formula 1

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
formula 1
Current season Formula 1 World Championship 2021
Vehicle type Monoposto
Country or region International
Current name FIA Formula One World Championship
First season 1950
Official website
Previous logo until 2017

The Formula 1 is a from the automotive umbrella organization International Federation de l'Automobile (FIA) set formula series . Manufacturers design cars that conform to Formula 1 rules . These cars compete in races in around 20 locations per year as part of the Formula 1 World Championship . At the end of the season, the driver with the most points becomes the F1 driver's world champion and the manufacturer with the most points becomes the constructors' world champion.

Formula 1 is the top-tier formula racing series organized by the FIA. It is referred to as the premier class of automobile sport, as it claims to make the highest technical, driving and financial demands of all racing series on drivers and designers. It is also called F1 for short . The F1 World Championship is officially called the FIA Formula One World Championship , until 1980 it was called the Automobile World Championship .

Racing scene from the 2015 Malaysian Grand Prix

World Championship

The 2007 World Champion, Kimi Raikkonen , at the 2008 Canadian GP

Formula 1 since the 1950 season , held every year as World Cup and currently consists (as of 2020) of 21 individual races, each as Grand Prix ( German  Grand Prix ), respectively.

The individual race results are evaluated using a point system. Since the first season, the world championship title has been awarded to the driver who achieved the highest number of points at the end of the season in the sum of all races rated.

In the world championship, designers take part in teams that each have to field two racing cars of the same type and thus two drivers. As a rule, the drivers contest an entire season exclusively for one team. Driver changes within the season are possible, but rarely take place - usually when a regular driver is injured. A requirement for a driver to participate in a Formula 1 race is a super license issued by the FIA .

Since the 1958 season , in addition to the world championship driver, a team has also been recognized as world constructors champions. This rating is calculated by adding up the points scored by the respective drivers.

Drivers' and constructors' championships are determined in parallel, but in the past races with other vehicles ( Formula 2 , Champ Car ) were also part of the drivers' championship. In addition, not all races with F1 cars were automatically world championships. For example, until the early 1980s there were numerous races in Goodwood , Oulton Park or the Stuttgart Solitude in which no championship points were awarded, only prize money .

The reigning driver world champion from the 2020 season is the Briton Lewis Hamilton in a Mercedes. The 2020 World Cup ended on December 13th on Yas Island off Abu Dhabi .

For an overview of records and statistics see Formula 1 statistics .

Grand Prix

Country reference

Each season consists of several individual races known as the Grand Prix or Grand Prix . A Grand Prix is ​​usually named after the country in which it is held, for example as the Grand Prix of Germany . This tradition stems from Grand Prix racing in the early 20th century. If two Formula 1 events are to be held in one country in one year, a different name is usually chosen for the second Grand Prix. In the past, names of regions were used for this, examples are the European Grand Prix , which has already been held on race tracks in Great Britain, Spain, Germany and Azerbaijan, the Emilia-Romagna Grand Prix in Imola, Styria in Spielberg and the Eifel at the Nürburgring in 2020, as well as the Pacific Grand Prix , which was held in Japan in the mid-1990s. The names of neighboring countries were also used repeatedly, such as the Grand Prix of Luxembourg , which was used as the name for two Formula 1 races at the Nürburgring in Germany, or the Grand Prix of , which was held on the Italian race track in Imola from 1981 to 2006 San Marino .

Since the first 1950s season , 35 differently named grand prizes have been held in 25 countries on 68 Formula 1 racetracks . Most of the Grand Prix are held in Europe, but Formula 1 races are also held regularly in North and South America, Asia and Australia. In Africa, found up to the 1993 season a few times the Grand Prix of South Africa and even the Grand Prix of Morocco instead.

In the first few years, a Formula 1 World Championship consisted of fewer than ten individual races. From 1958 to 1972 , nine to 13 races were held in one season. Since 1973 there have been at least 14 and a maximum of 21 races per season. So far, the maximum number of 21 season races has only been reached in the 2016 , 2018 and 2019 seasons.

Only two grand prizes were held continuously in each season: the British Grand Prix and the Italian Grand Prix . Most Formula 1 races in a world championship season in a country took place in the USA in 1982, with one race each in Detroit , Long Beach and Las Vegas . The youngest Grand Prix is the first time in 2017 organized Grand Prix of Azerbaijan . In addition to the 2,008 for the first time hosted the Grand Prix of Singapore is the Grand Prix of Abu Dhabi , the second night race in Formula 1, but with the particularity that starts in daylight. Since 2014, the Bahrain Grand Prix has also been driven under floodlights.

The individual races are organized by local organizations and some have a longer history than the Formula 1 World Championship. For the holding of a Grand Prix that is officially part of the World Cup, the organizers conclude a contract with Formula One Management Ltd. (FOM) . Several of the organizers are organized in the Formula One Promoters' Association (FOPA).

Number of grands prix officially counting for the World Cup

The table below shows how many grands prix officially counted in the drivers 'and constructors' championships during the season. Championship points were awarded in these Grands Prix. In addition, there were some grands prix that were not part of the championship. These are not included here.

season 0 1 2 3 4th 5 6th 7th 8th 9 total
1950s 7th 8th 8th 9 9 7th 8th 8th 11 9 84 GP
1960s 10 8th 9 10 10 10 9 11 12th 11 100 GP
1970s 13th 11 12th 15th 15th 14th 16 17th 16 15th 144 GP
1980s 14th 15th 16 15th 16 16 16 16 16 16 156 GP
1990s 16 16 16 16 16 17th 16 17th 16 16 162 GP
2000s 17th 17th 17th 16 18th 19th 18th 17th 18th 17th 174 GP
2010s 19th 19th 20th 19th 19th 19th 21 20th 21 21 198 GP
2020s 17th 17 GP
Total As of the end of the 2020 season 1035 GP

Race without world championship status

Until the 1970s, in addition to races with world championship status, there were regular races that were held according to Formula 1 regulations, but which were not part of the respective Formula 1 world championships (so-called non-championship races). For placements in these races, the pilots did not receive any points that they could have earned in the world championship ranking of the respective year. Examples of Formula 1 races without World Championship status were the Solitude Grand Prix (1961 to 1964) in Germany , the Race of Champions in Great Britain and the Gran Premio di Siracusa in southern Europe . Most of the races in the South African Formula 1 Championship also had no world championship status. Such races were very popular at times because they gave the World Championship teams and drivers the opportunity to test their material and skills. In a sense, they served as preparation for the world championship races. These races only became obsolete when private test drives for the teams became common.

Course of a racing weekend

A Grand Prix begins on Friday with two free training units (exception: at the Monaco Grand Prix , the first two training units take place on Thursday), each of which lasts 60 minutes.

Saturday begins with the third free practice session, which lasts one hour, and qualifying begins at least two hours later, also lasting one hour. In qualifying, the starting positions for the race on Sunday will be extended. The mode has been changed several times since the 2003 season . A three-part elimination race is currently deciding on the starting positions (see current regulations ). No technical changes may be made during or after qualifying. After qualifying there will be a press conference in which the top three drivers have to take part.

The race begins with an introductory lap , for which the drivers in the starting field line up in the order of the qualifying results. After the introductory lap, the vehicles stop in their start box on the start and finish straight for the standing start of the race . The start release is given by a signal system made up of five traffic lights above the starter field. The five red lights are activated one after the other. After all five lights have gone out, the start is released.

McLaren pit stop at the 2006 Malaysia GP

Since 2010, drivers have no longer been able to refuel during the race; Pit stops are only made for tire changes and small repairs . Choosing the right time can be decisive for the driver's success, as both the condition of the tires and the weight of the vehicle, which is influenced by the amount of fuel, have a major influence on the possible lap times. In rainy races, it is also necessary to plan when to change to which type of tire. There are 18 team members (mechanics) involved in a regular pit stop: two mechanics for jacking up the vehicle, three mechanics for each tire for changing tires and one mechanic for cleaning the visor and signaling the end of the pit stop. Two mechanics are also needed to clean the cooler inlets from flies, dust and other things, as otherwise the cooler cannot produce an optimal effect, which can result in engine damage. Before 2010, two mechanics were also involved in refueling.

In dangerous situations, for example in very heavy rain or if a defective vehicle or parts of it could endanger the other racing drivers after an accident, the race management decides on a safety car phase. The safety car sits in front of the leading vehicle and uses it to reduce the speed to a safe speed. It is not allowed to overtake during the safety car phase. The laps driven here are counted in the same way as other racing laps, i. H. if a race spans 50 laps and five laps are held in the safety car, only 45 laps can be driven at racing speed. The safety car has been driven by the German racing driver Bernd Mayländer since the 2000 season . If a race has not yet ended after two hours, the race is stopped. If 75 percent or more of the race has been completed, full points will be awarded, if the leader has completed at least two laps, half the points will be awarded. If he covers less than two laps, the race is not included in the classification. The race can also be stopped due to heavy rain (as at the Nürburgring 2007).

World champions and records

Michael Schumacher (2005)

The two most successful drivers in Formula 1 history are Michael Schumacher and Lewis Hamilton . Both were able to win the drivers' world championship seven times. Schumacher achieved 91 race wins out of a total of 307 starts, Hamilton 97 race wins out of 264 starts.

Different drivers are associated with the individual epochs of Formula 1:

The early years of Formula 1 history were dominated by racing drivers Giuseppe Farina , Juan Manuel Fangio , Alberto Ascari , Stirling Moss , Mike Hawthorn , Tony Brooks and Jack Brabham . Fangio was the most successful with five world championship titles and two titles as runner-up.

With Bruce McLaren , Graham Hill , Jim Clark , John Surtees , Denis Hulme , Jackie Stewart , Jochen Rindt , Jacky Ickx , Clay Regazzoni , Emerson Fittipaldi , Ronnie Peterson and a few others, numerous racing drivers determined the events of the following years.

The era of Niki Lauda , Mario Andretti , Alan Jones , Carlos Reutemann and Gilles Villeneuve began in the mid-1970s . Lella Lombardi was also the first female driver to finish in the points.

