Michael sSchumacher

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Michael sSchumacher
Michael Schumacher 2012
Nation: GermanyGermany Germany
Formula 1 world championship
First start: 1991 Belgian Grand Prix
Last start: 2012 Brazilian Grand Prix
1991  Jordan  • 1991–1995  Benetton  • 1996–2006  Ferrari  • 2010–2012  Mercedes
World Cup balance: World Champion ( 1994 , 1995 , 2000 , 2001 , 2002 , 2003 , 2004 )
Starts Victories Poles SR
307 91 68 77
World Cup points : 1566
Podiums : 155
Leadership laps : 5111 over 24,109.8 km
Template: Info box Formula 1 driver / maintenance / old parameters
Signature of Michael Schumacher
Michael Schumacher's helmet from the 2011 Formula 1 season

Michael Schumacher (born January 3, 1969 in Huerth , North Rhine-Westphalia ) is a former German racing driver .

Schumacher started from 1991 to 2006 and from 2010 to 2012 at a total of 307 Grand Prix of the Formula 1 World Championship. He holds the records of 7 world championship titles, 91 wins and 77 fastest race laps . His record of 68 pole positions was at the Italian Grand Prix in 2017 by Lewis Hamilton outbid. In terms of podium finishes, Hamilton has also been the new front runner since the 2020 Spanish Grand Prix with 156 new ones.

After Schumacher had been active in the sports car world championship in 1990 and 1991 , he made his debut in 1991 at the Belgian Grand Prix for Jordan in Formula 1. For the next race he moved to Benetton , where he stayed until 1995. During his time at Benetton, Schumacher won his first Grand Prix in Belgium in 1992 and became Formula 1 World Champion in 1994 and 1995. In 1996 he switched to Ferrari , where he was active until 2006. Schumacher won the world championship five times in a row from 2000 to 2004. After a break of several years, he returned to Mercedes in Formula 1 for three years in 2010 . He achieved another podium, his best overall ranking in these three years was eighth in 2011.

In December 2013, Schumacher sustained serious head injuries in a skiing accident ; since then he has been in medical rehabilitation .

Origin and private life

Schumacher was born on January 3, 1969 as the first son of the then chimney bricklayer and later leaseholder of a go- kart track in Kerpen , Rolf Schumacher and his wife Elisabeth (1948–2003), in the Hermülheim district of the city of Hürth. His brother is Ralf Schumacher , who drove with him in Formula 1 from 1997 to 2006.

Schumacher attended the Gudrun Pausewang primary school and the Otto Hahn secondary school in Kerpen. After secondary school , he began training as a car mechanic with the former racing driver Willi Bergmeister in the VW dealership of the same name in Langenfeld in 1986 and successfully completed it in 1989 with the journeyman's examination.

Schumacher has been in a relationship with Corinna Betsch (born March 2, 1969) since 1991 . The two married on August 1, 1995 in Kerpen . The church wedding took place four days later in the chapel on the Petersberg . For the marketing of the wedding, the couple signed an exclusive contract with a magazine and a television station.

Michael and Corinna Schumacher have two children, Gina Maria (* 1997) and Mick (* 1999). Mick is also a racing car driver. His wife and daughter won medals in reining - western riding .

The family has lived in Switzerland in the canton of Vaud since 1996 , in Vufflens-le-Château until 2008 and in Gland since then .

Schumacher describes himself as a devout Catholic .



Schumacher had his first active contact with a motor vehicle at the age of four when his father gave him a converted Kettcar with a 5 HP moped motor . In Horrem I soon made contact with the karting club racing friends Wolfgang Graf Berghe von Trips, Go-Kart-Club Horrem e. V. (today Kart-Club Kerpen-Manheim ), whereupon father and son noticed where the deficits of the bulky self-construction were. That kart track was built from 1964 and, when it opened in 1965, was dedicated to the Formula 1 driver Wolfgang Graf Berghe von Trips , who died in 1961 in an accident . From now on it offered the boy a good opportunity for training.

As a result, Schumacher tried to compensate for any remaining deficiencies through frequent practice, especially when it was raining: “I was mostly alone on the track, so the inferiority of my vehicle was not so noticeable. Not to mention that I really enjoyed skidding and drifting in the rain. ”A newspaper article praised him as probably the youngest kart driver in Germany. He celebrated his first victory at the age of five; a year later he won the first club championship against some much older club members. When the club moved from Kerpen-Horrem to Kerpen- Manheim to the newly built Erftlandring , it was a good thing for the family that they were looking for a groundskeeper and that both parents were offered an additional source of income. Mother Elisabeth later took care of the catering on the kart track. Since the parents soon lacked the money to finance the material, sponsors who discovered Schumacher's talent stepped in. At first it was the kart dealer Gerhard Noack who gave him the first racing kart that complies with the rules and who saw the victories of his protégé as a welcome advertisement. Later Adolf Neubert delivered the Eurokarts with which the adolescent became junior vice world champion in 1985. In 1987 he became German A / 100 class champion and A / 100 European champion on Eurokart.

