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Nánjīng Shì
Nanjing montage.png
Clockwise from top:
Xuanwu Lake and the Purple Mountains (2013), Pixiu Stone Sculpture of the Southern Dynasties (2009), Xiaojing Mausoleum (2009), Jiming Temple (2010), Nanjing City Gate (2008), Qinhuai River at night ( 2010), Nanjing Olympic Sports Center (2007), Soul Path - Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum (2007), Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum (2007)
Nanjing (China)
Coordinates 32 ° 3 '  N , 118 ° 47'  E Coordinates: 32 ° 3 '  N , 118 ° 47'  E
Location of Nanjing in Jiangsu
Location of Nanjing in Jiangsu
Basic data
Country People's Republic of China
region East china
province Jiangsu
status district-free city
structure 11 boroughs
height 20 m
surface 4728 km²
Metropolitan area 6598 km²
Residents 5,827,888 (2010)
Metropolitan area 8,270,000 (2016)
density 1,232.6  Ew. / km²
Metropolitan area 1,253.4  Ew. / km²
Post Code 210000-213000
Telephone code +86 (0) 25
Time zone UTC + 8
License Plate 苏 A
mayor Lan, Shaomin (2018)
蓝 绍敏

Nanjing ( Chinese  南京 , Pinyin Nánjīng  - "southern capital", listening ? / I ) is a district-free city in the People's Republic of China and has the abbreviation Ning (  /  , Níng  - "peace, quiet"). In addition to the usual spelling according to the official Pinyin transcription "Nanjing" , the older German spelling according to Stange Nanking (with diacritical : "Nank'ing") can still be seen today. Nanjing is the capital and metropolis of today 's Jiangsu Province . As a city with a long history, Nanking has received a variety of names over time. One of the many old names of Nanjing is for example Jinling ( 金陵 , Jīnlíng  - "golden hill") or Shicheng ( 石城 , Shíchéng  - "stone castle, rock city"). The city was the historical capital of the Ming Dynasty at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th century and the capital of the Republic of China from 1927 to 1949 , making it one of the four great historical capitals of China . Nanjing is a political and cultural center in China with a long history. That is why Nanjing is also called the “Ancient Capitol of the Six Dynasties” ( 六朝 古都 , Liù Cháo Gǔdū ) or “Metropolis of the Ten Dynasties” ( 十 朝 都會  /  十 朝 都会 , Shí Cháo Dūhuì ) in Chinese . Nanjing has 5,827,888 inhabitants in the urban area (as of 2010) and 8,270,000 in the agglomeration (as of 2016). Audio file / audio sample

Geography and administrative structure

Nanjing is located in the eastern part of the People's Republic at the beginning of the Yangtze River - Delta . The city stretches on both sides of the river, which bends here to the east, with the center lying entirely on the right bank of the river. Because of the enormous width of the Yangtze, there was only one bridge in the entire urban area before 2000, but it is still one of the most strategically important transport routes in the country. A further three new bridges had been completed by 2010 and an underground line directly in the Yangtze will be open to traffic before the international Youth Olympic Game in 2014 . The narrow Qinhuai River meanders through the city in numerous turns ; there are also numerous natural and artificial lakes of various sizes. The protected landscape area of ​​the relatively low Purple Mountains extends to the east .

Nanjing is made up of eleven districts:

  • Xuanwu district ( 玄武區  /  玄武区 ), 70 km², approx. 440,000 inhabitants (2004);
  • Qinhuai district ( 秦淮 區  /  秦淮 区 ), 49.39 km², approx. 700,000 inhabitants (2004);
  • Jianye district ( 建鄴區  /  建邺区 ), 18 km², approx. 170,000 inhabitants (2004);
  • Gulou district ( 鼓樓 區  /  鼓楼 区 ), 53.08 km², approx. 930,000 inhabitants (2004);
  • Pukou district ( 浦口 區  /  浦口 区 ), 894 km², approx. 480,000 inhabitants (2004);
  • Luhe district ( 六合 區  /  六合 区 ), 1,487 km², approx. 860,000 inhabitants (2004);
  • Qixia district ( 棲霞 區  /  栖霞 区 ), 302 km², approx. 370,000 inhabitants (2004);
  • Yuhuatai district ( 雨花 台 區  /  雨花 台 区 ), 148 km², approx. 180,000 inhabitants (2004);
  • Jiangning district ( 江寧 區  /  江宁 区 ), 1,602 km², approx. 760,000 inhabitants (2004);
  • Lishui district ( 溧水 區  /  溧水 区 ), 1,048 km², approx. 400,000 inhabitants (2004);
  • District of Gaochun ( 高淳 區  /  高淳 区 ), 750 km², approx. 420,000 inhabitants (2004),
    main town: Chunxi municipality ( 淳 溪鎮  /  淳 溪镇 ).


