Manaus

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Município de Manaus
"Paris dos Trópicos"
"Mãe dos Deuses"
"Metrópole da Amazônia"
Manaus
Image montage to Manaus
Image montage to Manaus
Manaus (Brazil)
Manaus
Manaus
Coordinates 3 ° 6 ′  S , 60 ° 1 ′  W Coordinates: 3 ° 6 ′  S , 60 ° 1 ′  W
Location of the city of Manaus in the state of Amazonas
Location of the city of Manaus in the state of Amazonas
Symbols
coat of arms
coat of arms
flag
flag
Motto
"A Metrópole da Amazônia"
"The metropolis of the Amazon"
Basic data
Country Brazil
State Amazon
Região intermediária Manaus (since 2017)
Região imediata Manaus (since 2017)
Metropolitan area Manaus
height 92 m
Waters Rio Negro
climate tropical, Am
surface 11,401.1 km²
Residents 1,802,014 (2010)
density 158.1  Ew. / km²
estimate 2,182,763 (July 1, 2019)
Parish code IBGE : 1302603
Post Code 69000-001 to 69099-999
Telephone code (+55)  92
Website manaus.am (Brazilian Portuguese)
politics
City Prefect Arthur Virgílio Neto (2017-2020)
Political party PSDB
economy
GDP 70,296,364  thousand. R $
33,564  R $ per capita
(2016)
HDI 0.737 (2010)

Manaus [ mɐˈnau̯s ], officially Portuguese Município de Manaus , is the capital of the Brazilian state of Amazonas . It lies at the mouth of the Rio Negro in the Amazon . In the period between 1870 and 1910, the city became famous for the rubber boom , as the region was the only supplier of rubber for a long time . Today the place is mainly known for its historical buildings and as a tourist starting point for excursions into the very species-rich jungle surrounding the city .

geography

Manaus is located at an altitude of 92  m on the left eastern bank of the Rio Negros , about eleven kilometers west of the confluence with the Rio Solimões in the upper Amazon basin in the middle of the jungle . From here on, the Rio Solimões is called the Amazon again, as it was before the Brazilian border. It is around 1,700 kilometers along the Amazon and 1,500 kilometers as the crow flies to the mouth of the Amazon in the Atlantic Ocean near Belém .

There were a few small towns in the area, Careiro, Manacapuru and Manaquiri of which still exist. Careiro da Várzea, Iranduba, Itacoatiara, Novo Airão, Presidente Figueiredo and Rio Preto da Eva, however, were incorporated on May 23, 2007 by the Região Metropolitana de Manaus project and are now part of the city. In 2018 the metropolitan region of Manaus comprised 13 municipalities together with an estimated total area of ​​127,287.789 km² and 2,631,239 inhabitants as of July 1, 2018. This is 64% of the total population of Amazon, 14.4% of the Região Norte and 1.3% of the Brazilian state.

Manaus is divided into six zones (Zona Leste, Zona Norte, Zona Oeste, Zona Centro-Oeste, Zona Sul and Zona Centro-Sul), fourteen districts and 222 districts. The social center of the city is in the south in the Zona Sul directly on the Rio Negro around the harbor in the Centro district .

climate

Due to the proximity to the equator (3 ° south latitude) there are only minor changes in the length of the day during the season . Therefore, instead of the four seasons, a distinction is only made between dry and rainy seasons. There is a humid tropical climate, which means that it is very hot all year round and the air is very humid. During the rainy season from December to May, heavy showers come down almost every day. The amount of precipitation per year is 2272 millimeters, which corresponds to two to three times the value achieved in Germany . The humidity is at least 95% at night and is also often very high during the day, so that people perceive the air temperature as even warmer than it actually is (see Perceived temperature ). The average temperatures of the individual months of a year vary only very slightly between 26 and 28 ° C. The maximum daily temperatures are usually between 30 and 40 ° C, while temperatures between 20 and 30 ° C are reached at night.

Rainfalls in the Andes highlands of Colombia and Peru cause strong fluctuations in the water level of the Solimoes and, to a lesser extent, of the Rio Negros , which, however, also swell due to the backwater. Differences of up to 14 meters are achieved between the high water period from March to July and the low water period from August to February. A scale in the port of Manaus shows the levels of the different years.

Manaus
Climate diagram
J F. M. A. M. J J A. S. O N D.
 
