the defending team go next to or in the goal at the height of the goal line. They all need to have their feet behind the line. The other defenders must move behind the center line. One player of the attacking team ("publisher") is with the ball at the height of the goal line, any number of other attackers are outside the shooting circle. After the referee has released the corner, the publisher plays one of the attackers, only when this has been played can the defending players enter the shooting circle. The attackers usually take the ball outside of the shooting circle, as the ball must leave the circle at least once before a goal can be scored. The attackers have several options, for example acceptance and shot at goal by one and the same player, acceptance by the stopper and shot at goal by another player, or a pass.
The probability that a goal will be scored in such a penalty corner is high. To ward off a penalty corner, the defenders may wear face masks.
A seven meter penalty is imposed in the case of deliberate rule violations by the defender in the shooting circle, or rule violations that prevented a goal or at least a nearly one hundred percent chance of scoring. During the execution of the seven meter, the time is stopped. The shot for the seven meter must not be drawn out.
In field and indoor hockey, colored signal cards are used for personal penalties. The world association FIH introduced them in the 1970s so that the penalties can be structured more clearly. The colored cards have different shapes so that color-blind players or officials can also see which penalty has been pronounced.
- Green card: Since the beginning of November 2016, the green card has only meant a serious warning to a player in the event of a rule violation in field hockey. Nationally and internationally, field hockey has also been excluded from playing for 2 to 5 minutes since 2012. In indoor hockey, since the beginning of November 2016, the green card means that national and international players are only excluded from playing for 1 minute. A warning is only given orally due to the physical proximity. A maximum of three green cards should be issued per club. A player can only receive one green card, his next rule violation will result in a yellow card.
- The yellow card means exclusion for 2 to 5 minutes on small field field hockey, 2 to 10 minutes in indoor hockey and 5 to 15 minutes in large field field hockey. The team plays with one less player. If a player in large field field hockey commits a technical violation of the rules without physical contact, the referees must expel him from the field for at least 5 minutes. In the case of foul play involving physical contact, the player must leave the field of play for 10 minutes. If the player commits another offense after a time penalty has been imposed but before the game has started, the time penalty is increased by 5 minutes. If a substitute or temporary coach is excluded from the game, they must remain in the seating for players who are temporarily excluded from the game. In addition, the team captain must name one of his players on the field of play, who must sit on the team bench or where it should be, but who is available as a substitute. Players or coaches who are temporarily excluded are allowed to stay with their team during the half-time break. And must return to the predetermined position at the beginning of the second half until the penalty time has expired. You can also attend a meeting during a break.
- The yellow-red card means that the player or supervisor is excluded for the remainder of the game. The affected player (or supervisor) must leave the field of play and its immediate surroundings, his team plays with one less player for the rest of the game. The yellow-red card is issued if a player who has already received a time penalty or a yellow card in the current game commits a rule violation that would result in another time penalty or a yellow card. A yellow-red card is linked to a suspension for the next game. In indoor hockey, the team whose player or supervisor has received a yellow-red card ("second yellow card") is allowed to play after 15 minutes for a playing time of 2 × 30 minutes, and a playing time of less than 2 × 30 minutes Complete 10 minutes again.
- The red card is the highest punishment in hockey. The affected player (or supervisor) must leave the field of play and its immediate surroundings, his team plays with one less player for the rest of the game. The referees must write a detailed report on the red card and send it to the relevant committee. The player is banned for at least the next two games unless the responsible committee decides on a longer ban.
If a game in an elimination competition ends in a draw, the winner will be determined via a shoot-out. At least five players must start from the quarter line and try to score a goal against a goalkeeper. They each have eight seconds to do this. If the goalkeeper fouls the attacker, a seven-meter penalty is continued.
Since the Olympic Games in London 2012, every team can request video evidence per half in controversial game situations (opposing foot blocks the ball; ball is played above shoulder height, etc.). To request video evidence, a player must symbolize this to the referee with a “T” displayed in the air. If the video evidence is in favor of the requesting team, they have the option of further video evidence in this half-time. Otherwise, the team has granted their right to further video evidence. If the video evidence does not show whether the factual decision of the referee was right or wrong, there is always the possibility of renewed video evidence, but the factual decision of the referee then counts. Furthermore, there is also the possibility that the referee himself can request video evidence in order to clarify a situation that is difficult for him to decide. "The imposition of personal punishments must not be the subject of a request for video evidence by a team."