Climate diagram
J F. M. A. M. J J A. S. O N D.
Temperature in ° Cprecipitation in mm
Monthly average temperatures and rainfall for Nanjing
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Max. Temperature ( ° C ) 6.8 8.6 13.4 20.0 25.0 29.2 32.2 32.4 27.3 22.3 15.9 9.7 O 20.3
Min. Temperature (° C) -1.6 0.1 4.4 10.4 15.6 20.5 24.7 24.3 19.1 12.5 6.3 0.4 O 11.4
Precipitation ( mm ) 31 50 73 94 100 167 184 113 96 46 48 29 Σ 1,031
Hours of sunshine ( h / d ) 4.8 4.7 4.9 5.7 6.3 6.7 7.3 7.9 5.9 5.9 5.3 5.1 O 5.9
Rainy days ( d ) 8th 7th 6th 9 7th 8th 8th 8th 5 3 4th 8th Σ 81
Humidity ( % ) 73 75 74 75 75 77 81 80 80 76 76 75 O 76.4
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Nanjing has a subtropical monsoon climate with four distinct seasons and, along with the cities of Wuhan and Chongqing, is one of the three so-called “blast furnaces on the Yangtze River”. The summers are hot and humid with monthly average temperatures of up to 28 ° C (day temperatures up to a maximum of 43 ° C) and humidity up to 81%; the winters are cold with monthly average temperatures of 2 ° C. Every 12 months are humid . The best time to travel is autumn (September to November).


Population development
year Population (million) Natural Growth (%)
1949 2.5670 13.09
1950 2.5670 15.64
1955 2.8034 19.94
1960 3.2259 0.23
1965 3.4529 25.58
1970 3.6053 20.76
1975 3.9299 9.53
1978 4.1238 8.84
1980 4.3587 8.08
1985 4.6577 4.56
year Population (million) Natural Growth (%)
1990 5.0182 9.18
1995 5.2172 2.62
1996 5.2543 2.63
1997 5.2982 2.16
1998 5.3231 1.00
1999 5.3744 2.01
2000 5.4489 2.48
2001 5.5304 1.60
2002 5.6328 0.70
2003 5.7223 −0.60

According to the fifth Chinese census , the total population of Nanjing City reached 6.24 million in 2000. The birth rate was 7.73% and the mortality rate 5.44%. In 2004, 47,429 couples married while 7,036 divorced. Among those getting married there were 10,473 people who had already been married once.

As in most cities in East China, a very high proportion (98.56%) of the population of Nanjing is Han . 77,394 residents of Nanjing belong to one of the 50 minorities represented in the city; the largest shares of these are accounted for by the Hui (64,832), the Manchurian (2,311) and the Zhuang (533). Most of the minority members live in Jianye District, accounting for 9.13% of the population.

In 2003, the gender ratio in the city was 106.49 men for every 100 women.

In 2004, the city's gross national product was 191 million yuan, ranking third in Jiangsu Province . It was 33,050 yuan per capita, an increase of 15% over 2003. At 4.03%, the unemployment rate was slightly below the national average of 4.2%.


Until 1368

Nanjing is one of the oldest cities in South China. According to legend, Fu Chai ( 夫差 , Fuchāi ), the ruler of Wu , lived in what is now Nanjing as early as 495 BC. A city called Yecheng ( 冶 城 , Yěchéng ) was built. 473 BC However, the state of Yue Wu is said to have conquered and built  the city of Yuecheng ( 越 城 , Yuèchéng ) near today's Zhonghua Gate ( 中華 門  /  中华 门 , Zhōnghuámén - "Chinator") . 333 BC Finally, after the fall of the Yue State, the Chu State built the city of Jinling Yi ( 金陵 邑 , Jīnlíng-yì ) in the northwest of what is now Nanjing . Since then, the city has seen numerous destruction and reconstruction work.