 
260
 
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30th
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Temperature in ° Cprecipitation in mm
Source: WMO , wetter.com ; wetterkontor.de
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Manaus
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Max. Temperature ( ° C ) 30.5 30.4 30.6 30.7 30.8 31 31.3 32.6 32.9 32.8 32.1 31.3 O 31.4
Min. Temperature (° C) 23.1 23.1 23.2 23.3 23.3 23 22.7 23 23.5 23.7 23.7 23.5 O 23.3
Precipitation ( mm ) 260.1 288.3 313.5 300.1 256.3 113.6 87.5 57.9 83.3 125.7 183 216.9 Σ 2,286.2
Hours of sunshine ( h / d ) 3.7 3.1 3.2 3.7 4.8 6.2 6.9 7.3 6.5 5.5 4.7 4.2 O 5
Rainy days ( d ) 21st 20th 21st 20th 19th 12 10 7th 9 11 12 18th Σ 180
Humidity ( % ) 86 87 88 87 87 83 80 77 77 79 81 85 O 83.1
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
30.5
23.1
30.4
23.1
30.6
23.2
30.7
23.3
30.8
23.3
31
23
31.3
22.7
32.6
23
32.9
23.5
32.8
23.7
32.1
23.7
31.3
23.5
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
N
i
e
d
e
r
s
c
h
l
a
g
260.1
288.3
313.5
300.1
256.3
113.6
87.5
57.9
83.3
125.7
183
216.9
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

history

Foundation and colonial times

The Rio Negro

The Spaniard Francisco de Orellana and his traveling companions discovered the Rio Negro as early as 1542 and drove to the mouth of the Amazon. Manaus was founded in 1669 as a small Portuguese fort under the name "Forte de São José da Barra do Rio Negro". The population that settled around the fort grew slowly, and the first primitive church was built in 1695. In 1787 the fort had only 301 inhabitants, including 243 Indians, 47 white and eleven dark-skinned slaves. The city now consisted of two "districts", one of which housed the old church, the house of the vicar and the house of the commandant of the fort. In 1791 the fort became the seat of the governor, although it did not yet have city rights. The then commandant of the fort, Lobo d'Almada, had a palace built for the governor of Grão-Pará and Rio Negro. However, since he had not been authorized to do so by Governor D. Francisco de Souza Coutinho, he was later accused of embezzling public funds. In 1804, the successor to Governor Coutinho wanted to pay tribute to the services of the late Commander d'Almada and moved the seat of government back to Manaus.

Empire

In 1823 the colonial areas of Grão-Pará and Rio Negro joined the Brazilian Empire .

On April 12, 1832, the soldiers of the fort revolted under the leadership of Joaquim Pedro da Silva. The uprisings in which the commandant of the fort, Joaquim Filipe dos Reis, was killed, had been brought about by the failure to pay the wages . Subsequently, the provincial government of Pará sent troops, led by Domingos Simões da Cunha Bahiana, to put down the uprising. Although the defense of the province of Rio Negro with about 1000 men and 30 cannons was entrenched in an elevated area near the confluence of the Rio Negro and Rio Solimoes (Amazon), the troops from Pará were victorious.

Over time the city has had many different names. On July 25, 1833, the province of Pará, to which Manaus had belonged since the failed uprising, was divided into three provinces: Grão-Pará , Alto Amazonas and Baixo Amazonas . The fort belonged to the province of Alto Amazonas (Upper Amazonas), became a village with the division and was now called Manaus for the first time. Subsequently, the village was able to set up its own administrative and judicial structure.

On October 24, 1848, which is now considered the city's birthday, Manaus was given city status by law - at that time, however, under the name "Cidade da Barra do Rio Negro" - although there was not yet much that defines a city. For example, there was no public school system. On September 4, 1856, the governor Herculano Ferreira Pena finally called it Manaus again, based on the Indian tribe of the Manaós. The word means something like "Mother of God".

With a resolution of December 7th, 1866, it was possible for the first time that travelers and traders from all countries could drive up the Amazon. This had enormous social and economic success, so that, for example, the first long-haul routes were created. From 1877, for example, ships regularly operated between Manaus and Liverpool , and from 1881 also between Manaus and New York City .

Between 1872 and 1883, many job seekers came to the city, both from other parts of Brazil and from other parts of the world. Rubber exports soared at the same time, which is why Manaus became rich during the rubber boom . On May 24, 1884, slavery was abolished in the city.

republic

Public Market, Manaus (1906)

On November 21, 1889, the province of Alto Amazonas joined the newly proclaimed republic. Around 1890 Manaus was probably the most developed city in Brazil. At that time, the city was also called the “Paris of the Tropics” because it was the only one in the country that had electric light and a water and sewage system. During this time, many buildings such as the Palace of Justice (Palácio da Justiça) or the theater ( Teatro Amazonas ) were built, which still give an idea of ​​the wealth of that time. Manaus became a cosmopolitan city ​​as strangers with diverse professions came and settled here from all over the world. In the course of this prosperity, the electric tram was built, which opened on August 1, 1899. It was the first tram in Brazil. A trip with her was relatively cheap, which is why many residents of all walks of life used her. The railway existed until February 28, 1957.