Nelson Piquet dominated in the early 1980s . The following years were determined in particular by Alain Prost , Ayrton Senna and Nigel Mansell as well as Gerhard Berger and Riccardo Patrese . After Ayrton Senna's death at the beginning of the 1994 season, the Michael Schumacher era began. Other outstanding drivers were Damon Hill , David Coulthard , Jacques Villeneuve and Mika Häkkinen .

Fernando Alonso , Kimi Räikkönen , Lewis Hamilton , Jenson Button , Sebastian Vettel and Nico Rosberg won the world titles from the mid-2000s .

Formula 1 is open to all genders. In her history there were also several women who took part in races: in 1958 Maria Teresa de Filippis started three races and from 1974 to 1976 Lella Lombardi drove in Formula 1.

An overview of the most successful drivers in Formula 1 history is provided by the list of Formula 1 world champions and the list of Formula 1 racing drivers , a compilation of all the drivers who have ever competed in Formula 1.

In total, more than 300 different racing teams competed in official World Championship races in Formula 1. Since 1981 the racing team has also had to be the designer. Before that, the participating teams also used vehicles from other designers.

In addition to a few racing teams with only a few starts, 14 racing teams started in at least 250 races: Ferrari , McLaren , Williams , Lotus , Tyrrell , Brabham , Minardi , Ligier , Arrows , Renault , Benetton , Jordan , Red Bull and Sauber .

14 racing teams have so far won the constructors' championship. In addition, Matra came as a designer in 1969, whereby Matra did not win the title with the works team, but with the then customer team Tyrrell , which used the Matra design.

With 16 titles won (as of 2020) in the constructors' championship, Ferrari is the most successful Formula 1 team to date. Ferrari was also very successful in the period up to 1957, when a design engineer title had not yet been awarded. Williams was able to experience his nine world championship titles so far in the 1980s and 1990s. McLaren has achieved eight constructors' titles so far; seven titles were won by Lotus . The relatively young Red Bull Racing team has won four constructors' championships in a row so far - all with Sebastian Vettel and Mark Webber . Mercedes was able to win the constructors' championship seven times in a row between 2014 and 2020, which is a record.

Jacques Villeneuve in the Williams at the 1996 Canadian GP
Stirling Moss at the 1961 German GP
Constructors' world championship title (as of the end of the 2020 season)
place constructor title Years
1 ItalyItaly Ferrari 16 1961, 1964, 1975–1977, 1979, 1982, 1983, 1999–2004, 2007, 2008
2 United KingdomUnited Kingdom Williams 09 1980, 1981, 1986, 1987, 1992-1994, 1996, 1997
3 United KingdomUnited Kingdom McLaren 08th 1974, 1984, 1985, 1988-1991, 1998
4th United KingdomUnited Kingdom lotus 07th 1963, 1965, 1968, 1970, 1972, 1973, 1978
GermanyGermany Mercedes 07th 2014-2020
6th AustriaAustria Red Bull 04th 2010-2013
7th United KingdomUnited Kingdom cooper 02 1959, 1960
United KingdomUnited Kingdom Brabham 02 1966, 1967
FranceFrance Renault 02 2005, 2006
10 United KingdomUnited Kingdom Vanwall 01 1958
United KingdomUnited Kingdom BRM 01 1962
FranceFrance Matra Sports 01 1969
United KingdomUnited Kingdom Tyrrell 01 1971
United KingdomUnited Kingdom Benetton 01 1995
United KingdomUnited Kingdom Brawn 01 2009

Development of Formula 1

Until 1950

Auto Union Type D - Grand Prix racing car from 1939

Even before the Second World War , there was already an International Grand Prix formula in which the international automobile association AIACR laid down the rules according to which the International Grand Prix (also known as Grandes Épreuves ) were held. These provisions could primarily refer to technical specifications, such as the limitation of the engine displacement, the specification of consumption limits or the specification of certain dimensions and maximum or minimum weights for the racing cars, but usually also contained sporting regulations, such as minimum durations or distances for the races.

The specific design of these formulas could be very different. For example, from 1922 to 1925 the engines were limited to a maximum of two liters of displacement in connection with a minimum weight of 650 kg, with the racing cars also having to be occupied by two people (driver and mechanic) up to 1924. In 1926 the displacement limit was reduced to 1.5 liters, although no distinction was made between naturally aspirated and supercharged engines. In 1928 the changeover to a so-called free formula took place , in which only minimum and maximum weights for the racing cars between 550 and 750 kg and a minimum distance of 600 km for the races were specified. However, this formula proved to be just as unsuccessful as the consumption formula introduced for 1929 and 1930, in which the racing cars were not allowed to consume more than 14 kg of operating materials (petrol and oil) per 100 km driven while maintaining the minimum racing distance of 600 km. For 1931, the technical restrictions were even dropped completely, while at the same time the minimum duration of the races was increased to ten hours, with two drivers taking turns at the wheel of a racing car. But this formula was also abandoned after only one year and the duration of the race for 1932 was set at a minimum of five and a maximum of ten hours. It was only with the racing formula introduced from 1934, in which a minimum weight of 750 kg and a minimum width of 85 cm was prescribed for the racing cars, that a phase of stability was achieved again in which the racing cars of the two German teams from Mercedes-Benz and Auto Union soon assumed a dominant position.

For the first time in 1938, a “correct” racing formula was reintroduced in which the cubic capacity and minimum weight of the racing cars were related to one another on a sliding scale, whereby for the first time a distinction was made between charged and non-charged engines. In reality, it quickly became apparent that only the German Silver Arrows remained really competitive , with their compressor-loaded engines of three liters and a minimum weight of 850 kg, which fully exhausted the specified limit. Neither racing cars with 4.5-liter naturally aspirated engines, as preferred by French teams, nor the Voiturettes with 1.5-liter supercharged engines popular in Italy and Great Britain , for which the minimum weight was only 560 kg, could do more than just that achieve occasional successes of respect.

However, since only the organizers of the Grandes Épreuves were bound by the application of the international formula , racing in the three countries had shifted more and more to these other categories since the mid-1930s in order to avoid the overpowering racing teams from Germany. As a result, the Voiturette class in particular had de facto developed into a kind of unofficial second racing formula, even if Mercedes had succeeded in developing the Gran Premio di Tripoli 1939, which was also announced for Voiturettes in record time, with the W 165 developed especially for this race to win.

With the resumption of Grand Prix sport after the war, in which the "Silver Arrows" could of course no longer take part, the automobile umbrella organization , which has now been renamed the FIA , issued a new international racing formula for 1947, which essentially included the two Europe summarized the most widespread racing car categories. With the displacement limit of 1.5 liters for racing cars with and 4.5 liters without a compressor, both the French racing and racing sports cars and the Italian and British Voiturettes were allowed to start, so that the organizers of the races were able to do so, often with them To get together a large number of racing cars from the pre-war period.

Nevertheless, the FIA ​​had apparently also seen the need to add another "smaller" formula to this new International Grand Prix formula from 1948, in which racing cars up to 666 cm³ with supercharged and up to 2 liters with non-supercharged engines were allowed to start . To distinguish between these two categories, they were initially named "Formula A" and "Formula B", before the terms "Formula 1" and "Formula 2" became established later.

As usual, individual Grand Prix races continued to be held according to these rules, a series or European championship like the one before the war either no longer existed or did not yet exist. When the motorcycle -Dachverband FIM for the year 1949 a World Cup wrote out, the FIA responded by tendering a Drivers' Championship for the year 1950 .

The 1950s

Ferrari 500 , 1952

The first race to count towards the new Formula 1 World Championship was held on May 13, 1950 in Silverstone ( England ) as the Grand Prix of Great Britain .

In order to underpin the claim to a world championship, although in addition to the regular races in Argentina almost only grands prix took place in Europe, world championship points were also awarded for the 500-mile race in Indianapolis between 1950 and 1960 , although there were afterwards completely different rules were followed. In these years there were a few attempts by Ferrari to be competitive there, but all of them failed due to the very different conditions. In addition, there were a few attempts by US pilots to survive in Monza with their Champ-Car cars , but they were equally unsuccessful .

In the first two seasons 1950 and 1951 continue to dominate the compressor driven by motors Alfetta from Alfa Romeo . These racing cars were further developments of the pre-war designs and still had great similarities with these models. The first Formula 1 world champions were the Alfa Romeo drivers Giuseppe Farina and Juan Manuel Fangio . However, Alfa Romeo withdrew from GP racing at the end of 1951 after two successful decades. Since only the former Alfa race director Enzo Ferrari was able to bring competitive F1 racing cars to the start, the drivers' world championships in 1952 and 1953 were temporarily announced for the cheaper Formula 2 vehicles. Since Ferrari had already dominated the Formula 2 classification in the previous two years, the Ferrari driver Alberto Ascari won the world championship unchallenged.

In 1954, new, more cost-effective rules (F1 with naturally aspirated engines up to 2500 cm³ or supercharged engines up to 750 cm³, F2 up to 1500 cm³) came into force, whereupon Mercedes among others decided to re- enter with the Mercedes-Benz W196 .

In the years 1954 to 1957 the world championship was won by Juan Manuel Fangio, who won this title in 1954 and 1955 for Mercedes-Benz, 1956 for Ferrari and 1957 for Maserati. Ferrari driver Mike Hawthorn followed in 1958, followed by Jack Brabham, who started for Cooper in 1959 and 1960 .

Up to and including 1957 it was allowed to change drivers during the race. The points for the achieved place were then divided among the participating drivers. As a result, drivers who were eliminated in races and who were promisingly placed in the World Championship took over the cars of their team-mates who were still in the race in order to still score World Championship points.

Towards the end of the decade, the appearance of Formula 1 vehicles changed. With their better weight distribution, racing cars with a mid-engine replaced the previously common designs with a front engine . The first vehicle of this design with which the world title could be won was the Cooper T51 , with which Jack Brabham was victorious in 1959.