In kart races, Schumacher met some of those who would be his Formula 1 rivals in the future, such as Heinz-Harald Frentzen and Nick Heidfeld from Mönchengladbach , or the Finns Mika Häkkinen and Mika Salo .

Because the funds were insufficient, Schumacher started out in the kart scene for a long time with a Luxembourg license for reasons of age . As a result, no financial resources had to be set aside as security, and he was already entitled to a license at the age of twelve. In addition, significantly fewer races had to be contested to maintain the license. In 1982 Schumacher found the entrepreneur Jürgen Dilk , who sold slot machines , as a further sponsor . In 1984 and 1985 he won the German junior championship with this support.

Schumacher's Reynard - F 903-001 , Essen Motor Show 1990

Even after reaching higher vehicle classes, Schumacher never completely gave up karting, but occasionally continued to take part in kart races.

Formula King, Formula Ford and Formula 3

Schumacher began his monoposto career in 1987 in Formula König . This step was made possible again by Jürgen Dilk, who invested 16,000 DM per season in Schumacher's career. In 1988 Schumacher became runner-up in Formula Ford and then switched to Formula 3 to the WTS team of his new manager Willi Weber , who was looking for a suitable replacement after the departure of his previous protégé Joachim Winkelhock in Formula 1 and the DTM . During the first test drive in a Formula 3 car on the Nürburgring , Schumacher hit the guard rails on lap five . Weber remembered Schumacher's achievements in Formula Ford and gave him a second chance, in which he achieved excellent times. Willi Weber was well aware that Schumacher lacked both sponsors and his own financial resources to enter the next higher formula class. So he decided to finance it himself. In return, Weber received a manager contract that tied Schumacher to Weber for ten years and guaranteed him 20 percent of his income. Weber later coined the bon mot of the “Schumacher Lottery”, in which only one person bought a ticket at the time: he himself. In 1989, Schumacher finished second in Formula 3, tied with Heinz-Harald Frentzen, behind master Karl Wendlinger .

Sports car prototypes and DTM interlude

Michael sSchumacher
Nation: GermanyGermany Germany
First race: Norisring 1991
Teams (manufacturers)
1991  Mercedes-Benz
Starts Victories Poles SR
4th - - -
Podiums: -
Overall wins: -
Points: -

For 1990, Schumacher received a contract from the Mercedes Junior Team, which competed in long-distance races , including Le Mans , in sports cars owned by the Swiss Peter Sauber . Heinz-Harald Frentzen and Karl Wendlinger were among his young colleagues . The juniors were looked after by race director Jochen Neerpasch and former Formula 1 drivers like Jochen Mass .

The "young wild ones" drove so-called "sports prototypes". These cars had an output of around 920 hp and were as fast as Formula 1 cars of the time. Schumacher, Frentzen and Wendlinger were already accomplished racing drivers with many years of racing experience when they switched to Formula 1. There were hardly any notable differences in performance between the three of them during their time together on identical cars. The general classification of the World Sportscar Championship in 1990 joined Schumacher on points with Wendlinger than in fifth place, while his team-mate Jean-Louis Schlesser and Mauro Baldi world champions were 1.5 points ahead of Jochen Mass in third. Frentzen was sixteenth. In the following year, Schumacher was ninth in the overall classification behind Schlesser and Maas in seventh place at the 1991 sports car world championship - again tied with Wendlinger.

Parallel to his sports car involvement, Schumacher won the German Formula 3 championship in 1990 and - despite a collision with Mika Häkkinen in the second run - also won the international race in Macau .

The young sports car drivers were allowed to take part in the DTM season finale at the Hockenheimring , where the championship decision was made between drivers of the Mercedes , BMW and Audi brands , who each brought guest starters to support their title favorites. Schumacher collided with the championship leader Johnny Cecotto's BMW in the first corner .

Guest appearance in the Japanese Formula 3000

In the summer of 1991, Jochen Neerpasch enabled Schumacher to play in the Japanese Formula 3000 , the so-called Formula Nippon , with the Suntory Team Le Mans on a Ralt RT23- Mugen MF308. With a good race in Sugo, which he finished with second place behind the American Ross Cheever (younger brother Eddie Cheevers ), Schumacher proved his flexibility and his ability to adapt to unknown routes at short notice. Neither Schumacher nor Weber, however, relied on Formula 3000 as an intermediate step towards a Formula 1 career, as experience has shown that the gate to Formula 1 might only open for the first two top drivers. Schumacher already drove with his future teammate Johnny Herbert in a team and against future driver colleagues like Ukyō Katayama , who won the Japanese Formula 3000 championship in the 1991 season, and against Eddie Irvine . Schumacher himself thought it safer to seek entry through the still reluctant Mercedes group, while Weber was exploring opportunities for a Formula 3000 cockpit for 1992.