15th November (1906)

After the loss of the world monopoly on rubber in 1910, the city began to decline. Public buildings fell into disrepair due to lack of maintenance, the power grid failed and the tram line was shut down. The governor Plínio Coêlho set up a program for work, which was decided on October 23, 1951 and included, among other things, the free trade port. On June 6, 1957, President Juscelino Kubitschek declared Manaus a free trade area (Zona Franca). Companies that manufacture in Manaus can now import their raw materials almost duty-free, which has led to an economic boom and a resurgence of public life in the city since the 1970s.

Population development

year Residents source
1787 301
1914 50,000
1970 300,000
1985 800,000
1996 1,157,357
2000 1,405,835
2004 1,592,555
2006 1,688,524
2010 1,802,014
2019 2,182,763

The population of Manaus in 2019 was 2,182,763 according to IBGE estimates. Based on data from 2010, Manaus is currently the seventh largest city in Brazil with 1,802,014 inhabitants, 51.19% women and 48.81% men. The district “Cidade Nova” (New City) is the largest district with 500,000 inhabitants in terms of both population and area. It was founded by Governor José Lindoso to provide housing for people who came from all over Brazil looking for work in the Zona Franca. The Cidade Nova project was initially designed for 1,800 houses, but was expanded very quickly.

The population has increased rapidly over the past 50 years. This was due on the one hand to the rapid industrial development, but on the other hand to the birth rate of 4.74 children per woman. In 1970 there were just 300,000 inhabitants, the population grew to over 800,000 in 1985 and 1,025,979 in 1990 to the current level, which makes up 60% of the population of the Amazon state . According to the IBGE , 58% of today's residents are mixed race or Caboclos , i.e. descendants of different ethnic groups. 34% are white, 3% dark-skinned and 4% are of indigenous descent. At 0.1%, Asians represent a very small minority.

The population density in the built-up urban area is 3914 inhabitants per square kilometer; if you look at the entire 11,401 square kilometer urban area, you get a value of 148. The relatively low value for a large city is partly due to the fact that there are only very few, smaller high-rise buildings .

Life expectancy at 73 years is relatively high compared to the rest of Brazil, while the infant mortality rate for children up to five years of age is 2.27%. 3.37% of the population are illiterate.

86.9% of households are connected to the municipal power grid, 74.61% to the sewage disposal, 68.61% to the water supply and 96.54% to the garbage disposal. However, waste is also dumped in unsecured heaps north of the city. A positive development are high investments in infrastructure, for example in 2002 in a new sewage treatment plant for 500,000 inhabitants. The previously operated system had failed after a short period of operation and was without function for many years.

religion

Most of the residents profess to the Catholic Church and are therefore Christians . Manaus is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manaus . The Protestant Church plays a rather minor role. Other religions such as Islam , Afro-Brazilian religions (for example Candomblé ) or sects only appear sporadically.

Economy and Infrastructure

The power and water supply of the city is guaranteed by the state-owned companies Electronorte and Agua Amazonas. Garbage collection and street cleaning are carried out by the city administration.

The garbage is not separated from the households, but collected completely, but there are already several companies in the plastics, paper and aluminum sector that operate recycling. In some cases, these companies even buy up waste and sort it in order to guarantee their supply of raw materials.

Local public transport

Streets in Manaus

There are no S-Bahn or U-Bahn trains, local public transport only consists of numerous bus lines. Such railway lines are not currently planned. You get on the buses through the back door and get off at the front. A turnstile with a cashier is located between the two doors. He collects the fare, which is the same for each trip, regardless of the distance covered. There is also the option of buying tickets in advance and handing them over to the cashier instead of cash. An electronic access system for buses is planned for the future.

There are six so-called terminals within the city, within which you can change free of charge. A terminal is a kind of fenced-in bus station that buses from many different lines stop at. The buses are always busy, especially during rush hour.

Some companies distribute bus tickets to and from work to their employees on a monthly basis. Other, mostly larger, companies also offer their own bus service instead of tickets, which picks up employees from home in the morning and brings them back home in the evening.

The Manaus tram existed from 1899 to 1957 . It was the first tram in Brazil and was considered very cheap.

Long-distance rail and road transport

Apart from the roads to the smaller surrounding cities, there is only one road connection that leads to Venezuela via Boa Vista , the capital of the neighboring state of Roraima . This road, BR-174 , is the only overland route from Brazil to Venezuela. Otherwise Manaus can only be reached by ship or plane. There are regular ship connections along the Amazon, for example to the cities of Parintins , Santarém and Belem.