Indoor hockey is a variant of hockey that was initially widespread in Central Europe (Germany, Switzerland, Austria, France). In the meantime, indoor hockey is also played a lot and successfully in Eastern Europe. Indoor hockey was created to bridge the winter months when a game on the field was not possible. Now regular games are played on the field in summer and indoors in winter. Since the indoor hockey world championships have been held, this sport has also become more popular in other countries. Some hockey nations without indoor play, such as the Netherlands, England, USA, Canada and Australia, are now taking part in international indoor tournaments quite successfully.
Style of play
In indoor hockey, the touchline is provided with boards. It is played with six players. Temporarily (2014-2015) the game was played internationally with five players, in 2016 the FIH returned to the original number of players. The ball is a little lighter than the field variant. In contrast to field hockey, it must not be played high unless it is a shot on goal within the shooting circle. The ball may only be pushed, but not hit or flicked. It is only allowed to flick a shot on goal within the shooting circle. In addition, each player is only allowed to have ground contact with a maximum of two points on his body. Otherwise, the racket posture and rules largely correspond to those of field hockey.
The players usually wear a glove to protect the hand when the ball is stopped. Common tricks in the game include forehand and backhand pulls, as well as quick turns over the opponent's backhand side. However, many field hockey tricks are omitted in the hall because the ball must not be played high. Instead, the gang is used as a "teammate". The ball to be played flat can no longer go into touch, but bounces back into the field, which enables a self-assist. This is an advantage, especially on the right side of the hall, as the opponent then has the boards on the backhand side.
Hockey5 is a variant of the Olympic hockey "eleven against eleven". It is played on the so-called "small field" with only five players in each team. The most important deviations are:
- smaller playing field, maximum 55 m × 41.70 m, approx. half of a normal field (the goals are on the touch lines so that they are halved by the quarter lines),
- five players, one of whom is the goalkeeper,
- there is no shooting circle , a goal can be scored from the entire field.
With the introduction of Hockey5 in July 2013, the World Hockey Federation (FIH) expects better development opportunities, especially in countries where hockey has not yet been played. With this new regulation, the number of players in international indoor hockey was temporarily reduced from six to five, which was heavily criticized in Germany. From 2016 indoor hockey will be played again internationally with six players (Hockey6).
In November 2019, the FIH announced plans for the first Hockey5 World Championship to take place in 2023.
The most important tournaments for national teams are the Olympic hockey tournaments , the hockey world championships and the Champions Trophy, as well as the Hockey World League, introduced in 2012 . These tournaments are organized by the World Hockey Federation FIH . The continental championships held in Europe , Asia , Africa , America and Oceania are also of great importance . The record men's world champion with four titles is Pakistan , followed by the Netherlands and Australia , each with three successes.
The most important tournaments for club teams are the European Champion Clubs 'Cup and the European Cup Winners' Cup. With the creation of the Euro Hockey League (EHL) for men in 2007, the classic European Cup is only available for women. All of these tournaments are organized by the European Hockey Federation EHF.
Feld The German men's national team won gold medals
at the Olympic Games in 1972 , 1992 , 2008 and 2012 . The women became Olympic champions in 2004 . At the 2002 World Cup , the German men won the title for the first time and were able to win it again in 2006 in front of their home crowd in Mönchengladbach. In addition, Germany has won the Champions Trophy ten times . The German women's national team won the world championship title in 1976 and 1981 as well as the Champions Trophy 2006. The men won the European championship eight times and the women twice.
Germany is by far the most successful nation in the hall. By 2006, the men's team had won all twelve of the previous European championships , but this year they suffered a defeat under the roof for the first time in the preliminary round match against Poland at 4: 9. Before that there were only two draws against France in 1988 and against Spain in 2001, otherwise all games were won indoors. At the next European Championship in 2008 the team lost the final against Russia, in 2010 they only finished fifth before the team won the title again in 2012 , 2014 and 2016 . The women have so far been victorious in 14 out of 16 events.