Entry into Formula 1

In 1991, Jordan's regular driver Bertrand Gachot was serving a prison sentence for spraying an English taxi driver with irritant gas in an argument about the amount of the bill. Schumacher was supposed to replace Gachot in Spa-Francorchamps . Although he had never driven there, his manager Willi Weber assured team boss Eddie Jordan that Schumacher knew the demanding course thanks to the proximity of his home town of Kerpen. Thanks to a guarantee from Mercedes, Schumacher was able to prove his suitability as a Formula 1 driver during test drives at Silverstone . It was only in 2005 that Jordan admitted that Schumacher was not his first choice at the time - this would actually have been Stefan Johansson - but that the German's financial dowry had made the difference . The original agreement with Jordan included a payment of £ 150,000 per race to the team - one tenth of the amount Jordan's main sponsor 7 Up had provided for the entire season.

Schumacher rode the Ardennes course on a bike before training, he and Willi Weber stayed at the Spa youth hostel. In qualifying, Schumacher finished seventh, to the astonishment of the experts, but fell out of the race 500 meters after the start with a damaged clutch in fifth place after he had already overtaken two opponents before the first corner. In retrospect, Schumacher viewed the brief sense of achievement as the moment when he noticed that overtaking top drivers like Ayrton Senna and Piquet was easier than expected. The engineers at Jordan in particular were surprised by Schumacher's courage and vehicle control: the telemetry data proved that he had driven the difficult uphill curve of Eau Rouge at full speed without taking off the accelerator . Already during training he had no respect for big names and had impatiently indicated to Alain Prost that he would let him pass, as he felt he was holding him up.

Benetton Era (1991–1995)

After just one race, Schumacher left the Jordan team . The subsequent move to Benetton was due to the interaction of several players. On the one hand, Jordan's offer for Schumacher's further engagement was unattractive: Eddie Jordan had offered Schumacher a three-year contract and demanded annual payments of 3.5 million dollars from Mercedes without guaranteeing Schumacher regular racing. On the other hand, Bernie Ecclestone intervened in Schumacher's favor after the race in Spa. Ecclestone was interested in strengthening Formula 1 on the German market and saw in Schumacher a driver who could help. With the established team Benetton, which belonged to the four top teams in 1991, from Ecclestone's point of view Schumacher's chances of a successful development were greater than with Jordan. In Eddie Jordan's view, this was also related to the fact that Ecclestone had previously brokered the less competitive Yamaha engines to the Jordan team for 1992 - the racing team's chances of success were therefore worse than in the 1991 season. Since Ecclestone also with the Benetton co-owner Tom Walkinshaw was on friendly terms, Bernie Ecclestone Benetton pointed out immediately after the race in Spa on the availability of Schumacher and recommended the start of contract negotiations. Benetton initially hesitated to sign Schumacher, but ultimately followed Ecclestone's recommendation.

Schumacher himself described it in retrospect as a "strange feeling" to leave the team that gave him the chance to enter Formula 1 after just one race, but justified the change with the better sporting prospects at Benetton.


Benetton B191 at Goodwood Festival of Speed , 2006

Schumacher's move to Benetton was accompanied by several legal proceedings. Before the Italian Grand Prix , both Jordan and Benetton reported a car for Schumacher. Jordan applied to a London court for an injunction to get Schumacher to stay on the team. At the same time, Benetton's second driver, Roberto Moreno , obtained a ruling from a Milan court that forbade Benetton to give the second car to Schumacher. The situation was only cleared up eight hours before the start of free practice: Jordan's application was rejected and Roberto Moreno, after receiving severance pay from Benetton, waived the decision to enforce his favor. Moreno took over the second cockpit at Jordan, while Schumacher at Benetton became a teammate of the three-time Formula 1 world champion Nelson Piquet .

In Monza , Schumacher finished fifth and scored his first two championship points. He finished the Grand Prix ahead of his teammate Piquet. In the following races, Schumacher always beat his team-mate - with one exception - in qualifying. In the final ranking of the world championship, Schumacher took 14th place. In retrospect, however, he was surprised because the Benetton B191 turned out to be the much more difficult vehicle to set up and drive in direct comparison with the Jordan: “The car jumped on bumps and the traction was terrible, which was especially due to the tires [ from Pirelli ]. "


Schumacher in the Benetton B192 at the 1992 Monaco Grand Prix

In the 1992 Formula 1 season, Schumacher was a teammate of the experienced Martin Brundle at Benetton . After finishing fourth in the opening race in South Africa , he achieved three podium finishes in a row in the subsequent races: in Mexico and Brazil he was third and in Spain second. After two further podium places in Canada and Germany , Schumacher won his first Formula 1 race a year after his debut thanks to clever pit tactics in changeable weather with the Belgian Grand Prix . After Wolfgang Graf Berghe von Trips ( 1961 ) and Jochen Mass ( 1975 ), Schumacher became the third Formula 1 winner to drive with a German license. Schumacher finished his first full season behind Williams drivers Nigel Mansell and Riccardo Patrese in third place in the drivers' championship.