There are currently no plans to build any further roads. An exception is the Transamazônica , which has even been partially completed, but has been overgrown by the jungle again in the vicinity of Manaus. The construction of further roads has so far been avoided for several reasons: On the one hand, environmentalists and IBAMA are resisting fiercely, as large areas of rainforest would have to be cleared for road construction. Furthermore, the natural conditions are very adverse, as the rivers in the region are very wide and in the rainy season they flood large parts of the jungle. In addition, Manaus is a relatively safe city due to its isolation from the rest of Brazil and does not want to give up this status by being connected to the road network. Ultimately, the distances to the nearest large cities are very large, so that an expansion of shipping and the airport is more appropriate. There is also no railway line for the same reasons. In the region there is only the Madeira-Mamoré Railway , which, however, has no connection to Manaus.

In 2008, the construction of an approx. 3.5 km long bridge over the Rio Negro began to replace the existing ferry connection to Manacapuru and Iranduba . The Ponte Rio Negro was inaugurated on October 24, 2011. In addition to the bridge, around 7.4 kilometers of new access roads were created on both sides of the river.

port

Harbor with Rio Negro in the background

The quays and docks of the port are floating docks, as the water level sometimes fluctuates by up to fourteen meters between rainy and dry seasons. They are 300 meters long and were made between 1900 and 1902 by English engineers from B. Rymkiewicz & Comp. built. Today they are under monument protection. After the port opened, it quickly developed into the center of the city, where cafes, bars, restaurants, fashion boutiques and English import companies settled. Even today, the port is the center of the city and there are many shops nearby.

View of the port of Manaus

The port is the most important transshipment point for goods in the Amazon region, as there are few roads and no railway line. Both goods and passengers are carried in the typical multi-decker Amazon boats. An alternative to the Panama Canal is being worked on in cooperation with Ecuador . Via the multimodal Manta-Manaus axis , goods should arrive 30 days earlier from the Pacific coast via the Andes by land and along the Amazon.

Manaus port

At the beginning of the 1960s, the port was expanded for container traffic, because due to the width and depth of the river, ocean-going ships can easily sail to Manaus. Since then, in addition to the sometimes improvised landing stages for the Amazon boats, there has been a well-developed sea port that is used by cruise ships and container freighters. The floating port jetty is considered a masterpiece of engineering, as it allows year-round operation.

Manaus International Airport

Entrance area of ​​the airport, renovated in 2014.

Manaus Eduardo Gomes International Airport opened on March 31, 1976 and is fourteen kilometers from the center of the city. It has a runway 2,700 meters long and 45 meters wide, two freight terminals, which were inaugurated in 1976 and 1980 respectively, and two passenger terminals with four arrival and eight departure halls, seven hangars and six docking points for aircraft, five of which are fixed and one movable finger .

The annual passenger volume is around 1.8 million people, making it fifth among the busiest airports in Brazil. If you consider the cargo volume, which is 33,785 tons per year, the airport is actually the second largest in Brazil.

education

Manaus is home to numerous educational institutions, both state and private. The best-known secondary school is Fundaçao Nokia, which is located in the middle of the industrial area. The best known and largest university is the state Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM).

A sloth on the UFAM University campus

The Universidade Federal do Amazonas offers technical courses such as electrical engineering or computer science as well as medicine, law, biology and many subjects for teaching. It was founded on January 17, 1909 under the name Escola Universitária Livre de Manáos . This made it the first university in Brazil. On July 13, 1913, it was renamed Universidade de Manaós , i.e. University of Manaós. On March 13, 1964, it was finally re-established by law at a new location within the city through the amalgamation of several institutes, including the Institute for Law of the old university. On January 17, 1965, the new university began operations under the new name “Universidade do Amazonas”. It was only given its current name in 2002. The Universidade Federal do Amazonas is located in the middle of a jungle area and, like many universities in Brazil that were built during the military dictatorship, has only one entrance and exit. This design made it easy for the military to isolate students from the outside world in the event of a student revolt. Because of its location in the middle of the jungle, the campus is dominated by monkeys, sloths and wild dogs at night and early morning . The jungle inhabitants can also be observed during the day.

Economy and Zona Franca

José Serra visits a Honda assembly line in the Polo Industrial de Manaus .

After the end of the rubber boom , the economy in Manaus fell to the ground. That is why the free trade zone ( Zona Franca de Manaus ) was created in 1957 , in which companies are granted tax and customs concessions to compensate for the unfavorable traffic situation. As a result of these perks, more than 450 companies settled in the city, creating around 120,000 direct jobs and another 350,000 indirect jobs. You can also shop in the city center, in the actual “Zona Franca”, duty-free and tax-free.

The companies based in Manaus are now mainly producing chemical and technical products such as motorcycles (BMW, Denso , Honda , Visteon and Yamaha ), bicycles, televisions and computer monitors ( Fujitsu , LG , Panasonic , Philips , Sanyo , Sharp and Thomson ), and cell phones ( Nokia , Samsung , Sagem ), DVDs with accessories ( Seiko and Sony ) and air conditioning systems valued at approximately 19 billion US dollars annually and in some cases also developed.