Both teams won the gold medal at the first World Indoor Championships in 2003 in Leipzig. In 2007 the men defended the title while the women finished third. In 2011 both teams won the title again. The men finished third at the 2015 World Championships in Leipzig and second in Berlin in 2018 , while the women finished second in 2015 and won the title again in 2018 .
The men's team won the European championship in the hall in 2010 and 2018 , the silver medal in 2014 and 2016 and the bronze medal in 2008 and 2012 . After bronze in 2011 and silver in 2015 , the men's team also won the world championship title for the first time in 2018 .
The U21 men achieved gold at the European Indoor Championships in 2007 and 2013 and silver in 2009 and 2011.
Game operations in Germany
In Germany, the German Hockey Association is an umbrella organization.
This organizes the game operations in field and indoor hockey. There is a single-track Bundesliga for women and men , with twelve teams. This is followed by the 2nd Bundesliga, which is divided into a north and a south group. Then come the four regional leagues (south, west, east, north), with a second regional league in the south, each with a west and a south season (Hessen, Rhineland-Palatinate / Saar and Bavaria, Baden-Württemberg). All regional associations operate a major league and several association leagues below the regional league, see the hockey league system in Germany .
All German championships can be found in the list of German champions in hockey .
There is an extensive range of games for young people (up to 18 years of age), which is divided into age groups. In the six age groups (female youth A and B, male youth A and B, girls A and boys A) German championships are held on the field and in the hall.
Hockey is offered to children from the age of four. There are championships in all regional associations for the various age groups from ten years of age. For the younger ones these take place in tournament form with rules suitable for children, for the older ones in individual games. Physical size does not play a decisive role in hockey, you need stamina, feel for the ball, technique and tactical understanding.
- List of Olympic champions in hockey
- List of Olympic hockey stadiums
- Hockey World Championship
- Champions Trophy
- Hockey World League
- Category hockey player
- Hockey sport
- German Hockey Association
- Austrian Hockey Association
- Swiss Hockey
- Homepage of the world hockey association FIH
- German Hockey Newspaper (DHZ)
- Hockeyfragen.de Information about field hockey
- Field hockey rules 2017 (DHB) with rule changes for the second half of the field hockey season 2018/19 (DHB) (PDF)
- Rules for indoor hockey (DHB) (PDF)
- The Brief History of The Oldest Hockey Club in the World on the Blackheath & Elthamians Hockey Club website . The oldest surviving document is a log book from 1861, hence the year in the club's coat of arms.
- Survey 2019. (PDF) German Olympic Sports Confederation, accessed on December 8, 2019 .
- We have to regulate that ; The daily mirror of July 28, 2012.
- Christian Blasch; Rulebook (SRA): Indoor hockey briefing 2016-17 (with rule changes). (PDF) Deutscher Hockey Bund, accessed on January 30, 2017 .
- rules of the German Hockey Federation e. V. (PDF; 406 kB).
- Where the modern variant of field hockey began. In: gohockey.com. December 18, 2012, accessed February 28, 2015 .
- Videobeweis-Mannheim-2017.pdf. In: Regulations for the requirement of video evidence for the 2017 German championship for women and men in field hockey in Mannheim. German Hockey Association V., accessed April 4, 2018 .
- FIH announces rule changes to indoor hockey. Retrieved September 10, 2015 .
- National leagues return to normal indoor hockey mode. Retrieved July 27, 2014 .
- It's here! Hockey 5 set to make official debut. Retrieved July 27, 2014 .
- Rules of Hockey5s Including Explanations. (PDF) Retrieved July 27, 2014 .
- Hockey 5 decided internationally. Retrieved August 27, 2018 .
- International Olympic Committee - Hockey. Retrieved September 19, 2014 .
- FOCUS Online: World Federation: First World Cup in Hockey5 planned. Retrieved November 12, 2019 .