Schumacher in the Benetton B193 at the 1993 European Grand Prix

In the 1993 season , Schumacher confirmed his previous achievements, this time came fourth in the world championship with a victory in Estoril and had to cede the title of best non-Williams driver to Ayrton Senna, who was vice world champion behind Alain Prost in the Williams. Prost ended his career at the end of the season.

1994: 1st world title

Benetton-Ford B194, with which Schumacher became world champion in 1994

Some rules have been changed for the 1994 season . Electronic aids such as ABS , four-wheel steering and the active chassis were prohibited, but refueling stops were permitted. Benetton managed to adapt to the new conditions very well. The design of the B194 with the "higher" nose was already known from its predecessors B192 and B193 and - contrary to the general trend - was retained. It turned out to be trend-setting, as it enabled the air to flow better into the diffuser at the rear. Of the leading teams, only Ferrari tried this solution in 1994. The basic idea of ​​the high nose originated in 1990 when the Tyrrell team first presented this shape on 019 .

The year started successfully for Schumacher with two superior victories. In Interlagos he had already lapped all the drivers except Senna before he retired. For the first time, Schumacher had shown his strengths in what the British trade press called “sprints”. The short or tactical sprints should become one of his trademarks. Schumacher also won the Pacific Grand Prix at the Tanaka International Circuit in Aida , while Senna was eliminated shortly after the start.

In the third race, the San Marino Grand Prix in Imola (Italy), Rubens Barrichello had a serious accident during Friday practice and Roland Ratzenberger had a fatal accident a day later in qualifying . Ayrton Senna had an accident in the race itself . In the Tamburello curve, he got off the racing track and suffered fatal head injuries. After Senna's death, it initially seemed as if Schumacher could win the 1994 title without much competition. At Williams, Damon Hill , who was previously the second driver, rose to number 1. David Coulthard joined the team for Senna, followed by Nigel Mansell for four races later in the season.

Schumacher dominated the season until the Grand Prix in Silverstone , England . His second place in Barcelona was remarkable , in which he had only fifth gear available for more than half of the race. The race at Silverstone marked the beginning of various scandals and allegations against Schumacher and Benetton: Schumacher was initially disqualified during the race, but was then allowed to finish. The second place was later withdrawn from him. In addition, a suspension of two races was pronounced, which ultimately - despite an appeal hearing - missed the two Grand Prix of Portugal and Italy. There was also a disqualification in Spa when Schumacher's wooden panel on the underbody did not conform to the rules. It was probably driven beyond what was allowed.

In the motor sport press the accusation persisted that the FIA ​​wanted to keep the championship fight artificially exciting. “Unstable allegations of manipulation and foul gossip from other racing teams are poisoning the sporting climate in Formula 1 in the middle of the year.” The headlines of the tabloid press talked about “Schummel-Schumi”. Schumacher was banned for several races.

In his absence, Hill won in Portugal and Italy and the world championship, which had already been believed to be safe, was open again. Schumacher won the European Grand Prix in Jerez , but Hill countered and won the penultimate race in Suzuka after a tough fight against Schumacher. At the last race in Australia, Schumacher left the track in the lead after a driving error and hit a wall. He steered his car back on the track at a slower pace, where Hill tried to overtake him immediately. The two vehicles collided, Hill and Schumacher retired. Schumacher gave his point lead to win the world championship. This was the first time Schumacher was - and at the same time the first German - Formula 1 world champion.

Schumacher won eight races this season and finished second twice, taking part in only 14 of the 16 races, twelve of which were counted (one win [Spa] and one second place [Silverstone] were revoked). The title therefore remained without any real shine for the press. The title was also linked to recurring allegations of fraud against Schumacher and his Benetton team. However, the FIA ​​technicians did not find those that could have been located in the complex system of the on-board software, so that there were no sanctions against Schumacher or Benetton.

During the season, manager Willi Weber laid the foundation for Schumacher's later move to Ferrari. As early as 1993, Weber had learned through an indiscretion that Riccardo Patrese earned more than Schumacher, although a clause in the joint contract excluded this. When Benetton was in the midst of the aforementioned fraud allegations, Weber, with reference to the breach of contract, managed to cut the unfavorably long three-year contract with the Benetton team by half and at the same time double Schumacher's salary.

1995: 2nd world title

Benetton B195 at Goodwood Festival of Speed , 2006

For the 1995 season , Benetton also got the powerful V10 engines from Renault . There was a tie between Williams and Benetton on the engine side.

The start of the season did not go as smoothly for Schumacher as in the previous year. The Benetton B195 was much more difficult to set up than the previous model and reacted extremely nervously to setup changes, especially when adjusting the ground clearance. Both pilots had to experience this several times to their chagrin from accidents. Although Schumacher won the opening race, the next two races went to Hill, who thus took the lead in the World Championship for the first time. On the newly designed Imola circuit , Schumacher had a serious accident, which he fortunately survived unharmed. From now on the tide turned again in favor of the Kerpener. He dominated most of the races, was stopped in Canada due to an electronic fault and driven off the track in a duel with Hill at Silverstone and Monza.