Further, based in Manaus companies are Gillette , Kodak , Minolta , Pepsi , Sony Music and Xerox , as well as the largest domestic companies, Quartz Eletron Indústria e Comércio S / A . The industrial area in which most of these companies are located is called "Distrito Industrial Castelo Branco" and is located in the southwest of the city.

Today it is the fourth richest city in Brazil after São Paulo , Rio de Janeiro and Brasília due to its great economic power and tourism . However, after the withdrawal of the Colombian FARC from the drug-growing region , the large, barely controllable free trade zone has developed into a new center for the trade in cocaine , which is shipped via the many tributaries of the Amazon to Manaus, from here to the ports of northeast Brazil and from there to Europe becomes.

Shopping centers

In addition to the numerous shops and stores in the city center around the Teatro Amazonas and the even more numerous street stalls throughout the city, there are some large shopping centers.

The Amazonas Shopping is 86,800 square meters, the largest mall in the state of Amazonas . It opened on November 7, 1991 and is located north of the center near the Sambodrome at the intersection of Avenida Darcy Vargas and Avenida Djalma Batista. In addition to shops, fast food restaurants and banks, it also houses a six-screen cinema.

Studio 5 is located at the end of the industrial district facing the center and, like Amazonas Shopping, houses several shops, fast food restaurants and a cinema with several halls. On the premises of Studio 5 there is also the Felice restaurant, which offers freshly brewed German-style beer.

Shopping Cecomiz is a very small shopping center housed in two barracks very close to Studio 5. Besides these there are other shopping centers, the largest of which are Millennium Shopping Mall, Tvlandia Mall and Shopping São José.

politics

Manaus has been ruled by Mayor Amazonino Mendes , who belongs to the Partido Trabalhista Brasileiro (PTB) party , since January 1st, 2009 . Mendes was replaced on January 1, 2013 by Arthur Virgílio Neto ( Partido da Social Democracia Brasileira ), who held this position from 1989 to 1993. Neto prevailed against communist Senator Vanessa Grazziotin in the 2012 local election with 65.95% of the vote and against eight competitors in the 2016 local election with 55.96%.

Before 1962 and between 1965 and the end of 1985 the mayors were appointed by the governor of the Amazonas state, which explains the different lengths of the sometimes very short terms of office. Otherwise, they were elected by the city's citizens.

In addition to the mayor and the deputy mayor, there are 31 secretaries and the "Gabinete Civil" (for example: City Council). The secretaries all have their own specific area of ​​responsibility, such as public transport or security. They can best be compared to ministers. The former 94th mayor, Serafim Fernandes Corrêa, used to be the city's financial secretary. The Gabinete Civil works with the mayor and the deputy mayor, its chairman (Roberto Augusto Rodrigues Campainha) is also one of the secretaries.

See also : List of Mayors of the City of Manaus

coat of arms

The sun on the upper part of the coat of arms (see picture above) bears the inscription November 21, 1889, the day on which the then province of Alto Amazonas , to which Manaus belonged, joined the proclamation of the republic. The figure above left shows the meeting of the two rivers Rio Negro and Amazonas ( Rio Solimões ), the so-called "Encontro das aguas" and two small boats that are located at the confluence. Furthermore, it should point to the discovery of the Rio Negro by Francisco de Orellana . The foundation of the city or the “Forte de São José da Barra do Rio Negro” is shown on the top right. In the middle of the picture are two people, a Portuguese soldier and an Indian figure. These symbolize the peace between the Portuguese and the Indians, which came about through the marriage of a chief's daughter to the Portuguese commander. On the left of them you can see the fort with the Portuguese flag, on the right there are houses that are supposed to represent the first houses of the city. The large lower part relates to the rubber boom . In the back you can see the river, in the foreground a rubber tree .

Culture and sights

Jungle near Manaus
The famous giant water lilies Victoria amazonica on the opposite side of the river Manaus

The main tourist attraction is the jungle surrounding the city, which is considered to be the region with the greatest biodiversity in the world. Scientists assume that between five and ten million species live in the region around Manaus. The tourism industry has made use of this fact and offers numerous excursions into the jungle or overnight stays in jungle hotels.

Museums

The Museu do Homem do Norte (Museum of the North Man) shows exhibits from the lives of the people of the north of Brazil, such as small huts, boats, weapons and tools that the people living in the jungle still use today.

The Museu do Índio has similar exhibits, the difference being that the focus here is on the life of the Indians. It shows more than 3,000 exhibits such as ceramics, hunting weapons and musical instruments of Indian peoples who are or were at home on the upper reaches of the Rio Negros.