The 1960s

Porsche type 804, 1962

From 1961 to 1965, the former were Formula 2 rules to F1 standard applicable, to the annoyance of the now dominant small British teams such as Vanwall , Cooper , Lotus and BRM who built except BRM not have their own engines and to Coventry-Climax instructed were. The British teams initially threatened to leave Formula 1. With the Intercontinental Formula, they founded a competing series that appeared briefly in 1961, but was not able to establish itself permanently. It was already clear at the beginning of 1961 that all British teams would continue to take part in Formula 1. Again Ferrari was successfully on the spot with an existing Formula 2. But Lotus was also able to adapt quickly to the new circumstances and responded with the development of the revolutionary Lotus 25 , which had a monocoque construction that was just as light as it was stable . This design developed into the standard in the following years; This decade was the last time that vehicles were built with the previously common lattice frame chassis.

Since Porsche had also been building F2 racing cars for a number of years, promotion to Formula 1 was now an obvious choice. But the four-cylinder that had been used up to now, which was derived from the Volkswagen , was not competitive in 1961. The chassis of the Porsche 718 type was also too clumsy compared to the slim cars of the competition. With the new and elegant model Porsche 804 with eight-cylinder engine, Dan Gurney finally managed to win a world championship run in 1962, the GP of the Automobile Club of France in Rouen-les-Essarts . The following week, at the Formula 1 race at the Solitude in Stuttgart , which is not part of the World Cup , the American was able to repeat the Swabians' success in front of a home crowd. At the end of the season, however, Porsche withdrew from Formula 1 because of the high costs and the lack of series production and concentrated again on the traditional sports car scene .

In the first half of the 1960s, several drivers took turns in the driver's world championship title: First, the American Phil Hill won , followed by the British Graham Hill , the British Jim Clark and the British John Surtees . In 1965 Jim Clark was able to win the world championship again. The second half of the decade brought the Australian Jack Brabham , the New Zealander Denis Hulme , another time to the British Graham Hill and most recently the British Jackie Stewart the world title.

The most successful engine in Formula 1: Cosworth DFV (1967–1985)

Since racing cars and even some series vehicles at that time had more power than the so-called premier class with its only 220 hp and fragile 1500cc eight-cylinder, the rules were changed again for 1966 - by doubling the displacement (3000 cm³ for naturally aspirated engines, 1500 cm³ for charged engines). Coventry Climax, where most of the over-the-counter Formula 1 engines had been manufactured, did not go along with the change. The company withdrew from the sport before the introduction of the 3-liter Formula 1. Although the rule change had already been decided in November 1963, only three engine types were available at the start of the season, which were tailored to the new conditions. It was the engines from Repco , Ferrari and Maserati. The Repco and Ferrari engines were new developments; the Maserati engine, on the other hand, was a reamed version of the twelve-cylinder engine that had been used in some races in 1957 . The Repco unit was based on an eight-cylinder engine from Oldsmobile , which was fitted with light-alloy cylinder heads in Australia after a displacement change. The distribution of the newly designed engines was limited. Ferrari kept the new twelve-cylinder for its works team, Maserati exclusively equipped the Cooper team, and the Repco engine was used solely by Brabham, who had commissioned the development of the engine. Other engines were in development, but they were not ready for use at the start of the season. Many teams therefore initially made use of temporary solutions. The eight-cylinder engines from Coventry Climax and BRM used in the 1.5-liter formula were mostly drilled out so that they achieved a displacement of 2.0 and 2.5 liters respectively. In the course of the year, BRM produced a new 3.0 liter sixteen-cylinder engine with an H design . It consisted of two stacked eight-cylinder engines, each with a displacement of 1.5 liters, which were connected to one another via spur gears. The engine was heavy, complicated and prone to failure. The British teams in particular found the engine situation to be unsatisfactory. Colin Chapman , head of the Lotus team, publicly appealed to the auto industry and the British government in the summer of 1966 to develop or support the development of an engine that was as powerful as it was readily available for the British teams. The efforts resulted in the development of the Cosworth DFV , which was initially available to Lotus from 1967 and later to all teams as a customer engine . The DFV, which was used in various stages of development until 1985, is the most successful engine in Formula 1 to date.

High wings: Matra MS10 (1969)

Another innovation that has shaped Formula 1 racing since then was the introduction of spoilers and wings in the 1968 season . In this way, an increase in downforce was achieved so that the vehicles were able to drive at significantly higher cornering speeds thanks to improved grip. In the following season , after a few accidents, the FIA ​​prohibited the use of towering wing constructions, which established the configuration of a front and a rear wing that is common today. Only at the beginning of the 1980s, at the height of the wing car era, was the front wing temporarily dispensed with, as the vehicles already produced sufficient downforce due to the ground effect and the front wings also obstructed the airflow under the vehicle floor .

After Porsche had built a Formula 1 car with all-wheel drive in 1947 with the Cisitalia 360 , some British racing teams also began experimenting with all-wheel drive racing cars in the 1960s. The P99 from Ferguson Research was the first operational vehicle of its kind in 1961, while the BRM P67 from 1964 only gave a one-time training guest appearance . In 1969 a total of four teams (Lotus, Matra, McLaren and even the engine manufacturer Cosworth) tested all-wheel drive monopostos without any notable success in Formula 1, and only Colin Chapman (Lotus) dared to try another all-wheel drive vehicle in 1971. Further information: All-wheel drive in auto sports .

The 1970s

Lotus 72 , which won the Constructors' World Championship for the 1970, 1972 and 1973 seasons.

From 1970 to 1982 the Cosworth engine , which was already successful in 1967 in the Lotus 49, dominated Formula 1, as several teams were able to win a total of 155 races and 12 drivers' championship titles with this compact and reliable engine. Only Ferrari was able to win 3 world titles with a slightly more powerful 180 ° -V12 ; Maserati , Weslake , Honda , BRM, Matra and Alfa Romeo with their V12 also have a few individual victories. A technical curiosity was the Lotus 56 , which was powered by a gas turbine and tested in several races in the 1971 season.

The first world championship title of the 1970s went posthumously to Jochen Rindt , who had a fatal accident during training for the Italian Grand Prix in Monza on September 5, 1970. In the next titles in the years 1971 to 1974, the British Jackie Stewart and the Brazilian Emerson Fittipaldi alternated. The second half of the 1970s was dominated by the Ferrari team, which won the designer's title from 1975 to 1977 and 1979. In 1975 and 1977 the Austrian Niki Lauda won the World Cup. In 1976 the Briton James Hunt won , in 1978 the American Mario Andretti and 1979 the South African Jody Scheckter . In terms of designers, Lotus (1970, 1972–1973, 1978) and Ferrari (1975–1977, 1979) are tied with four titles each. The other championships were able to win Tyrrell (1971) and McLaren (1974).

In the 1970s, the end came for long historical routes such as the Nürburgring with a route length of 22.835 km and Spa-Francorchamps with 14.12 km, which no longer met the increasing standards from a safety point of view (route width, fall areas, etc.). In addition, the length of the route meant that the time it took for ambulances to arrive to accidents was unacceptable. The move from the Nürburgring to the Hockenheimring had been decided for 1977 before the serious accident by Niki Lauda, ​​even if the opposite is still popular to this day. In a similar way, other racetracks such as Monza or Silverstone were slowed down and defused by installing chicanes. On the other hand, routes such as Le Castellet or Nivelles-Baulers that were explicitly designed with a view to safety made their way into the racing calendar, but they quickly acquired the reputation of being unspectacular "retort courses".

Tyrrell-Ford P34 with 6 wheels

Technical revolutions occurred in the late 1970s and early 1980s. After Mario Andretti won the World Cup in the Lotus 79 , the so-called ground-effect racing cars dominated, in which a strong dynamic downforce was generated by means of side pods with reversed wing profile and a car floor sealed on the sides by movable side skirts . This made significantly higher cornering speeds possible. Sometimes bizarre constructions such as the so-called “vacuum cleaner” Brabham , with which Niki Lauda competed and won the race in Anderstorp, Sweden in 1978, the six-wheeled P34 by Tyrrell for Jody Scheckter and Patrick Depailler in the 1976 and 1977 seasons or the double floor -Lotus were exaggerated interpretations of the rules and were soon banned or not allowed.

From 1977 Renault introduced turbo engines, with which it achieved its first victory in 1979. In 1982, the easier-to-drive, more cost-effective, more reliable and more economical naturally aspirated engines retained the upper hand in the final accounts, despite increasingly clear performance deficits.

The 1980s

The beginning of the 1980s was dominated in Formula 1 on the one hand by the technological advances, more and more teams were on turbocharged engines, from which they hoped to gain a performance advantage over the classic Cosworth normally aspirated engines, and thereby brought large automobile companies such as Porsche , BMW and Honda as Engine manufacturers in Formula 1, who quickly developed their own interests that went beyond the mere supplier status. In addition, the technology was initially characterized by the further development of the ground effect, although risky solutions were used to optimize it. Quite often, the stiffest possible suspension was chosen in favor of a constant distance between the vehicle floor and the track, which, however, placed a heavy burden on the driver and other technology. For the 1983 season, underbody profiles were then banned and a flat vehicle floor was prescribed.

On the other hand, there were political tensions within the racing scene in those years. The FISA , which is subordinate to the FIA, as the sporting organizer of the competition and determiner of the regulations, and the FOCA as the representative of the interests of a large part of the (mainly British) racing teams, faced each other. Again and again disputes broke out about rules that were disadvantageous to the FOCA teams and the marketing procedure, which escalated in races boycotted by FOCA teams such as the San Marino GP in 1982 or the cancellation of races from the championship standings as in Spain in 1980 . In retrospect, this rivalry was referred to as the “FISA-FOCA war” and has been calmed down by a series of Concorde Agreements .

From 1983, the more powerful turbos finally dominated, which were able to release well over 1,000 hp during training for a short time and thus displaced the suction pilots to the rear of the starting line-up. Exorbitant performance data should be treated with caution, as hardly any test bench was designed for measuring such high engine outputs. In any case, the top speeds were not as high as would be expected with double or triple engine power. The peak performance was soon reduced by limiting the boost pressure; in the race, additional attention had to be paid to fuel consumption, as the tank sizes were limited or reduced.