From Schumacher's point of view, the highlights up to then were the first victory of his career at the Hockenheimring , the victory in the wet race at Spa, when he started from position 16 on slicks in changing conditions and was able to decisively stop the hill driving behind him with wet tires. And finally the victory at the Nürburgring when he overtook Jean Alesi with two laps to go . Damon Hill, who failed in the race, made a conciliatory gesture when he applauded Schumacher - from the edge of the track - from the edge of the track. The season was rounded off by winning the second drivers 'world championship for Schumacher and the constructors' title for Benetton.

Ferrari era (1996-2006)

Schumacher at the Hockenheimring

At the urging of consultant Niki Lauda , the Ferrari team , now headed by Jean Todt , was looking for a suitable driver. Schumacher was the only still active Formula 1 world champion, in addition, Benetton had seen a rapid rise since Schumacher's engagement, which Ferrari promised with Schumacher's engagement. The traditional Italian racing team had lagged behind in terms of technology and organization in recent years, as, among other things, a powerful but heavy V12 engine with high fuel consumption was used. Ferrari had n't won a drivers' championship since Jody Scheckter in 1979 . The hopes placed in Schumacher were particularly high among the Italian media and the " Tifosi ". Gianni Agnelli , the Fiat and Ferrari boss, was quoted as saying: "If Ferrari doesn't become world champion with Michael Schumacher, then we will never be again."


Ferrari F310 after the chassis retouching

For the 1996 season , Ferrari developed a ten-cylinder engine with the P46 and dispensed with the twelve-cylinder with which the team had competed since the 1989 season . The more compact design promised a more aerodynamic design of the body. Thanks to the experience of a Japanese Honda engineer, the engine was developed in such a way that the supposed lack of experience in the use of a ten-cylinder did not have a negative impact. As a major weakness this proved monocoque - chassis of the former star designer John Barnard , a faulty wind tunnel - calibration and distributed in England (chassis) and Italy (package) structures. Barnard gave the Ferrari - in addition to a deep nose - for safety reasons wide cockpit side bulges, which had a disadvantageous aerodynamic effect. In addition, the air scoop and the side pods were not optimally flowed to, so that the driver had to tilt his head to the side on the long straights of most racetracks in order to enable a better flow of the airbox . For chassis retouching was Gustav Brunner committed. The single-seater was after the Spanish Grand Prix used with a "high nose", to improve the flow to the underbody. Only after the season did Schumacher say that he was repelled by the “sight of this parachute”, as he called the side bulges.

At the start of the season in Australia , Schumacher's brakes failed, in Argentina the rear wing broke and in San Marino a brake disc. Nevertheless, Schumacher managed a surprising victory in the rain race in Barcelona, ​​in which, starting from third position, he won overly despite a broken exhaust and a defective cylinder bank. This victory, which he owed to a consistent rain vote, sparked great euphoria among the team and the fans. However, disillusionment returned quite quickly when it became clear that the car was not capable of winning on a dry track. There were always setbacks, sometimes embarrassing technical difficulties and unreliability; the term “penny article” made the rounds because small parts often broke. In France, for example, Schumacher dropped out in the introductory round and in Great Britain the hydraulics failed. But Schumacher also made mistakes, started from pole position in Monaco , for example, and slipped against a wall because the curbs were still damp from the rain, which meant the end of the race on the first lap for him. Schumacher won the race in Belgium on a dry track. Just two weeks later, the next, but also the last victory of the season followed at the Italian Grand Prix .

Damon Hill became world champion ahead of the aspiring Formula 1 newcomer Jacques Villeneuve (both Williams-Renault ). Schumacher finished the season in third place with three wins of the season, which was the best season for Ferrari since 1990.


Schumacher, Ferrari F310 B, Hockenheim, 1997

In 1997 , at Schumacher's request, racing engineer Ross Brawn and designer Rory Byrne moved to Ferrari. The Ferrari F310B was significantly more competitive than the previous year's model. Jacques Villeneuve started the season as the favorite, his Williams FW19 was the best car and his new team-mate Heinz-Harald Frentzen was inferior to him. Schumacher won five races during the season. He clinched the most important victory for the fight for the world title in Japan when he was able to keep Villeneuve behind him with the help of his team-mate Eddie Irvine , who knew the course very well from his time in Japan. Before the last race, the European Grand Prix , Schumacher led the world championship. Villeneuve was even threatened with a ban there because he had overtaken in Japan despite the yellow flags. However, the FIA decided that Villeneuve could take part in the race. In qualifying , three drivers, Villeneuve, Schumacher and Frentzen, achieved exactly the same time to the thousandth of a second. They started in this order, since the order of the time achieved is decisive in the event of a tie. After Schumacher had led over half of the race, he slowed down significantly for no apparent reason and Villeneuve was able to catch up. When he started to overtake, there was a collision, as in 1994 between Schumacher and Hill. While the question of guilt was not clear at the time, this time there was little doubt that Schumacher had provoked the clash. In contrast to Hill in 1994, however, Villeneuve was able to continue the race and finished third behind the McLaren-Mercedes , which was enough to become world champion. Schumacher retired after the collision. He was excluded from the World Championship ranking due to a ruling by the FIA ​​for unsporting behavior. Heinz-Harald Frentzen became vice world champion. In the constructors' championship, however, the points achieved by Schumacher were not withdrawn, so that Ferrari took second place.