Nanjing first became the capital in AD 229 when Sun Quan of Wu moved his residence to Jianye ( 建鄴  /  建邺 , Jiànyè ), a city at the foot of Jinling Yi, during the Three Kingdoms . After the invasion of the Five Hu , the nobility of the Jin Dynasty fled via the Yangzi and made Nanjing again the capital under the name Jiankang ( 建康 , Jiànkāng ). It only lost this status again under the Sui dynasty that united China .

Nanjing and especially its industry experienced an upswing again under the Tang and Song . During the Yuan Dynasty (Mongol rule), the city became a center of textile manufacturing.

Ming Dynasty

Ming - Emperor Hongwu

The first Ming emperor Hongwu raised Nanjing again to the capital of China in 1368 and gave it the name Yingtian ( 應 天  /  应 天 , Yīngtiān , more precisely: 應 天府  /  应 天府 , Yīngtiān Fǔ ). In 21 years, around 200,000 workers built Nanjing into the largest city in the world at that time with an estimated population of one million. The city ​​wall , which is still largely preserved today, as well as the remains of the Ming Imperial Palace, the Forbidden City of Nanjing, date from this time . The city then achieved considerable prosperity. In addition to the traditional textile industry, printing and shipbuilding have now also established themselves; At that time, Nanjing was the shipyard for the largest sailing ships of the Middle Ages and the home port of Admiral Zheng He's treasure fleet . From here his travels went to India, Arabia and Africa. After Emperor Yongle had moved the capital to Beijing ("Northern Capital") in 1421 , he gave Yingtian its current name Nanjing for the first time, which can be translated as "Southern Capital".

Qing Dynasty

Nanking (1853)

During the Qing Dynasty , the city was named Jiangning ( 江寧  /  江宁 , Jiāngníng ) and served as the seat of government for the viceroy of Liangjiang .

Nanjing is the historical site of the (forced) opening of the "Middle Kingdom" to the west with the Treaty of Nanjing (1842), which heralded the decline of China. Under the name Tianjing ( 天京 , Tiānjīng  - "capital of heaven") it was the center of the Taiping uprising in the middle of the 19th century . After the recapture by Qing General Zeng Guofan in 1864, 100,000 residents were killed by massacre or suicide.

First republic

In 1912, under the leadership of Sun Yat-sens , Nanjing rose again to become the Chinese capital. His mausoleum can still be found today in the Purple Mountains in the east of the city. In 1915, Yuan Shikai moved the seat of government back to Beijing. In the course of the Chinese reunification , the Kuomintang founded a new national government in Nanjing in 1928. The period 1928–1937 is also known as the Nanjing Decade .

The associated influx of wealthy classes ensured a revival of the economy and consumption. A number of department stores emerged, such as Zhongyang Shangchang . In 1933, the added value of the food and entertainment sectors surpassed that of traditional industry and agriculture for the first time. A third of the city's population already worked in the service sector .

During the Second Sino-Japanese War , Nanjing was besieged from December 9, 1937. The Chinese troops refused to surrender . The Japanese army then launched a massive offensive and, by December 12, pushed the Chinese troops out of the city to the other bank of the Yangtze . During the siege of the city, the Panay incident occurred , in which the ship USS Panay , with which US citizens living in Nanjing were to be evacuated upstream, was sunk by Japanese planes. The incident brought diplomatic tensions between Japan and the USA and led to a lasting change in the image of Japan in the United States, although Japan officially apologized for the sinking.

On December 13, 1937, Japanese divisions occupied the city and carried out the Nanjing massacre of civilians . The extent of the massacre is still disputed today; According to the Tokyo trials , at least 200,000 civilians and prisoners of war were murdered and around 20,000 girls and women were raped.

People's Republic

After the civil war won by the Chinese Communists (CCP) , Nanjing again lost its capital status to Beijing in 1949. Nevertheless, at times the Republic of China (Taiwan) continued to regard the Yangzi metropolis as the official capital of China, while Taipei was only considered a provisional capital.

In the course of forced industrialization in the 1950s, state heavy industry expanded systematically . The settlement of electrical, chemical, steel and machine companies should change the face of the city in the long term. The exaggerated enthusiasm for building a “world-class industry” also led to serious wrong decisions, which made a major contribution to the economic recession at the end of the 1960s. An example of this is the investment of hundreds of millions of yuan in the extraction of non-existent coal deposits.


The full name of the government of Nanjing is "Nanjing City People's Government". The city is ruled under the CCP's one-party rule, with the Communist Secretary of Nanjing as the city's de facto governor and mayor.