McLaren TAG Porsche, an example of the first turbo era, 1985
Ferrari, 1987, by Gerhard Berger

The proven Cosworth units with around 500  hp were then used in the Formula 3000 , which replaced the Formula 2 of that time with its racing engines (2,000 cm³, 320 hp).

The 1986 season marked the climax of the so-called turbo era. All vehicles in the field use this type of engine, which was now required by the regulations. One of the most powerful racing cars in F1 history, the Benetton - BMW with an estimated 1,350 hp in training, was driven by the Austrian Gerhard Berger this season. He won the Mexican Grand Prix in the same year , albeit with a significantly lower continuous performance. Berger later reported that this car “could hardly run because of all the power”.

After the season, however, it was decided to ban the turbo engines until 1989. For this purpose, the following season , the “Jim Clark Trophy” and the “Colin Chapman Trophy” were announced for exclusive driver and team competitions for naturally aspirated vehicles. Jonathan Palmer and his team Tyrrell , ranked 11th and 6th in the regular category, won these unique competitions. The year 1988 , in which turbo engines were allowed for the last time, finally marked a transition: some top teams (including Williams and Benetton) returned to naturally aspirated engines this season in order to gain experience with the "new" engines, while others were still driving this season continues with the previous engine. McLaren dominated the season with its Honda turbo, won 15 of 16 races and thus made one last exclamation mark.

From 1989 the complex turbos were finally banned as planned and only aspirators up to 3,500 cm³ were allowed (to differentiate from the F3000 with 3000 cm³ displacement), which were used in the V8 , V10, V12 and even W12 designs . Of Renault was pneumatic valve suspension introduced in which a high-pressure air reservoir to replace the existing steel springs and - since the problem of resonance catastrophe could be avoided with coil springs - a significant increase in speeds on the up to then usual 12,000 / min also allowed.

On the racetracks, the 1980s marked the final farewell to classic high-speed tracks such as Kyalami , Zandvoort (last held in 1985) or the Österreichring (last race in 1987). Although these tracks returned to the racing calendar years later, they had long since been more or less heavily rebuilt at that time. Established in F1 events for years, sometimes until today, the Grand Prix of Australia (since 1985) and Japan (since 1987), Mexico (1986–1992), Portugal (1984–1996), San Marino ( 1981–2006) as well as the European Grand Prix, which was held on different routes . On the other hand, the races in the Netherlands (for the last time 1985, not planned again until 2021), South Africa (1985, not again until 1992), Austria (1987, not until 1997 again) and Argentina (1981, not until 1995 again) disappeared temporarily from the calendar . In addition, over the course of the decade, the interest in the racing series in the USA decreased significantly - until 1984 there had been several races of the season in this country ( USA East , USA West , Las Vegas , Dallas ), from 1985 only one race remained in the Calendar. These races were also unpopular with the drivers, as this almost exclusively to street circuits with a narrow, slow and twisty route and difficult, acted as unsuitable felt for professional racing road surfaces.

The most successful drivers of the 1980s were the Brazilian Nelson Piquet with three world championship titles in 1981, 1983 and 1987 and the Frenchman Alain Prost with three titles in 1985, 1986 and 1989. The other Formula 1 world championships went to the Australian Alan Jones , the Finn Keke Rosberg , the Austrian Niki Lauda and the Brazilian Ayrton Senna . Williams shared the title of constructors' world champion with four titles in 1980, 1981, 1986, 1987, McLaren with four titles in 1984, 1985, 1988, 1989 and Ferrari with two titles in the 1982 and 1983 seasons.

The 1990s

The beginning of the 1990s was marked by electronic developments such as active chassis, traction controls and ABS , with Williams - Renault having the best technology. These driving aids were banned for the 1994 season. In addition, there were the latest developments in aerodynamics: in 1990, the Tyrrell team , which was previously troubled, introduced a front wing for the first time with the 019 , which was mounted on two pylons under the now towering vehicle nose. This achieved a better flow of air to the vehicle underbody and at the same time reduced air resistance. Tyrrell was able to achieve a podium place with this vehicle, which was voted racing car of the year by the British magazine Autosport , and this design prevailed in the medium term, so that in 1996 the last designs with "deep" vehicle noses disappeared from the paddock.

After the 1994 season , which was overshadowed by two fatal accidents , the displacement was again reduced to 3000 cm³ in 1995, and the power sank from around 750 to 650  hp .

In 1996 Ferrari also switched from the traditional, but heavy and thirsty V12 to the predominant V10, with which the new driver Michael Schumacher was able to win three races. As early as 1997, the old performance level of around 750 hp had been reached again, and the engine speed rose to more than 17,000 rpm.

The 1990s saw no major changes in the racetracks and venues compared to the previous decade - there were essentially only changes between venues that were already known. For example, the 1992 South African Grand Prix returned to Formula 1 after a seven-year absence, but disappeared again after another event. The race in Argentina , which was back on the calendar from 1995 to 1998 after the last event in 1981 , fared similarly . The only actually new Grand Prix of the 1990s was the Malaysian Grand Prix, which was first contested in 1999 . In addition, this decade saw the rise of Michael Schumacher and the commitment of Mercedes from 1994 onwards, the temporary establishment of a second race of the season in Germany from 1995 - in addition to the German Grand Prix in Hockenheim , a second race took place at the Nürburgring from this year onwards , in the Usually known as the Grand Prix of Europe or the Grand Prix of Luxembourg .

Formula 1 experienced another boom in Japan in the 1990s. The popularity of the racing series had increased steadily with the start of the regular hosting of the Japanese Grand Prix in Suzuka since 1987 and the debuts of the drivers Aguri Suzuki and Satoru Nakajima and expressed itself in a variety of ways. The racing teams March (1990), Arrows (1991) and Brabham (1991) were bought up by Japanese entrepreneurs and partially renamed, and Yamaha soon became a second Japanese engine supplier alongside Honda , albeit with significantly less success. There were also numerous Japanese racing drivers such as Ukyō Katayama , Shinji Nakano , Toranosuke Takagi or Taki Inoue , who were also far less successful than Suzuki and Nakajima at the time. On the other hand, European drivers like Eddie Irvine , Ralf Schumacher and Pedro de la Rosa took the opportunity to move up from Formula Nippon , the Japanese equivalent of the F3000, to Formula 1. The preliminary climax of Japanese F1 enthusiasm was reached when a second race of the season was held in Japan in 1994 and 1995 with the Pacific Grand Prix .

In the 1990s, the Brazilian Ayrton Senna , the German Michael Schumacher and the Finn Mika Häkkinen won the drivers' championship twice , as did the British Nigel Mansell , the French Alain Prost , the British Damon Hill and the Canadian Jacques Villeneuve . The teams first dominated McLaren (1990-1991) using Honda engines, before Williams (1992-1994, 1996-1997) was able to take the lead in the constructors' championships. In the meantime, the emerging Benetton team won the title (1995), while the end of the decade saw the resurgence of McLaren-Mercedes (1998) and Ferrari (1999).

The 2000s

Racing scene from the 2003 USA Grand Prix
Patrick Friesacher in the Minardi at the British GP 2005

After Ferrari was able to win the constructors' championship again in 1999, the Italians swung into the dominant racing team from 2000 to 2004. Both world championship titles went to Ferrari and Michael Schumacher during this time. The overwhelming dominance was particularly evident in the 2002 season , in which Ferrari celebrated nine double victories and scored as many points as the entire competition (221).

From the 2005 season , the number of cylinders was initially limited to V10 , then from 2006 to V8 . Furthermore, the units had to endure two race weekends (up to 1,200 km) without changing in order to reduce costs and to slow down a further increase in performance (around 900 hp at 19,000 rpm). At the end of the 2005 season, however, according to an independent engine engineer, the best teams had already achieved around 925 hp at 19,800 rpm. A loophole in the regulations that enabled the teams to install a new engine in the final lap by supposedly giving up on the next race was closed after the first race of the season by specifying the rule.

The 2007 season was overshadowed by an espionage affair .

For the 2009 season , it was decided to equip the vehicles with KERS braking energy recovery . The drivers can then use this power as a short-term additional increase in performance. By increasing the mechanical grip and reducing the aerodynamic grip, significantly more overtaking maneuvers were expected, as the vehicles in the slipstream will no longer have such a pronounced, difficult driving behavior. Other changes were a wider front wing and a narrower but higher rear wing.

Since it was relatively easy to design the vehicles below the minimum mass in those years, artificial weights, such as tungsten plates , were attached to locations that were optimized in terms of driving physics.

From an economic and business point of view, the 2000s were shaped by a strong influence of automobile companies on racing. The pioneer of this development was the McLaren team, which entered into a partnership with Mercedes-Benz in 1995 , which began to increasingly control the sporting activities with increasing success. BMW jumped on this bandwagon first and began a similar partnership with Williams for the 2000 season. After the breakthrough in the form of a title failed to materialize despite some notable successes, BMW changed its approach and completely bought the Sauber team for the 2006 season , which consequently competed as BMW Sauber F1 . Renault also bought its way back into Formula 1 as a racing team operator in 2000 after years as a mere engine manufacturer and took over the Benetton team, which was only renamed Renault F1 in 2002 ; Ford took a similar approach with the Stewart team, which, however, operated under the name of Ford's traditional subsidiary brand as Jaguar . On the other hand, Honda gradually expanded its influence on the BAR team over the years and finally let them compete as a works team from 2006 onwards. Toyota took a different approach and set up its own completely new team for the 2002 season.