From the year 1998 were new rules. The cars were only allowed to be a maximum of 180 cm instead of the previous 200 cm and had to have grooved tires instead of the slick tires otherwise common in racing. The McLaren-Mercedes team and its tire supplier Bridgestone coped well with the changes right from the start. In addition, designer Adrian Newey, who switched from Williams to McLaren in August 1997, now had a great influence on the design of the car. Mika Häkkinen quickly developed into a title contender after winning the first two races. Schumacher just won the third race of the season in Argentina . A gripping duel developed over the rest of the season. An inglorious climax was the race in Belgium , in which Häkkinen had already retired and the clearly leading Schumacher set out to lap David Coulthard's second McLaren. There was a collision. Schumacher headed for the pits on only three wheels, only to rush to the McLaren pits, totally beside himself. The mechanics who had rushed up were only able to calm Schumacher with difficulty and prevent fisticuffs. The Scot then asserted several times that he had not caused the accident on purpose. Schumacher then later accepted Coulthard's insightful apology.

Three races before the end of the season, it seemed as if Häkkinen could win the World Cup. But Schumacher won in Italy , while Häkkinen couldn't get above fourth place due to technical problems, and so kept the championship open. Two weeks later, Häkkinen won the Grand Prix of Luxembourg . So Schumacher had to hope for the help of his teammate Eddie Irvine for the last race, as Häkkinen could only finish third if Schumacher won. At the start, Schumacher's car died when the engine was standing on pole position. After the restart, he worked his way up from 22nd to 3rd before a puncture finally deprived him of all chances of victory. Häkkinen won the race and with it his first Formula 1 world championship.

Schumacher achieved a total of six victories and became vice world champion.


In 1999 , McLaren-Mercedes' technological lead was almost exhausted. Depending on the route, Ferrari seemed to be at least equal. Schumacher won from the first seven races in San Marino and Monaco , while Häkkinen took three wins ( Brazil , Spain and Canada ). Schumacher was eight points behind Häkkinen before the British Grand Prix . Shortly after the start, his brakes failed and, according to telemetry data, he hit a pile of tires at 107 km / h. The result was a fracture of the right lower leg. Schumacher had to sit out for six races, the World Cup was lost for him.

The voices urging Schumacher to come back as soon as possible became louder and louder towards the end of the season. Schumacher made his comeback two races before the end of the season. He was superior on the new course in Malaysia . He let Irvine win the race and finished second himself. The two Ferrari drivers were initially disqualified after the race because smoke deflectors did not comply with the rules. The disqualification was withdrawn at the green table . At the season finale in Japan , Mika Häkkinen won on her own and became world champion. Ferrari was able to secure the constructors' championship for the first time in 16 years.

2000: 3rd world title

In the 1999 season, Ferrari also switched to Bridgestone. Starting in the 2000 season, the Japanese tire manufacturer developed the tires after two McLaren World Cup titles, now also with Ferrari, which had a decisive influence on the balance of power. As in 1999, Ferrari and McLaren seemed to be equally strong. This time Schumacher had the better start. He won the first three races, although Häkkinen was able to conquer the pole position. McLaren struck back in the middle of the season and was able to win races on his own with David Coulthard. The season then headed towards its climax: First there was a duel between Häkkinen and Schumacher in Belgium . Häkkinen chased Schumacher for a long time without being able to attack decisively. It was only when he lapped Ricardo Zonta that he was able to use his excess speed at more than 300 km / h, because it let him use the inside lane. He overtook Schumacher and with his victory extended the narrow lead in the World Cup to six points over Schumacher. At the Italian Grand Prix he responded in another very close race with the 41st victory of his career. At the press conference that followed, he cried after being asked about setting Senna's personal record. This impulse was rated by the Italian press and the Tifosi in particular as an all too human reaction from the otherwise cool and unemotional Schumacher, and it earned him a sympathy that had never been seen before.

The remaining three races ( USA , Japan and Malaysia ) were won by Schumacher. Already in the penultimate race of the season he secured the first driver's title for Ferrari since Jody Scheckter 1979. The constructors' world title was defended with Schumacher's victory in the season finale. His team-mate Rubens Barrichello won his first race in Germany - this was also the first win by a Brazilian since Senna's death.

In Italy and Germany there was a kind of festival atmosphere after winning this title. The otherwise rather cool-looking Schumacher reacted very emotionally, which gave an idea of ​​the pressure that had been on him for over four years.