Road junction in Nanjing - Nanjing Xin Jie 南京 新 街 , 2006

According to a study from 2014, the greater Nanjing area generated a gross domestic product of 202.7 billion US dollars (KKB). In the ranking of the economically strongest metropolitan regions worldwide, he finished 55th. The GDP per capita was 31,434 US dollars (purchasing power parity, making Nanjing one of the wealthiest cities in the country.

The industrial landscape of Nanjing continues to be shaped by the five key industries electrical, vehicle construction, petrochemicals, iron / steel and energy. The most important state-owned companies include Panda Electronics , Jincheng Motors and Nanjing Steel . Nonetheless, the tertiary sector regained considerable importance; today it contributes 44% to the city's gross national product.

Nanjing competes for foreign investors with the other cities in the Yangtze River Delta. So far, a number of transnational companies have established themselves, among others

Since China joined the World Trade Organization (WTO), Nanjing has attracted increased interest. On average, foreign companies set up two new branches in the Yangzi metropolis every day.

The city administration continues to work on improving the attractiveness of Nanjing for investors, including the establishment of four industrial parks: Gaoxin, Xingang, Huagong and Jiangning. Despite these efforts, Nanjing continues to fall behind neighboring cities such as Wuxi , Suzhou and Hangzhou . The traditional state-owned companies, however, no longer see themselves as a match for the competition with the transnational companies and either sink into overindebtedness, go bankrupt or are privatized.

Nanjing is also home to the headquarters of Jiangsu Power Co.LTD and Suning Home Appliances , the second largest electronics retailer in China.


Nanjing is regarded as the central traffic hub of the Yangtze River Delta and integrates all common modes of transport. As in all Chinese cities, public transport plays a dominant role for the majority of the population .


As a regional hub, Nanjing is served by more than 60 state and provincial highways that lead to all parts of China. Express highways such as Hu-Ning, Ning-He, Ning-Hang bring commuters to Shanghai, Hefei , Hangzhou and other major cities. 230 km of motorways run within the city, which corresponds to a density of 3.38 km per 100 km². In relation to all roads, the density is 112.56 km per 100 km².

Waiting hall in the south station (2011)


Nanjing is an important rail hub . The most important trunk routes lead in the direction of Shanghai, Suzhou and Wuxi; They have direct connections to numerous major cities in the country. The main train station is located north of Xuanwu Lake. There is also the Nanjing West train station on the Yangzi bank near the bridge and the Nanjing South train station near the flower rain terrace , which is becoming increasingly important and from which most of the high-speed trains to Shanghai, Wuhan and Beijing depart. Nanjing East Railway Station is just outside the city. Since 2005, it has been possible to travel by underground from the main train station to the Olympic complex. Many more routes are planned or under construction.



The city's public bus transport is operated by the companies Nanjing Gongjiao , Zhongbei , Argos and Xincheng , which provide 170 routes to all parts of the city including the suburbs.


The first line of the Nanjing subway started operations on May 15, 2005, lines 2, 3 and 4 already exist. A 433 km long subway system is to be built by 2050.


Two lines of the Nanjing tram have been in operation since 2014 . The trams are equipped with Primove lithium-ion batteries from Bombardier , which made it possible to dispense with the overhead line for 90% of the route. Each train has 2 such batteries with a storage capacity of 49 kWh.

air traffic

Nanjing's airport, Nanjing-Lukou Airport, ranks 15th among the 126 Chinese civil airports in terms of passenger volume and 10th in terms of freight volume. There are currently 85 domestic and international connections, including those to Japan , Korea , Thailand , Singapore and to Germany . From March 31, 2008 Lufthansa will be serving the route from Frankfurt am Main three times a week with an Airbus A340-300 (flight number LH780). Motorways not only lead to the city center, 35 km to the north, but also directly to neighboring cities.

Water transport

Nanjing Historic Port (1920)

The port of Nanjing is the largest inland port in China with an annual throughput of 66 million tons (2003). The port area extends over 98 km and has 64 quays, 16 of which can handle ships with a tonnage of more than 10,000 gross registered tons. Nanjing is also the largest container port on the Yangzi. With the opening of the one million container Longtan Containers Port Area in March 2004, Nanjing reaffirmed its claim as the leading Chinese river port. Since there are two large refineries of the major Chinese oil refiners on the port area, Nanjing is also an important center in the oil industry.