Entrance of the Museu de Ciências Naturais da Amazônia

The Museu de Ciências Naturais da Amazônia is significantly larger than the two museums mentioned above. It is a natural history museum, in which mainly the fauna of the jungle and the Amazon is presented. The focus here is on insects and fish. The large number of exhibits gives an idea of ​​the biodiversity of the Amazon region. The showpiece of the collection is a two meter long living arapaima . The museum is located in the Asian quarter of Manaus, relatively far from the center of the city. It was built by a Japanese butterfly specialist at their own expense. It should be permanently closed.

Buildings

The Teatro Amazonas is an opera house in the style of the Italian Renaissance that seats 685 people. It is located in the historic city center near the harbor and is now the city's landmark. Construction began in 1884 and the inauguration took place in 1896.

Mercado Municipal Adolpho Lisboa

The market is still held in the market hall at the port ( Mercado Municipal Adolpho Lisboa ). In addition to food such as meat, fish and exotic fruits, you can also buy souvenirs such as T-shirts or handicrafts. The market hall was built on the model of Les Halles in Paris and opened on July 15, 1883. The plans for their iron framework are from Gustave Eiffel . It was imported from Liverpool by Francis Morton and assembled in Manaus.

Alfândega - the customs house of Manaus

The Alfândega is the former customs house at the port, which is now a listed building. It was introduced in prefabricated blocks from England and built together by English engineers in 1906 .

Palácio Rio Negro

The Palácio Rio Negro was built in 1910 by the German rubber dealer Waldemar Scholz as a residence and was therefore also known under the name “Palacete Scholz”. The rubber trade made Scholz rich and one of the most influential men in town. With the end of the rubber boom and the First World War, which brought Scholz's connections to Germany to a standstill, he ran into financial difficulties. So he put a mortgage on his palacio and went back to Europe. Due to the mortgage, the Palacio became the property of Luiz da Silva Gomes, who sold it to the Amazonian state in 1918. From this time the Palacio served as the seat of government up to and including 1995. Since 1996 the well-preserved building has been a cultural center (Centro Cultural Palácio Rio Negro) and museum, which can be visited with English or Portuguese-speaking tours. In 2003 the governor of the Amazonas state began to hold meetings with important figures such as heads of government from other states in the Palacio.

Palácio da Justiça
The figure of Justitia on the roof

The Palácio da Justiça (Palace of Justice) is the city's former courthouse, just across from the Teatro Amazonas. Today the building only serves as a tourist attraction. In the palace itself you can see the premises, including the former courtrooms, and from time to time there are also mock court hearings. On April 18, 1894, the governor Eduardo Ribeiro signed the contract for the construction of the two-story Palacio with an area of ​​more than 5,000 square meters with the company Moers & Moreton . In 1900 the building was opened by the new governor José Cardoso Ramalho Júnior . A special feature of the Palace of Justice is the figure of Justitia on the roof, as she does not wear a blindfold, as is usually the case.

Manaus Cathedral

The Cathedral Cathedral De Nossa Senhora Da Conceição was completed in the 1877th Construction began in 1858, eight years after the old, primitive church from 1695 was destroyed. It is near the port at Alfândega.

Parks

Round tail sea ​​cow with young in the Bosque da Ciência

The Bosque da Ciência (Forest of Science) is a 130,000 square meter educational forest in the middle of town. It is affiliated with the INPA (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia), which among other things works with the Max Planck Society . In the forest itself, you can observe various animal species (such as manatees , various monkeys and alligators ), some of which are kept free in the forest and some in enclosures similar to zoos. Also, the House of Research (Casa da Ciência), which shows INPA's research, is in the forest.

Jaguar at Manaus Zoo

The relatively small zoo ( CIGS - Centro Integrado de Guerra na Selva ) mainly focuses on the fauna of the surrounding jungle. For example, monkeys, jaguars and snakes are among the inhabitants.

The Mindú Park (Parque do Mindú), also called "Parque Dez", is a 330,000 square meter wooded area just six kilometers northeast of the center. Many locals and tourists use it for walks, to visit the orchid house located here or to watch butterflies, primates or many species of insects. Numerous events, such as theater performances, take place here at the weekend. On Sundays, regional coffee specialties are mainly sold to tourists.

nature

The confluence of the Rio Solimões and the Rio Negro

The Encontro das Aguas (meeting of the waters) denotes the confluence of the Rio Solimões, as the Amazon is called up to this point, and the Rio Negro. The special thing about it is that both have very different colors. The water of the Rio Solimões is brownish-yellow, that of the Rio Negro is black; The latter is caused by the high content of humic acids and fulvic acids , which have been washed away by the rain in its 720,114 square kilometer catchment area from the already heavily depleted, sandy soils of the Terra Firme . The rivers flow side by side for eleven kilometers in the same river bed before their waters mix and the river becomes a uniform color again. The colored borders of the two rivers ( white and black water rivers ) can be clearly seen both on satellite images and from a ship. The confluence is about ten kilometers from Manaus and can be reached in about an hour by boat.