2001: 4th world title

The 2001 season began for Schumacher in training for the Australian Grand Prix with a serious accident when the rear of his car broke out at 280 km / h in the Marina bend and he then rolled over twice in the gravel to come to a standstill again on his own wheels get. Schumacher was uninjured, but could not be happy about his eventual victory, as a marshal was slain by a wheel loosened in a collision between the vehicles of his brother Ralf and Villeneuves. Schumacher won the rainy race in Malaysia with superiority, even if he had to queue 72 seconds behind the car of his team-mate Barrichello after an unfamiliar strategy mishap of his team at the pit stop. Although the Ferrari team showed signs of superiority with a view to the world championship from the middle of the season, the individual Grand Prix were still exciting. Schumacher was unassailable five races before the end of the season and won his fourth world title ahead of David Coulthard in a McLaren-Mercedes and his teammate Rubens Barrichello. At the Belgian Grand Prix he set a new record with his 52nd victory. Ferrari started the last race with a completely revised vehicle to test aerodynamic parts for the next season.

2002: 5th world title

Michael Schumacher, 2002

The Formula 1 2002 season dominated Ferrari clearly having several double victories. After Barrichello, who was in the lead, had to let Schumacher past the Grand Prix of Austria by team order, the award ceremony was held with whistles from the audience. On the podium, Schumacher, ashamed, pushed Barrichello to the top step of the winners' podium and bowed to him. Team boss Todt justified his instruction: “In the past we lost the drivers' championship three times in a row in the last race and we know that we have tough opponents. That's why we have to get the most out of every situation. "

Before the press conference, Todt caught his pilots and determined that it was a team decision and that they could not drive for themselves. Schumacher himself did not understand this team decision.

The press denounced the incident as a scandal. Ferrari was fined one million US dollars - not for the team order, as there was no legal recourse for it, but for Schumacher's gesture on the podium when he pushed Barrichello to first place as "improper conduct an award ceremony ".

There was also an involuntary, strange aftertaste this season. In an unsuccessful attempt to create a photo finish and thus the tightest finish of all time, the leading Schumacher at the US Grand Prix in Indianapolis took off the gas on the home straight - and let Barrichello, who had been second up to that point, pass in the slipstream . Schumacher said in an interview that he could live with this second place: Now they are even for what is happening in Austria.

Schumacher overtook Raikkonen, who had been in the lead in this race at the French Grand Prix, and thus secured the world title ahead of time.

Schumacher won his fifth title six races before the end of the season at the French Grand Prix in Magny-Cours. He finished on the podium every time in 17 races, scored eleven wins, five second places and came third once. He already had a lead of 94 points over third-placed Juan Pablo Montoya . No other driver became world champion so early in the season. This set the record for Juan Manuel Fangio , who won his five world titles in just seven years and with four different makes, winning almost half of his races.

2003: 6th world title

By changing the rules for awarding points and qualifications, an attempt was made to make Formula 1 more exciting. Among other things, the second place, with a smaller point gap of only two points to the first place, was significantly upgraded.

The 2003 season began for Schumacher with driving errors, a start failure and a total failure at the rainy race in Sao Paulo, so that after three races in the championship he was already 18 points behind Kimi Raikkonen . In addition, Ferrari's decision to only use the new F-2003 GA model for the fourth race in Imola turned out to be a mortgage in retrospect. In this race, Schumacher and his brother were put to a severe test by the cancer death of their mother Elisabeth. Schumacher won the Grand Prix and shed tears on the podium with a mourning band on his arm and bowed head. At the Austrian Grand Prix , Schumacher did not let himself be disturbed by a fire during the pit stop - caused by a defective tank seal - and won there too. With another win in Canada he now led with 54 to 51 points against Raikkonen.

In the following race, the European Grand Prix , Schumacher got into the gravel after touching Montoya. Marshals pushed him back onto the track and indirectly enabled him to finish fifth and four championship points, which later proved to be important. At the race in Hungary the Ferrari were not competitive as usual, Schumacher was lapped in eighth place by Fernando Alonso . Schumacher was able to win the following two races in the USA and Italy , but the end of the season involuntarily turned into a “shivering game”.

In the last race of the season, a single World Championship point should be enough for the sixth World Championship. Schumacher only achieved 14th place on the grid in qualifying, while competitor Raikkonen started from eighth place. Schumacher himself had to hope for a win for Barrichello, but he found it unusually difficult because he suffered from a cold that had not been cured. After a driving mistake he collided with Takuma Satō , fell back again, fought his way back and made it to the finish line in eighth with a brake plate . By winning the title, Schumacher became the most successful Formula 1 driver in history. Schumacher himself stated afterwards: “I won most of my titles with victories, today I'm sitting here and won the World Cup with an 8th place, the one point that was still needed. That's why I have mixed feelings. [...] When you see what happened in Hockenheim and Budapest, many people had already written us off. "

2004: 7th world title

Schumacher 2004 in Indianapolis

The 2004 season started for Schumacher on March 7th in Australia with an undisputed start-to-finish victory over teammate Barrichello. For the French Grand Prix , Schumacher relied on a planned four-stop strategy for the first time in Formula 1 history and won. At the 14th race of the season in Belgium , he became world champion for the seventh time ahead of schedule by finishing second behind Kimi Räikkönen in Ferrari's 700th Grand Prix. Schumacher won 13 of 18 races, setting a new record. Of the first 13 races he won twelve, with a retirement in Monaco . From the European Grand Prix to the Hungarian Grand Prix , he won seven races in a row. With ten fastest race laps in one season, Schumacher set another record. Ferrari won the constructors championship again, the sixth in a row.