Traditionally, the former capital of Nanjing has a rich cultural life.

In a ranking of cities according to their quality of life, Nanjing ranked 140th out of 231 cities worldwide in 2018. Compared to other Chinese cities, it was behind Shanghai (103rd place), Beijing and Guangzhou (both 109th place), Shenzhen (130th place), Chengdu (133rd place) but still ahead of Chongqing (147th place) and Shenyang (157th place).

Music and theater

There are several orchestras in the city, including the Jiangsu Symphony Orchestra , the Nanjing City Chinese Orchestra , two orchestras from the university, two from the Art Institute, and a wind section from the Technical University.

Most of the city's theaters are multifunctional and, in addition to their actual purpose, can also be used as congress centers, cinemas or concert halls. The largest houses include the People's Assembly Hall and the Art and Culture Center .

The various forms of Chinese opera are cultivated in the theater . The Kunqu Opera House maintains the opera form of the same name, which is considered to be China's oldest. In addition to the weekly opera evenings, there are so-called full operas several times a year, the performance of which takes several evenings due to the length of the classical texts. A recent example of this is the televised production of the Peony Pavilion , another the white silk shirt , which won the state award for the best modern opera. Other houses are dedicated to the Yang, Yue, Xi and Jing opera, the spoken theater form Suzhou Pingtan and the puppet theater . The city is home to the Beijing Opera Institute of Jiangsu Province.

The Qianxian and Nanjing dance groups are also famous . In 2004 the Shangying-Warner Cinema Palace was opened in Nanjing .

Museums and galleries

The Nanjing Museum (2006)

The Nanjing Museum , known as the National Central Museum under the Guomindang government , is one of the most important museums in China. It shows, among other things, classic bronzes, pottery and jade ware, ink painting , Ming and Qing porcelain and silk art.

There are also the City Museum , the Museum of the History of the Taiping Kingdom , the Folklore Museum , the City Wall Museum , and a Geological Museum and a Paleontological Museum .

The Jiangsu Art Gallery is the largest in the entire province and offers a comprehensive insight into traditional and contemporary painting . The Rote Kammer art garden and the Jinling stone gallery are dedicated to more specific topics .

The Sifang Art Museum has presented modern art since 2013.


The Nanjing Library , founded in 1937, is the third largest library in the country with 7 million volumes. The university library comprises 4.2 million volumes. There is also the city's Jinling Library and various city district libraries.

Nanjing also has the third largest German-language library (after Beijing and Shanghai) on the Chinese mainland.

Festival calendar

In the old days there were a number of local events in the city in addition to the general Chinese festivals : For example, people used to climb the city wall together on January 16, bathe in the Qingxi River on March 3, or on September 9 and others special days to hike in the purple mountains.

It has been replaced by events organized by the government today. The annual International Plum Blossom Festival in the Plum Mountains attracts thousands of tourists from home and abroad. Other important events are the Baima Peach Blossom and Kite Festival , the Jiangxin Fruit Festival and the Osmanthus Blossom Festival in Linggu Temple .


The city's nightlife is traditionally centered around the Confucius Temple and the area on the Qinhuai River, where restaurants, pubs and night markets are lined up. The night boat trips on the Qinhuai are also famous. Before the Communists came to power, upscale prostitution also flourished here . In the last few years, several huge shopping malls, open until late at night, have sprung up , particularly in the Xinjiekou district, on Hunan Street and in the newly created Nanjing 1912 district. There are many bars on and around Shanghai Lu.



Nanjing University

600 mm Zeiss mirror telescope of the Nanking observatory (1930)

The Nanjing University ( 南京大學  /  南京大学 , Nanjing Daxue in short, 南大 , Nanda ) enough in its origins to the year 258 back. In 1902 it was converted into a modern university. Since then she has played a pioneering role in the Chinese education system, for example with the introduction of co-education and student-centered teaching methods in contrast to traditional frontal teaching. It has faculties for architecture, human sciences, study abroad, natural sciences, chemistry, earth sciences, technology, economics, law, public administration, political sciences, journalism, medicine, the environment, software development, intensive education as well as education / sport / art. Special institutes also offer training courses and a. in Africanology, Jewish Studies, International Relations, Anthropology, Agricultural Science, Space Science.