As a result, only a few independent racing teams remained without any connection to a vehicle manufacturer, and they were increasingly falling behind. Previously successful names like Williams (after the separation from BMW) fell into the midfield or - as in the case of Jordan - sometimes changed hands several times. The tide turned only with the global financial crisis in 2008 and 2009: In December 2008, Honda officially withdrew from Formula 1 for this reason, as CEO Takeo Fukui announced at a press conference. In March 2009, Ross Brawn took over the racing team, after which it was renamed Brawn GP . That year, Toyota, Renault and BMW also ended their engagements. In the latter case, Peter Sauber was able to buy back his previous team in full, while Renault, which had also suffered considerable damage to its image as a result of the "Crashgate" affair at the 2008 Singapore Grand Prix , sold his team to a Luxembourg investor group, which it launched in 2010 under the name Lotus F1 Team . Significantly, in addition to Brawn's surprising title win, 2009 also saw the rise of Red Bull Racing , which came about in 2005 when the Austrian beverage manufacturer Red Bull took over the hapless Jaguar team, of all things .

Compared to the previous decade, the establishment of new racetracks in mainly Asian countries, in which no Grand Prix had previously taken place, was also striking, which began in the middle of the decade. The beginning of the decade saw only the return of the US Grand Prix (2000), while after that the racing calendar for the individual seasons remained relatively homogeneous. In 2004, however, the races in Bahrain and China broke new ground twice. Turkey was added in 2005, Singapore in 2008 and Abu Dhabi in 2009 . On the other hand, some more or less traditional events such as the Austrian Grand Prix (2003), San Marino (2006) and France (2008) fell by the wayside. In Germany, too, after the end of Michael Schumacher's career, a certain saturation of public interest was noticeable in the fact that from 2007 only one season race was held in this country - from here onwards the event rotated annually between Hockenheim and the Nürburgring .

From 2000 to 2004 Michael Schumacher won five drivers' world championships in a row. In 2005 and 2006 the Spaniard Fernando Alonso triumphed . The other world championships were won by Kimi Raikkonen (2007), Lewis Hamilton (2008) and Jenson Button (2009). In the constructors' world championship mostly the respective teams of the driver world champions dominated, namely Ferrari (2000-2004, 2007-2008), Renault (2005-2006) and Brawn (2009). The only exception was the 2008 season , in which McLaren driver Lewis Hamilton was able to win the drivers 'championship, but Ferrari drivers Raikkonen and Felipe Massa were able to secure the constructors' title for the Italian racing team.

The 2010s

The beginning of the 2010s was marked by an abundance of rule changes. In the 2010 season , the point system was adjusted. For a win there were now 25 points and for the first time the tenth place received one point. Refueling during the race, which has been permitted since 1994 , has been banned again for safety reasons. The adjustable rear wing , also known as the Drag Reduction System (DRS), was introduced in the 2011 season . As a result, the driver has the option of flattening the rear wing of his vehicle at selected points and if there is a corresponding lag behind the driver in front (currently less than a second), which results in a higher top speed. Another innovation this season was the standard tire manufactured by Pirelli .

The 2014 season marks one of the strongest cuts in the rules in this sport. Instead of the 2.4-liter V8 engines used since 2006 , only V6 turbo engines with 1.6-liter displacement are permitted . In addition, the maximum fuel flow is limited to 100 kg / h and fuel consumption to 100 kg per race. Further changes concern the energy recovery system , previously called KERS : In addition to the kinetic energy recovery (ERS-K), an additional ERS-H system uses the waste heat from the engine via the turbocharger to generate energy. In addition, the point system was slightly modified for the 2014 season, in the last race twice as many points were awarded as usual. This regulation was abolished after the 2014 season, so that from the 2015 Formula 1 World Championship onwards, normal points will be awarded again in the last race.

For season 2017 , a far-reaching altered technical regulations came into force, was intended by the vehicles spectacular and much faster will be. As early as 2015, lap times that were five to six seconds faster were given as the goal. The maximum width of the vehicles has been increased to 2000 mm, and the front and rear wings as well as the diffuser can be significantly larger. In addition to these aerodynamic measures, the tire width was increased to 305 mm on the front axle and 405 mm on the rear axle in order to also increase the mechanical grip of the vehicles. Since these measures result in increased consumption, the permitted tank content has been increased to a maximum of 105 kg of fuel (previously 100 kg).

For the 2018 Formula 1 World Championship , a roll bar, known as the Halo system , was introduced to protect the driver from head injuries as a result of driver Jules Bianchi who died in a 2014 accident .

In economic terms, the 2010s saw a gradual return of automotive influence, but not at the level of the 2000s. Leading here was the dominant Mercedes team in the second half of the decade, followed by Renault in 2016 revitalized its works team , which had experienced economic and sporting decline in previous years as the Lotus F1. But further engagements ranged against it only to mere title sponsorship, such as in the case of Caterham or 2019 as Alfa Romeo trading under the name Sauber team. Both engagements had no technical connection whatsoever with the respective automobile manufacturers.

The shared use of engines from the same manufacturer by several different teams was also characteristic of the 2010s, after exclusive engine partnerships had been the key to success in the previous decade. While there were 5–7 different engine manufacturers in 2007–2009, from 2010 only 3–4 engine manufacturers supplied the entire field of participants per season. These were respectively Mercedes , Ferrari , Cosworth (until 2013), Renault and Honda (from 2015). Deviating designations resulted here only from name sponsoring, so 2016-2018 for Red Bull ( TAG Heuer for Renault engines) or 2019 for Racing Point ( BWT for Mercedes).

In terms of the venues, however, the trend from the previous decade continued - more and more mainly Asian countries were added as organizers of grand prizes, specifically Korea (2010–2013), India (2011–2013), Russia (since 2014) and Azerbaijan (2016 as the European Grand Prix , then the Azerbaijan Grand Prix). In addition, the Grand Prix of the USA (since 2012), Mexico (since 2015) and France (since 2018) made a permanent return to the calendar. In contrast to the previous decade, there were hardly any races, so instead the seasons comprised a record number of races - in the 2016, 2018 and 2019 seasons, previously unprecedented 21 races were run.

From 2010 to 2013, Sebastian Vettel won four drivers' world championships in a row. Lewis Hamilton won the drivers' championship in 2014, 2015, 2017 to 2020 and Nico Rosberg in 2016 . Red Bull Racing initially dominated the teams with four titles in a row (2010–2013), and since then the following seven titles have gone to the Mercedes AMG F1 Team (2014–2020), which was created in 2010 through the takeover of the Brawn racing team .

The 2020s

The 2020 season was overshadowed by the Covid-19 crisis. The start of the season was postponed on March 13th due to the COVID-19 pandemic and took place on July 5th in Spielberg, Austria. On December 17, 2020, the FIA ​​confirmed the racing calendar for the 2021 season with a record number of 23 races.

Current season


Timeline of Formula 1 tire manufacturers since 1950
1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s 2020s
0 1 2 3 4th 5 6th 7th 8th 9 0 1 2 3 4th 5 6th 7th 8th 9 0 1 2 3 4th 5 6th 7th 8th 9 0 1 2 3 4th 5 6th 7th 8th 9 0 1 2 3 4th 5 6th 7th 8th 9 0 1 2 3 4th 5 6th 7th 8th 9 0 1 2 3 4th 5 6th 7th 8th 9 0
P Pirelli
E Englebert
F Firestone
D Dunlop
C Continental
A Avon
G Goodyear
B Bridgestone
M Michelin
  •  World Champion (driver standings), 1952, 1954 and 1981, the world champion used tires from several tire manufacturers in one season.
  • The tires are now one of the most important components of a Formula 1 car. The grip , i.e. the grip of the tires, largely determines the cornering speed, for example, which in turn influences the overall time. The importance of good tires is also clear from the fact that in 2006 on some tracks with many fast corners, such as the Circuit de Catalunya , the overall times only increased slightly or in some cases even decreased despite the introduction of 200 hp weaker V8 engines compared to the previous year are.

    In 2005 it was forbidden to change tires during the race. This requirement posed problems for tire manufacturers and teams that eventually escalated during the Indianapolis Grand Prix . The Michelin tires were not able to cope with the stresses that arose, especially in the steep bend, and tire defects occurred during training, which among other things led to a serious accident by Ralf Schumacher. After Michelin was unable to fix the problem in a timely manner, the tire manufacturer recommended not to start with these tires. So it came about that only the six drivers from Ferrari, Jordan and Minardi, whose cars were equipped with Bridgestone tires, contested the Grand Prix. The correspondingly boring race was accompanied by expressions of displeasure and demands for reimbursement of the entrance fee, which the tire manufacturer Michelin finally agreed to accept. For the 2006 Formula 1 World Championship , tire changes were again allowed during the race. In addition, V8 engines with a maximum displacement of 2.4 liters have been required since the 2006 season.

    The Formula 1 grooved tires used from 1998 to 2008 resembled slicks as racing tires in their variant for dry roads and thus differed greatly from street-legal car tires.

    From 2007 to 2010 - after Michelin withdrew - Bridgestone was the sole tire manufacturer for Formula 1. The soft tire compound was marked with a white groove so that the spectators could distinguish it. Every driver must use the soft tires and the hard tires at least once during a race. However, this rule does not apply to races in the rain.

    At the beginning of the 2009 season, the profile-free slicks, which have been banned since 1998, will be used again. Instead of a white groove, two green lines on the sidewalls of the tires now indicate the softer of the two available compounds. Their optimal operating temperature is around 95 degrees. There are also other variants of the tires, which cost around 1000 euros and are tailored to special weather and route requirements. Seven sets of dry tires , four sets of intermediates for mixed conditions and three sets of rain tires for very wet surfaces are available per driver over a weekend . For the 2007 season, the number of tires per team for test drives was limited to a total of 300 sets and a maximum test distance of 30,000 kilometers.

    Originally it was also planned to prohibit the pre-heating of the tires with the previously used heating blankets, although the pilots have already complained several times that there would be a risk of spinning in the pit lane or the first corner. While tire manufacturer Bridgestone was already responding and testing improved tire compounds, the GPDA drivers' union was looking for a common line. This plan has since been revoked.

    On November 2, 2009, Bridgestone announced that it would give up its involvement in Formula 1 at the end of the 2010 season. The Italian tire manufacturer Pirelli started as the new sole tire supplier from the 2011 Formula 1 World Championship .