Border of the brown water of the Rio Solimões and the black water of the Rio Negro

The reasons for this natural event lie in the different properties of the rivers. On the one hand, the Rio Negro has a relatively acidic pH value of 3.5 , which comes from the humic substances present in the water, while the Rio Solimoes (Amazonas) has a basic pH value of 7.5. The flow speed of the two rivers differs by a factor of three. The Rio Solimoes flows with 7.5 kilometers per hour, the Rio Negro with 2.5 significantly slower. Due to the color of the two rivers, their temperatures also differ. While the brown Rio Solimoes is always below 22 degrees (Celsius), the black Rio Negro reaches temperatures above 28 degrees. Due to the different temperature of the rivers, their density also differs significantly. In Presidente Figueiredo , 107 kilometers to the north, there are a large number of smaller and larger waterfalls around the formerly independent city. Some of them are in freely accessible areas, others on private property. Both locals and tourists use the opportunity to bathe in many cases.

beaches

Beach on the Rio Negro

Despite the piranhas and nocturnal alligators , bathing around Manaus is relatively safe. There are numerous beautiful sandy beaches by the rivers, the best known are Praia da Lua (Moon Beach), Praia Dourada and Praia do Tupé.

Ponta Negra promenade

The Ponta Negra is both a promenade and the inner city beach of the Rio Negros. Here are bars, beach volleyball fields and the exclusive Hotel Tropical, which has its own small animal zoo. The Ponta Negra is thirteen kilometers to the northwest from the city center. From time to time smaller festivals and other events take place here.

Culinary specialties

The fish dishes with fish from the region are typical of Manaus cuisine. The variety of fish is very large, which is why there are so many fish dishes. Also typical is tacacá, a broth made from the juice of the manioc root with crabs and jambú . Of course, there is also the Brazilian national dish Feijoada in Manaus .

Just as typical for the city are the many different fruits, almost unknown in Europe, almost all of which are also offered as juices and which come from the region. Worth mentioning here include Graviola , Cupuaçu , Açaí , Jenipapo , Bacuri , Pupunha and Tucumã .

music

A very popular style of music is the forró (pronounced as foho). There are numerous venues in the city where forró is danced, especially on weekends.

The Axé , originally from Salvador da Bahia , is also very popular, as is Carimbó . Originally, Axé was music that was only performed during Carnival. However, there are now music groups and bars that play Axé all year round.

Festivals / celebrations

Olodum performing in the run-up to the 2004 Carnival

In the run-up to the actual carnival (January / February), concerts by carnival bands such as Olodum take place at various locations . These concerts usually start around 8 p.m. and last until the early hours of the morning. Several bands, some of which are very well known in Brazil, appear one after the other.

Parade of a favorite samba school in the Sambodromo 2004

The real highlight of the carnival, the parade of the samba schools, takes place on two consecutive days. As in Rio de Janeiro, the venue is the so-called Sambodromo. This is an approximately 500-meter-long street, which is lined to the right and left by grandstands that hold more than 100,000 spectators.

Samba school floats at the 2004 Sambódro parade

The samba schools pull one after the other with their percussion troupe, their carriages, the dance couples, samba dancers and dance groups through the Sambodromo. The spectacle lasts about an hour per school. At the beginning of each evening (8 p.m.) it is the turn of the smaller schools, but the later the evening gets, the bigger the floats and the more magnificent the costumes get. The two favored schools perform at around 5 a.m. each night.

Part of the Sambodromo during the Boi-Bumba 2003

The Bumba-meu-boi festival , which also takes place in the Sambódromo, is similar to the more popular one in Parintins . There are also two “teams”, the blue Boi Caprichoso and the red Boi Garantido, competing against each other.

Smaller stages will be set up along the Sambodromo, on which the dancers of both teams will then compete in groups of four. Now the bands of the teams take turns moving through the Sambodromo and performing their self-composed pieces. There are separate dance steps for each song. The dancers on the stage dance to the songs and behind the car that drives the band through the Sambódromo, anyone who wants to can dance along. At the end of the two-day competition, a jury will decide which team has won.

The festival always takes place around the city's birthday on October 24th. There is also another boi festival, the so-called Carnaboi , which takes place shortly before Carnival and is similar to Bumba-meu-boi. It derives its name from the Portuguese word for carnival (Carnaval).

The theater with a huge queue for tickets that goes almost around the whole building

The Amazonas de Ópera festival takes place in April and May. Various operas will be performed in the Teatro Amazonas during the festival .