In addition to the Gulou campus located in the city center, there has been another since 1993, the Pukou campus named after its district. Younger students in particular are accommodated there. Honorary doctorates from Nanjing University include: a. François Mitterrand , George HW Bush , Bob Hawke , Boutros Ghali and Johannes Rau . Studied there a. a. former President Jiang Zemin .

Other universities

Nanjing is also the seat of other state universities, namely the University of Southeast China ( 東南 大學  /  东南 大学 , Dongnan Dàxué ), the Hohai University ( 河海 大學  /  河海 大学 , Héhǎi Dàxué ), the Nanjing Pedagogical University ( 南京 師範大學  /  南京师范大学 , Nanjing Daxue Shifan ), two technical universities ( 理工大學  /  理工大学 , Lǐgōng Daxue or 工業大學  /  工业大学 , Gongye Daxue ), a financial and economic University ( 財經大學  /  财经大学 , Caijing Daxue ), the Agricultural Nanjing University ( 南京 農業 大學  /  南京 农业 大学 , Nánjīng Nóngyè Dàxué ), an art college ( 藝術 學院  /  艺术 学院 , Yìshù Xuéyuàn ), a medical college ( 醫科大學  /  医科大学 , Yīkē Dàxué ), the Chinese Pharmaceutical College ( 中國 藥 科大學  /  中国 药 科 大学 , Zhōngguó Yàokē Dàxué ) and the Nanjing Aerospace University ( 南京 航空 航天 大學  /  南京 航空 航天 大学 , Nánjīng Hángkōng Hángtiān Dàxué ).

Institutes of the Academy of Sciences

There are several institutes of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Nanjing . In addition to the branch of the academy and the Purple Mountain Observatory, these are the institutes for astronomical optics and technology with an attached production of astronomical instruments, geology and paleontology , soil science and geography and limnology .


In the city is the 13,000-seat Nanjing Olympic Sports Center Gym . In August 2014, the 2nd Youth Olympic Games took place in Nanjing .


Northern center

Ming period city wall, Nanjing 2005

In the center of town is the drum tower ( 鼓樓  /  鼓楼 , Gǔlóu ) from 1382. Nearby is the Great Bell Pavilion ( 大 鐘 亭  /  大 钟 亭 , Dàzhōngtíng ) from the 19th century, which replaces a previous building that collapsed in the 17th century . The 23-ton bell comes from the early Ming Dynasty . To the northeast extends the 395 hectare Xuanwu Lake ( 玄武湖 , Xuánw „Hú  -" Black Turtle Lake, Dark Warrior Lake "), named after the Daoist deity Xuanwu , also known as the deity of the north ( 北 帝 , Běidì  - "Emperor of the North") known, is named. In the time before the Six Dynasties , the lake was originally called " Sangpo " ( 桑 泊 , Sāng Pō  - "Lake of Peace"). It is also known locally as Beihu ( 北湖 , Běidì  - "Northern Lake"), as it is in the north of Lake Yanque ( 燕雀 湖 , Yānquè Hú  - "Swallow Lake"). Remains of the city wall from the Ming period run along its banks; originally it was 33 km long, 12 m high and 8 m wide. The five lakes of the island of Yingzhou ( 櫻 洲  /  樱 洲 , Yīngzhōu  - "cherry blossom island "), Liangzhou ( 梁 洲 , Liángzhōu  - "bar island "), Huanzhou ( 環 洲  /  环 洲 , Huánzhōu  - "ring island"), Lingzhou ( 菱洲 , Língzhōu  - " water nut  island ") and Cuizhou ( 翠 洲 , Cuìzhōu - "emerald green island") are connected by dams and bridges. To the south of it are the mostly barely knee-high ruins of the former imperial palace of the Ming emperors ( 明 故宮  /  明 故宫 , Mìng Gùgōng ).

Southern center

The southern old town is dominated by the extensive Confucius Temple ( 夫子廟  /  夫子庙 , Fūzǐ Miào ). Originally from the Song dynasty , it had to be rebuilt several times over the centuries after being destroyed, most recently after the Japanese occupation in World War II . Today the less authentic-looking facility is mainly used for exhibitions and concerts. In the vicinity there is still an imperial examination institute with several rows of test cells that have been faithfully preserved. A little to the southwest, a museum reports on the Taiping uprising .