    Technical innovations

    Scheme of a modern Formula 1 steering wheel

    In Formula 1, a number of technical innovations such as electronic clutches and data recorders were developed and tested. Some of them, such as double front axles with four-wheel steering in the Tyrrell P34 from 1976, could not prevail for technical reasons. Developments such as active wheel suspension, in turn, created one-sided advantages or additional accident risks and were therefore banned. Other innovations such as lightweight construction with aluminum and titanium , carbon fiber materials, ceramic disc brakes or drive-by-wire were previously common in aircraft construction, but were first used in vehicle construction via Formula 1. Current innovations such as pneumatically assisted valve control , on the other hand, are also being discussed for series engines.

    For the first time in the 2009 season , a system known as KERS was released for energy recovery, as it is used in a similar way in hybrid vehicles . From the 2014 season , an extended Energy Recovery System (ERS) will be used, which recovers both kinetic and thermal energy and provides an additional 120 kW (163 hp) per lap for 33 seconds.

    Formula 1 in times of climate change

    Recently, there have been increasing demands to adapt Formula 1 to the state of the art in climate science and the developments in the field of alternative drive technologies. At the beginning of the 2000s, many sponsors withdrew from Formula 1, who instead turned to more environmentally friendly sports, which made the former Formula 1 driver Heinz-Harald Frentzen an advocate of initially hybrid and later electric drive technologies in motorsport. In 2008, Frentzen had a Gumpert Apollo converted to a hybrid drive at his own expense for the 24-hour race on the Nürburgring . Former racing driver Nico Rosberg also spoke about the climate crisis in 2019 on the occasion of the World Economic Forum in Davos . In view of global warming, he calls for Formula 1 to switch to electric vehicles: "If only electric cars or hydrogen-powered cars are sold everywhere, Formula 1 can no longer run with internal combustion engines". With the FIA Formula E Championship, there is now a racing class that is operated with vehicles based on electric motors.


    Ayrton Senna's grave in São Paulo (BR)

    During the training laps, qualifications and races of the Formula 1 Grand Prix there were numerous accidents in which a total of 27 Formula 1 racing drivers had fatally injured so far. Other racing drivers died in accidents during test drives and at other racing events (see also list of fatally injured Formula 1 drivers ).

    Wolfgang Graf Berghe von Trips had a fatal accident on September 10, 1961 at the Italian Grand Prix in Monza after a collision with Jim Clark . In this accident, also known as the "black hour of Formula 1", Berghe von Trips' Ferrari and the Lotus von Clark attacking it in front of the Parabolica bend on the outside hit each other, causing the Ferrari to shoot off the track to the left. Trips had no chance of reacting; his car raced over the hard shoulder and across the side wall of earth, which triggered the subsequent overturning of the Ferrari. Trips was thrown out of his cockpit and sustained fatal injuries as his car rolled down the wire fence, killing 15 of the crowd behind it and injuring 60 others.

    The career of Jochen Rindt , who did not live to see winning his world championship , also ended tragically. Rindt had a fatal accident during the final training for the Italian Grand Prix in Monza on September 5, 1970. He is the only driver who was posthumously awarded the world title.

    In the 1970s in particular, accidents with tragic results increased due to the meanwhile extremely fast vehicles, also because traditional routes such as Watkins Glen , Kyalami or the old Nürburgring were no longer in keeping with the times in terms of safety. An example of this is the death of the British Roger Williamson on July 29, 1973 at the Dutch Grand Prix in Zandvoort . After a tire defect, Williamson got off the track in the fast right-hand bend in front of the Oost tunnel, crashed heavily into the guardrails, which were not adequately anchored there, gave way and acted like a jump ramp for Williamson's March. The car skidded upside down and caught fire. Since the March was upside down and Williamson was probably trapped, he was unable to free himself from the now more burning vehicle. The marshals were overwhelmed with the rescue of the driver, and the police who hurried to the rescue were denied access to the scene of the accident. Only David Purley tried, albeit in vain, to help his driver colleague. When the fire department arrived several minutes later, Williamson was already dead: inhaling the hot gases had ultimately become his undoing.

    In 1977 the Welshman Tom Pryce also lost his life in an accident. At the South African Grand Prix in Kyalami, two marshals crossed the track at a blind spot to put out a fire on Renzo Zorzi's broken-down vehicle . Since the scene of the accident was directly behind a slight knoll, the marshals could not be seen by the approaching cars. Pryce had no chance to react and recorded one of the two marshals at around 280 km / h. The pilot and helpers were killed instantly when the 20 kg fire extinguisher of the 19-year-old marshal Frederick Jansen Van Vuuren hit the driver in the head. The Pryce wreck continued to race uncontrollably down the start and finish straight until it collided with Jacques Laffite's vehicle.

    After further serious accidents, at the initiative of the driver himself, active and passive safety in Formula 1 has been continuously improved since the late 1970s.

    The route of the race track in Imola was heavily adapted due to the Grand Prix of San Marino in 1994

    The greatest accumulation of serious accidents in recent Formula 1 history occurred at the 1994 San Marino Grand Prix . The Brazilian Rubens Barrichello had an accident in free practice in which he broke his nose. Barrichello lost control of his car in the penultimate corner, took off and briefly got stuck with the front of his car in the pile of tires, causing it to overturn and then to lie upside down. During the first final training session on Saturday, the Austrian Roland Ratzenberger had a fatal accident. The front wing of his Simtek - Ford could not withstand the load and broke, so that Ratzenberger's car no longer followed the steering movement due to the lack of downforce and crashed into a concrete wall at around 300 km / h. The wreck was thrown back onto the track, the Austrian died immediately due to a broken neck. During the start of the race on Sunday there was another accident in which several spectators in the main stand were injured by flying parts: The Benetton-Ford of the Finn JJ Lehto had stopped at the start. Pedro Lamy in the Lotus-Mugen saw this too late because of the cars in front of him and sped almost unbraked into the stopped vehicle. The race was then neutralized by the safety car up to the sixth lap. After the restart, the racing car of the leading Ayrton Senna came off the track in the Tamburello curve and hit a concrete wall bordering the track at around 240 km / h. A broken landing gear strut penetrated the helmet visor and caused Senna fatal head injuries. The cause of the accident has not yet been clearly clarified. It is suspected that a break in the steering column could have caused this. However, a sudden drop in contact pressure due to a bump in the ground cannot be ruled out. Ten laps before the end of the race, Michele Alboretos Minardi also lost his right rear wheel when leaving the pit lane, two Ferrari and two Lotus mechanics were hit and injured by the loose wheel.

    A few days later Karl Wendlinger had a serious accident during the Monaco Grand Prix , who suffered a life-threatening brain contusion .

    For a long time, Senna was the last driver to have a fatal accident in a Formula 1 car during the World Cup. In the period that followed, spectacular accidents were observed again and again, in which, however, no driver was killed until 2015. This is also thanks to the enormous improvement in safety that has been pursued by the FIA, especially in the last 15 years. Nevertheless, the accidents in Monza in 2000 and Melbourne in 2001, in which a marshal was fatally injured by a wheel thrown away, could not be prevented. In the meantime, however, the safety precautions on the racetracks have also been significantly improved.

    The accident of the Pole Robert Kubica in the 2007 season documents how safe the monocoques of Formula 1 are now. During the Canadian GP, ​​Kubica got on the rear wheel of his competitor Jarno Trulli and hit the track at an awkward, obtuse angle. Kubica's car was then thrown back over the racetrack and overturned in the process, until it finally hit again on the other side and was left as a completely destroyed wreck. Kubica initially gave no more signs of life, but in the end the Pole got away with bruises very lightly.

    During qualifying training for the Hungarian Grand Prix in 2009 , Felipe Massa hit a steel spring against the helmet while driving at full speed, causing him to crash unconsciously with great force into the road barrier consisting of stacks of tires. In the accident, he sustained injuries to his brain, skull and forehead. He couldn't race for the rest of the season.

    The last fatal accident occurred at the 2014 Japanese Grand Prix . Jules Bianchi came off the track on a wet road and slipped under a recovery vehicle that was currently recovering Adrian Sutil's vehicle that had previously crashed at this point . Bianchi has been in a coma since then and died on July 17, 2015 in the hospital in Nice.

    Romain Grosjean survived a serious fire accident at the 2020 Bahrain Grand Prix with only minor injuries. After contact with Daniil Kwjat, his vehicle crashed into a guardrail almost head-on and at 221 km / h and broke through it. The car tore in two and leaking gasoline immediately started a large fire. Grosjean escaped the wreck after 28 seconds in the flames on his own and suffered light burns to his hands.

    See also: List of interrupted and canceled Formula 1 races


    The historical and future development of the Formula 1 set of rules is presented in the article Formula 1 rules .

    Current regulations

    In order to achieve higher audience ratings, the qualifying mode was changed at the beginning of the 2006 season to a three-part mode with an elimination procedure, which for the most part is still valid:

    1. In the first 18 (until 2013: 20) minutes of qualifying, all drivers can start with the amount of fuel of their choice. Each driver can drive as many laps as he likes during this time, and a ranking list is drawn up with regard to the lap times driven. The five (2010 to 2012: seven) worst-placed drivers are no longer allowed to participate in the following elimination rounds.
    2. In a further, 15-minute round, five (2010 to 2012: seven) more pilots will be screened out of the starting field according to the same pattern, who are therefore no longer allowed to compete for better starting positions in the third round.
    3. In the third round, the starting positions one to ten will be determined within 12 (until 2013: 10) minutes. All pilots are then allowed to refuel, as refueling has not been allowed during the race since 2010.

    Since the 2014 season, drivers who took part in the third qualifying stage have only been given an additional set of soft tires for this qualifying session. The drivers have to start the race with the tires with which they set their fastest time in the second section. This rule does not apply to a rain race or rain qualifying.

    Parc fermé conditions prevail throughout qualifying . This means that no more technical changes may be made to the car, with the exception of changing the fuel quantity and changing tires within the first 30 minutes. Pilots who finish their last timed lap after the end of the actual qualifying must complete the so-called outlap , which can influence the racing strategy.