During the Folklore Festival ( Festival Folchlórico do Amazonas ) in June, various folkloric events take place, such as festivals where the locals wear historical clothing and, for example, re-enact weddings from earlier days. The highlight on the 29th of the month is the St. Peter River Procession (Procissão Fluvial de São Pedro), during which hundreds of boats go out onto the Rio Negro to honor the patron saint of fishermen.

Sports

Manaus was one of the twelve venues for the 2014 World Cup in Brazil. A new stadium was built for this, the Arena da Amazônia . The “Vivaldão” stadium, which stood at this point, with a capacity of 15,000 spectators, was demolished in 2011.

The São Raimundo Esporte Clube soccer club plays in the Brazilian third division ( Série C ).

Personalities

sons and daughters of the town

Personalities who have worked on site

literature

  • Alberto Vazquez-Figueroa: Manaos. Plaza & Janés, Barcelona 1986, ISBN 978-84-01-32162-7 .
  • Leo A. Despres, Manaus: Social Life and Work in Brazil's Free Trade Zone. State University of New York Press, Albany 1991, ISBN 978-0-7914-0537-6 .
  • Ottaviano and Elizabeth De Fiore: Brazil. 4th edition. Baedeker, Ostfildern 2003, ISBN 3-89525-011-2 .
  • John Noble, Andrew Draffen, Robyn Jones, Chris AcAsey, Leonardo Phineiro: Brazil. Lonely Planet, London 2002, ISBN 1-86450-146-4 .
  • Benno Kroll, Photos: René Burri: Manaus: Heirs of Downfall . In: Geo-Magazin. Hamburg 1978, 10, pp. 142-156. “The city in the Brazilian jungle has become rich and impoverished in rubber. Now, 60 years later, hundreds of thousands are hoping for a new boom. ”Informative experience report.

Web links

Commons : Manaus  - album with pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. a b c d IBGE : Manaus - Panorama. Retrieved August 31, 2019 (Brazilian Portuguese).
  2. ^ Atlas do Desenvolvimento Humano do Brasil: Manaus, AM. In: atlasbrasil.org.br, accessed January 12, 2017 (Brazilian Portuguese).
  3. WTC de Santos realiza I Forum de Negócios . Diário Metropolitano
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  5. manaus.am.gov.br ( Memento of the original dated May 6, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.manaus.am.gov.br
  6. a b manaus.am.gov.br ( Memento of the original from March 28, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.manaus.am.gov.br
  7. manaus.am.gov.br ( Memento of the original from April 27, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.manaus.am.gov.br
  8. manaus.am.gov.br ( Memento of the original from May 7, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.manaus.am.gov.br
  9. manaus.am.gov.br ( Memento of the original from May 7, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.manaus.am.gov.br
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  13. manaus.am.gov.br ( Memento of the original from April 27, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.manaus.am.gov.br
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  20. a b c d ibge.gov.br
  21. a b c d portalbrasil.net
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  24. ftp://ftp.ibge.gov.br/Estimativas_de_Populacao/Estimativas_2013/estimativa_2013_dou.pdf
  25. a b c d ibge.gov.br
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  27. ambientebrasil.com.br ( Memento of the original from September 27, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.ambientebrasil.com.br
  28. MANAUS AMAZONAS BRAZIL EXPEDITIONS TOURS YOUR SPECIALISTS ON SITE Info Photo Travel Hotel - Manaus History. In: manaus-amazonas.com. February 28, 1957, accessed May 22, 2018 (manaus, history).
  29. CCPY update 100 wald.org
  30. Brazil: Mega bridge over Rio Negro in the Amazon inaugurated President Dilma Rousseff inaugurated the controversial mega bridge over the Rio Negro on Monday (24th) in Manaus in the Amazon. Initiated as part of the Business Acceleration Program (PAC). With an investment of 1.099 billion reais - the equivalent of around 470 million euros and more than twice as much as originally estimated - the remote towns between the Rio Solimões and the Rio Negro can now be reached more easily and quickly via the “Ponte Rio Negro”. November 24, 2011
  31. manaus.am.gov.br ( Memento of the original dated May 6, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.manaus.am.gov.br
  32. aci.rgis.ch ( Memento of the original from February 22, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / aci.rgis.ch
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  34. Alexander Busch: In the Amazon, a violent scenario is brewing, the consequences of which will also be felt in Switzerland. In: NZZ , April 6, 2017.
  35. Arthur Virgílio Neto tem votação histórica em Manaus. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on October 30, 2012 ; Retrieved November 25, 2012 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / acritica.uol.com.br
  36. ^ Artur Neto 45 , website Eleições 2016. Retrieved on May 21, 2017 (Portuguese).
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  40. manaus.am.gov.br
  41. 3sat.de ( Memento of the original from February 20, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.3sat.de
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  46. water types of Amazonia . Planet knowledge
This version was added to the list of articles worth reading on May 2, 2007 .