Another piece of the historic city wall with the south gate can be seen on the southern edge of the old town. Beyond this is the flower rain terrace ( 雨花 台 , Yǔhuā Tái ), a gently rolling hill with some historical buildings. According to legend, a Buddhist monk is said to have preached there so impressively that flowers fell from the sky. Today a stone memorial towers into the sky there, which is supposed to commemorate the massacre committed by Chiang Kai-shek's troops in 1927 of the communists.

In the western city center, finally, is the Palace of Heaven Worship ( 朝天宮  /  朝天宫 , Cháotiān Gōng ), the best-preserved Confucius temple south of the Yangzi. In its beginnings, it goes back to the 5th century, when Prince Helu von Wu had two famous swords forged there. In the Ming Dynasty, the building was rededicated as an audience hall for the emperor. Today the temple serves as a museum.

Mochouhu Park, Nanjing 2001

The nearby idyllic Mochouhu Park ( 莫愁湖 公園  /  莫愁湖 公园 , Mòchóuhú Gōngyuán ) owes its name to a fifth-century woman who was famous for her singing skills and who was driven to suicide by drowning by her intrusive neighbor. On the banks of the lake of the same name, the tower of the lost game of chess ( 勝 棋 樓  /  胜 棋 楼 , Shèngqí Lóu ) is reminiscent of a game between Emperor Hongwu and his general Xu Da , in which the latter won the park as a prize.

A little way to the west, a memorial ( 南京 大 屠殺 紀念館  /  南京 大 屠杀 纪念馆 , Nánjīng dàtúshā Jìniànguǎn ) with a small museum reminds of the Nanjing massacre carried out by the Japanese during World War II , in which at least 200,000 civilians and prisoners of war were murdered within a few weeks and around 20,000 girls and women were raped.


Nanjing-Yangtze Bridge - Northwestern direction, 2001
Ming tombs - Hist. Photo, Nanjing, late 19th century.

The Nanjing-Yangtze Bridge , a car and railroad bridge spanning the Yangtze River in the northwest of the city , is one of the largest bridges in Asia with a total length of 6,772 m. It was built in 1960–1968 to the pride of the Chinese people without any foreign help. A little south a small museum reminds of the 1842 Treaty of Nanjing , which ended the First Opium War and ushered in an age of semi-colonial dependence for China. A little further down the yangzi rises on the bank of the Swallow Rock with a pavilion containing a plaque with the original calligraphy of Emperor Qianlong .

Purple mountains

In the east of the city, the vast Purple Mountains ( 紫金山 , Zǐjīn Shān ) extend . 392 steps lead up to the pompous Sun Yat-sen mausoleum , built of white marble , in which the founder of the state, who died in 1925 and was transferred here in 1929, is commemorated. A little to the west is the grave of the first Ming emperor Hongwu , who is the only one of his dynasty to be buried here in Nanjing and not in the later capital Beijing; Nearby is the " Ghost Street " with animal sculptures. The Buddhist temple of the spirit valley ( 靈谷寺  /  灵谷寺 , Línggǔ Sì ), which used to be at this point . was moved a few kilometers to the east, where it can be viewed again today. Finally, on a hilltop in the west of the Purple Mountains, the imperial observatory with historical astronomical instruments rises .

The masts of the Yangtze River Crossing Nanjing are the tallest concrete masts in the world.

Twin cities

There are currently 15 partnerships with foreign cities or regions:


sons and daughters of the town

See also


Web links

Commons : Nanjing  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. a b Asia: Jiangsu (China): Prefecture Level, Cities & Counties - Population Statistics, Maps, Graphics, Weather and Web Information. In: Retrieved September 28, 2018 .
  2. Nanking . In: Meyers Konversations-Lexikon . 4th edition. Volume 11, Verlag des Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig / Vienna 1885–1892, p. 996.
  3. Helwig Schmidt-Glintzer: Small history of China. CH Beck, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-406-57066-7 , p. 113
  4. ^ Judgment International Military Tribunal for the Far East: IMTFE Judgment , Paragraph 2, page 1012.
  5. ^ Alan Berube, Jesus Leal Trujillo, Tao Ran, and Joseph Parilla: Global Metro Monitor . In: Brookings . January 22, 2015 ( [accessed July 19, 2018]).
  6. Info page from Bombardier (English) accessed on November 15, 2016 ( Memento of the original from May 29, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  7. Mercer's 2018 Quality of Living Rankings. Retrieved August 18, 2018 .
  8. learning environment | Goethe language learning centers. Retrieved July 28, 2019 .