    Since 2009, dry tires (slicks) no longer have to have a profile or grooves. Pirelli , the monopoly that has been active as a tire supplier since the season, offers three dry tire compounds per race weekend. These are color-coded on the flank to give the viewer a better overview. A driver has a maximum of eleven sets of dry tires per race weekend, which the team can choose several weeks in advance, as well as four sets of intermediates and three sets of rain tires. A tire set must always consist of four tires of the same type or mixture. During practice sessions and qualifying, the drivers are free to choose their tires, but in the race two different compounds have to be used for at least one full lap. The maximum width for the rear tires has been 405 millimeters since 2017 and 305 millimeters for the front tires. The maximum wheel diameter is set at 660 millimeters for dry tires and 670 millimeters for rain tires. In 2020 , the shortened season due to the COVID-19 pandemic means that teams will no longer have a choice of tires .

    1.6-liter V6 turbo hybrid drive units have been in use since the 2014 season. 3.0-liter V10 engines were in use until 2005. Commercially available unleaded super plus petrol is used as fuel, the quantity of which has been limited to 105 kg per race since 2017. Other additives are only permitted to a limited extent. The number of engines per racing season and car that a team is allowed to use has been reduced from eight to five and in 2015 to four. Since 2018 only three engines (+ turbocharger) are allowed. For each additional engine used, the team's drivers will be penalized in the next race with a ten position back on the starting grid. The gearbox can be changed after six race weekends without penalty. If an earlier change is due, the participant will be penalized in the next race with a five positions back on the starting grid.

    A minimum weight of 722 kg (Article 4.1 Technical Regulations) including the driver and all liquids must not be undercut during the entire race weekend.

    In order to reduce costs, private test drives have been banned since 2009; in the run-up to the season and after several races, there are only official test drives in which each team is allowed to use one car.

    Engine regulations since 2014

    Originally, as part of several rule changes, Formula 1 was supposed to get a new, cheaper and more resource-saving engine concept from 2013. For a long time, an in-line four-cylinder with a turbocharger was discussed. But since the teams did not agree on this concept with the FIA ​​- Ferrari z. B. did not want a four-cylinder due to the lack of proximity to its road vehicles - the change was postponed to 2014. Details also changed technically. A V-engine with six cylinders, 1.6-liter displacement and a mono-turbocharger is now used. Since there was concern on the part of manufacturers and the race track operators that with the new engine format lacks the typical background noise and thus fewer viewers would come to the track, the planned speed was from 12,000 to 15,000 min -1 increased. The engine output of the new engines was given in 2014 with over 426 kW (580  PS ), in addition, the KERS was further expanded to the ERS and was allowed to deliver 120  kW (163  PS ). In 2016, Mercedes reported a total output (including ERS) of more than 662 kW (900 PS), and in the course of 2017 the engines are expected to deliver more than 735 kW (1000 PS) total output.

    The fuel consumption was limited to 100 kg per race, from 2017 to 105 kg; the under-consumption of the V6 should be around 35 percent compared to the V8.

    "Yellow flag" flashing at 3 to 4 Hz with safety car notice. There is no overtaking on the entire route.

    Flag sign

    The flag signs are used for communication between the marshals or the race management and the drivers, for example in order to inform them in good time of dangerous situations. Since the 2007 season, the flags have also been shown on a display on the steering wheel. At the 2008 Singapore Grand Prix - the first night race in Formula 1 - the digital flags that are common today (matrix lighting systems with the respective flag color) were used for the first time.

    In Formula 1, the international flag symbols set by the FIA ​​apply.


    If the drivers behave illegally, for example if they cause a premature start or the speed limit in the pit lane (80 km / h in training or 100 km / h in the race, but sometimes also set lower by the stewards, if the design allows it the pit lane), the race management will impose penalties on them.

    Point system

    Points by placement
    place 1950
    1960 1961
    1. 8th 9 10 25th
    2. 6th 8th 18th
    3. 4th 6th 15th
    4th 3 5 12th
    5. 2 4th 10
    6th - 1 3 8th
    7th - 2 6th
    8th. - 1 4th
    9. - 2
    10. - 1
    1 - 1

    In Formula 1, as in other racing series, the point system is used to determine the best driver and the best designer (manufacturer of the vehicle, not always identical to the operational team, i.e. the team) over the course of a season. Different numbers of points are therefore awarded for different placements in the race. The points scored by the drivers and designers are added together. At the end of a season, the drivers with the highest points and the designer with the most points are declared world champions. The other placements in the World Cup table also result from the number of points. If two or more drivers or designers have the same number of points, the number of wins, second places, etc. will decide. If all results are completely identical, the FIA ​​will determine the world champion according to the criteria that it considers appropriate.

    From 1950 to 1959 , the first five drivers placed in a Grand Prix race received world championship points (distribution: 8-6-4-3-2). The driver with the fastest race lap received an additional point. From 1960 the point for the fastest race lap was lost, but the sixth placed received a point. In 1961 the victory was upgraded, instead of the previous eight there were now nine points. This point distribution (9-6-4-3-2-1) remained the same up to and including 1990 .

    In addition, there were so-called deletion results from 1950 to 1990 . This meant that not all of the results for the World Cup were taken into account. Depending on the number of races in the season, only the best x results counted , with x remaining a variable over the years. Only between 1981 and 1990 was there a constant rule, according to which the best eleven results from 15 or 16 races counted.

    From 1950 to 1953 , only the best four results from seven to nine races were taken into account. 1954 to 1957 , 1959 , 1961 to 1962 and 1966 , however, counted the best five results from seven to nine races. In 1958 , 1960 and 1963 to 1965 the best six results from ten to eleven races were counted. In the years 1967 to 1978 the season was divided into two halves, of which one result was not counted. In 1979 there were only four results in each half of the season (from 15 races) and in 1980 five (from 14 races).

    So it could happen that drivers got fewer points in the final accounts for the world championship than they had actually achieved through placements. This rule was particularly important in 1988 , when Ayrton Senna won his first world championship with 90 to 87 points against Alain Prost . Without the deletion results, a score of 105 to 94 would have resulted in Prost's advantage.

    In 1991 , the victory was again upgraded to ten points and the remaining points were distributed - but with immediate effect, the deleted results were no longer available. Up to and including 2002, the distribution key was 10-6-4-3-2-1. From 2003 to 2009, the eight winners received points, the key being 10-8-6-5-4-3-2-1.

    A proposal to change the point system again, which should be implemented in the 2009 season , came from Bernie Ecclestone . As with the medal system, only the number of victories should be decisive for the world championship title to be awarded. The driver with the most wins of the season would therefore be world champion. In the event of a tie (ex aequo) between two pilots, the number of points would be decisive, just like for the other places. After the Formula 1 teams (FOTA) voted unanimously against it and, if necessary, wanted to lodge a protest, the FIA ​​announced in a press release that in this case the rule change would be postponed until 2010.

    Due to the increase in the number of participants in the field of four cars, the FIA ​​initiated a new points system on December 10, 2009. Initially, however, it was not clear whether an expanded points system should actually be used in 2010, as the FIA ​​had violated the current Concorde Agreement when deciding on the new system . Accordingly, the teams and the FIA ​​are only allowed to decide on rule changes that have been proposed by the joint working group. However, the FIA ​​single-handedly decided on the new system. At the beginning of February, the FIA ​​announced that the point system was valid after a slight modification.

    In 2019 , the additional point for the fastest race lap was reintroduced, but with the additional requirement that the driver concerned must be among the top ten. If the respective driver is scored outside of the first ten or not at all, the additional point does not apply.

    In principle, regardless of the number of points awarded, in the event of a race that is stopped prematurely (e.g. due to heavy rain or a serious accident), half the number of points will be awarded if the leading driver has completed at least two laps and has reached less than 75 percent of the originally planned race distance were. In the 1950s it was also possible to take over a teammate's car in the event of a premature failure and thus end the race. In this case, the points were also shared between the respective drivers. The same applied if several drivers had achieved the fastest race lap at the same time. So it happens that the point accounts of previous drivers have unusual decimal places (for example Juan Manuel Fangio with 277.64 points). In 2014, there was an exception for the awarding of points for the season finale: In the last race of the season, points were doubled in both the drivers 'and constructors' championships (the winner received 50 points with a full score, the second-placed 36 points, etc.)

    Teams and finances

    When the rulebook goes into effect in 2021, competing teams will for the first time be subject to a budget limit of $ 145 million, excluding the cost of driver salaries, marketing and the three highest salaries of employees. The annual budget of a Formula 1 team in the 2016 season was between around 90 and 470 million euros. The Haas and Sauber teams had the lowest budgets and McLaren , Red Bull , Ferrari and Mercedes had the highest budgets.



    Sports supervision is the sole responsibility of the FIA , which defines the relevant rules: International Sporting Code (general racing rules ), Formula One Sporting Regulations (regulations governing the World Championship and individual races) and Formula One Technical Regulations (technical specifications for the vehicles).

    Another organization is the Formula One Constructors Association (FOCA) , which previously performed the tasks of FOA and FOM, but has practically lost its importance. The distribution of the revenue from Formula 1 to the FIA, FOM / FOA and the teams, as well as other agreements, are regulated in the unpublished so-called Concorde Agreement . This plant was named after the headquarters of the FIA, the Place de la Concorde in Paris. In 2008 the Formula 1 teams founded the Formula One Teams Association (FOTA) in order to better represent their interests with regard to the regulations and the Concorde Agreement. The drivers represent their interests through the Grand Prix Drivers' Association (GPDA) .

    Formula One Group

    The commercial marketing rights to the racing series were transferred from the FIA ​​to Formula One Administration Ltd. (FOA) transferred by Formula One Management Ltd. (FOM) can be exercised. The two registered companies are based in London (No. 2 St. James's Market) and share this with around 14 other registered companies, which in the parlance of the owners are referred to as the Formula One Group . For many decades, both FOA and FOM were effectively controlled by Bernie Ecclestone, who thus largely determined Formula 1.

    The FOM markets the television and advertising rights to the Formula 1 events. The Formula 1 teams receive part of the income from the television rights. In the 2005 season, the ten competing teams shared 47% of the approximately 85 million US dollars in revenue.

    The group is controlled by the US media company Liberty Media via a holding structure . Liberty took over the group in January 2017 after it initially 18.7 percent of the previously already in September 2016 CVC Capital Partners shares held for 1.1 billion US dollars had taken over. The volume of the entire business is given at 8.0 billion US dollars. Of this, an amount of US $ 4.4 billion (EUR 3.93 billion) is earmarked for the purchase price. In addition, there are debts of approximately the same amount that Liberty took over.

    The purchase, approved by the FIA ​​and the European Competition Authority, is considered one of the largest deals in sports history and at the same time a very decisive event in Formula 1 development; Observers expected a realignment of marketing via digital media, which Liberty promptly implemented. Bernie Ecclestone was dismissed as Managing Director on January 23, 2017 with immediate effect. He is succeeded by Chase Carey . At his side is Ross Brawn as "Managing Director Motorsport". Sean Bratches, who acted as “Managing Director Commercial Affairs”, resigned surprisingly in January 2020 and the position was not filled.

    Prior to the Liberty purchase, Formula One Group was controlled by Jersey-registered Delta Topco. This in turn owned the subsidiaries Alpha Prema and SLEC Holdings. The complicated construct was the result of multiple sales of shares and joint investments by various actors.

    In 2005, SLEC Holdings owned the FOM. Managing director Bernie Ecclestone held around 25% of the company shares in SLEC Holdings , as did the following banks: BayernLB , Lehman Brothers and JPMorgan Chase . The Formula 1 teams only owned a portion that had a veto right . Since October 19, 2005, BayernLB has temporarily been in control of the bank's share.

    On November 25, 2005, the investment group CVC Capital Partners bought Slec Holdings through the newly founded company Alpha Prema . Alpha Prema took over 50% of Bayerische Landesbank and 25% of Bernie Ecclestone's so-called Bambino Holding . Ecclestone and Bambino Holding then held shares in Alpha Prema. The board presumably consisted of the managing director Ecclestone, the Slec Holdings chairman Gerhard Gribkowsky , Donald Mackenzie from CVC and an employee of the Bambino Holding. The agreement was initiated primarily at the instigation of Gribkowsky, a board member of Bayerische Landesbank. The aim was to sell the shares in Formula 1, which were alien to the industry, to a serious investor with long-term goals and experience in motorsport without losses. Allegedly, Ecclestone had previously rejected an offer from the Asian investment group Hutchinson Whampoa for 1.2 billion euros.

    See also

    Portal: Motorsport  - Overview of Wikipedia content on motorsport


    • Jörg-Thomas Födisch, Erich Kahnt: 50 years of Formula 1. The winners . Heel Verlag, Schindellegi 1999, 215 pp., ISBN 3-89365-615-4 .
    • Peter Gruner: The Formula 1 Lexicon . ECON, Düsseldorf 1997, 474 pages, ISBN 3-612-26353-6 .
    • Bruce Jones: Formula 1 Encyclopedia. Drivers, teams, races and legends . Sportverlag Berlin, Berlin 1999, ISBN 3-328-00848-9 .
    • Willy Knupp (Ed.): Struggle at the limit. The Formula 1 Chronicle 1950–2000 . RTL book edition. Zeitgeist Verlag, Düsseldorf / Gütersloh 2000, ISBN 3-89748-277-0 .
    • Ulrich Kühne-Hellmessen (Ed.): Crazy Formula 1. With a complete chronicle and super statistics . Sportverlag Europa, Zurich 2004, ISBN 3-9522779-6-7 .
    • Peter Scherer: 50 Years of British Grand Prix Drivers . 1999, 233 pages, ISBN 0-9530052-8-3 .
    • Achim Schlang: The Formula 1 aces of our time . Motorbuch Verlag, Stuttgart 1984, 213 pages, ISBN 3-613-01035-6 .
    • Koen Vergeer, Formula 1. History of a fanatic love, Rütten & Loening: Berlin 2001, 270 pages, ISBN 3-352-00638-5 .
    • Andreas P. Pittler: Fascination Formula 1 . Aurora, Vienna 2002, 328 pages, ISBN 3-9501566-0-7 .

    Web links

    Commons : Formula 1  - collection of images
     Wikinews: Formula 1  - in the news

    Individual evidence

    1. Floodlight premiere in Bahrain: Difference like day and night? - In: Retrieved February 21, 2017 .
    2. ^ F1 race promoters rebel against owners Liberty Media. Accessed December 3, 2020 .
    3. Tom Distler: Lella Lombardi - women power in the premier class! Formula 1 - historical. In: adrivo Sportpresse GmbH, January 1, 2005, accessed on January 9, 2012 .
    4. From 2010, Formula 1 will run with hybrid drives ( Memento from June 18, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
    5. The new Formula 1: "The ugliest car of all time". Retrieved May 26, 2018 .
    6. “2014 FORMULA ONE TECHNICAL REGULATIONS, page 21”. (PDF; 1.8 MB), accessed on July 21, 2013 .
    7. “2014 FORMULA ONE SPORTING REGULATIONS, page 21”. (PDF; 331 kB) (No longer available online.), archived from the original on July 17, 2013 ; Retrieved July 21, 2013 .
    8. Christian Nimmervoll: "FIA publishes regulations for 2014"., July 21, 2011, accessed April 24, 2013 .
    9. ^ "Formula One Regulation Changes"., December 9, 2013, accessed March 22, 2018 .
    10. Formula 1: No more double points at the end of the season. In: Zeit Online . November 26, 2014, archived from the original on January 18, 2017 .;
    11. Formula 1 rules for 2015: No more double points. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015 ; accessed on May 26, 2018 .
    12. Mario Fritzsche, Dieter Rencken: Faster Formula 1: Ideas from the strategy group are welcomed., May 20, 2015, accessed March 7, 2017 .
    13. Norman Fischer: Sebastian Vettel inaugurates Pirelli tires for 2017 in Fiorano., August 1, 2016, accessed March 7, 2017 .
    14. Robert Seiwert: The 2017 regulations under the microscope. This is how Formula 1 will be ticking from 2017., April 30, 2016, accessed on March 7, 2017 .
    15. New Formula 1 rules 2018: This has been decided by the FIA . In: . ( [accessed November 25, 2018]).
    17. Sao Paulo instead of Rio: FIA confirms Formula 1 calendar 2021. Accessed on May 29, 2021 .
    18. GPDA advises on the ban on tire warmers. Retrieved May 26, 2018 .
    19. "Bridgestone Announces Formula 1 Withdrawal"
    20. FIA World Council: Pirelli wins the contract , of June 23, 2010; Accessed August 19, 2010
    21. ↑ Thought holistically: Exclusive interview with former Formula 1 vice world champion Heinz-Harald Frentzen about electromobility, hybrid technology and his future as a racing driver., May 1, 2017, accessed on January 26, 2019 .
    22. Frentzen: Formula E requires intelligence , of May 28, 2013; Accessed January 26, 2019
    23. Heinz-Harald Frentzen: Back on the Ring with an Apollo Hybrid , Auto, Motor and Sport from May 23, 2008; Accessed January 26, 2019
    24. ^ Nico Rosberg in Davos: Together for the environment., January 25, 2019, accessed on January 26, 2019 .
    25. ^ Nico Rosberg: Bringing F1 thinking to Davos. BBC, January 23, 2019, accessed January 26, 2019 .
    26. Motorsport fatalities: Paolo Ghislimberti (English)
    27. Elmar Brümmer: Victory becomes a minor matter - an Australian marshal is fatally hit by a wheel. In: Berliner Zeitung . March 5, 2001, accessed June 15, 2015 .
    28. Motorsport fatalities: Graham Beveridge (English)
    29. Formula 1: Massa suffers brain injury (update). (No longer available online.), July 26, 2009, archived from the original ; Retrieved July 26, 2009 .
    30. ^ Formula 1 driver Bianchi succumbs to his injuries. In: July 8, 2015, archived from the original on July 18, 2015 ; Retrieved July 8, 2015 .
    31. 28 seconds in the fire: This is how Romain Grosjean was able to free himself. Retrieved December 9, 2020 .
    32. See Mercedes V6 produces 580hp
    33. Renault RS34 - the future of Formula 1 (accessed on September 20, 2013)
    34. Renault unveil 2014 turbo engine (accessed September 20, 2013)
    35. Vanessa Georgoulas: Formula 1 2017 with 1000 hp and new records., January 2, 2017, accessed March 7, 2017 .
    36. ^ "Wins of the season will make world champions in future" ( Focus Online on March 17, 2009)
    37. ^ "Back to the start" ( ORF press release of March 20, 2009)
    38. ^ "FIA made procedural errors - illegal points system" ( on December 15, 2009)
    39. "FIA Commission changes point system" ( am)
    40. Juliane Ziegengeist: Already from Melbourne: Formula 1 awards additional points for the fastest race lap., March 12, 2019, accessed March 12, 2019 .
    41. Dave Makichuk: Formula One teams find agreement on budget cap. May 23, 2020, accessed December 3, 2020 (American English).
    42. Budget ranking list of Formula 1 | Ferrari has already caught up with Mercedes when it comes to money . In: . ( [accessed on July 1, 2018]).
    43. Formula 1® - The Official F1® Website. Archived from the original on November 16, 2013 ; accessed on December 3, 2020 .
    44. Legal Notices
    45. ^ Liberty Media Corporation Agrees to Acquire Formula One., September 7, 2016, accessed September 8, 2016 .
    46. ^ A b Alan Baldwin: Formula One faces big shake-up after Liberty deal., September 7, 2016, accessed September 8, 2016 .
    47. US media firm Liberty Media to buy Formula 1., September 8, 2016, accessed September 8, 2016 .
    48. Bratches to step down as F1's commercial boss. January 20, 2020, accessed December 3, 2020 .
    49. a b c Die Welt - Internet site: Justice excludes extortion in the Ecclestone case. From: , April 13, 2014, accessed on April 17, 2014 .