2005 USA Grand Prix

The 2005 season was to prove to be one of the toughest challenges for Schumacher since joining Ferrari in 1996. Until then, both in Goodyear's times and in the phase when the team switched to the Japanese manufacturer Bridgestone , according to some experts and especially its opponents , Ferrari always knew how to enforce its wishes for special tire compounds and formats, so the long-term advantage turned out to be a disadvantage. After the Sauber team moved to the Michelin racing team, the “Reds” from Maranello were the only top team that had to bear the brunt of the tire tests. The two small private teams Jordan and Minardi could not play a role here, as additional tire tests were not financially viable for them.

Grand Prix Germany in Hockenheim 2005

According to the new regulations, a racing tire had to last both qualifying and the entire race. A tire change was only allowed in exceptional cases, which meant that the previously proven tactical scenarios, in which teams had often duped the competition with unusually short or long turns in previous years, were no longer applicable. In addition, the generation replacement that had been planned for three years became apparent in the design office. While the Ferrari vehicles were previously primarily developed by Rory Byrne, Aldo Costa , who had previously worked for Minardi, was responsible for the F2005 . Until the middle of the season, the Ferrari F2005 could no longer meet the high expectations placed on it. As they admitted at Bridgestone after the first two races, they had been too conservative in development. For a fast lap, the tires did not reach the necessary temperature to produce enough grip . This meant that it was mostly impossible to get a top starting position, even if the Ferrari drivers were able to improve over the course of the race.

After an intermediate high in San Marino , where he was only stopped by the leader, Fernando Alonso , after a race to catch up from 13th place on the grid, disillusionment soon set in again. Another second place at the Grand Prix in Canada, in which Schumacher seemed to have overcome this weakness with a second place in training, was only made possible by a few failures of the competition. Only in the ninth round of the World Championship in Indianapolis did he achieve his first win of the season in a lonely race against just five opponents. The rest of the field did not take part in the race due to the cancellation of the teams with tires from Michelin, as Michelin feared tire damage and had forbidden them to participate for safety reasons as well as for fear of the usual recourse claims in the USA . He finished third in France , but confessed after the race that he had calculated more.

A sixth place in Great Britain led team boss Jean Todt to the realization announced to the press that a successful title defense was no longer an option. The development lead of the other teams is too great, and it is not just the tires that are responsible for the poor performance of Scuderia Ferrari at the moment. At the German Grand Prix at the Hockenheimring , it was only enough to finish fifth in qualifying. After a good start, Schumacher was in third place for a long time and, thanks to the failure of Kimi Räikkönen, even in second place. However, he had to give up position after position because the grip of his tires noticeably deteriorated during the course of the race, so that Juan Pablo Montoya , Jenson Button and Giancarlo Fisichella "passed" through to fifth place.

The race in Hungary started out positively for Schumacher when he surprisingly achieved pole position in qualifying . In the first third of the race, Schumacher was able to help determine the pace, only to then have to notice a decrease in the tires during the rest of the race. He finished the race in second place behind Kimi Raikkonen. With further moderate results it soon became clear that defending the title was no longer possible in purely mathematical terms.

Fernando Alonso, who secured his first world title and at the same time became the youngest Formula 1 world champion in history, became world champion. The “Schumacher era” (2000 to 2004) came to a temporary end after five world championship titles in a row.


Schumacher at the Canadian GP, ​​2006

The new rule changes (including a restriction to V8 engines, the reintroduction of tire changes and a revised qualifying format) appeared in 2006 cons, had the Ferrari in the previous season, to reduce or even reverse. This restored competitiveness against Renault, whose stable and fast performance over all races was a great advantage.

For the first World Championship round of the new season, Schumacher set another new record in Bahrain when he caught up with Ayrton Senna with his 65th pole position. However, this statistic is controversial because it cannot be compared objectively, because the rule modes for reaching the pole position have been changed several times since Senna's death - but not for this reason (for example single-trip qualification instead of qualifying everyone against everyone at the same time on the Track, race start without refueling, race start on qualifying tires, etc.). This also made considerations of racing tactics important in qualifying. In the race itself, Schumacher then secured second place behind the reigning world champion Fernando Alonso.

In the second race in Malaysia , Schumacher finished sixth. Somewhat surprisingly, Fisichella won in the Renault. He was unable to finish the third race in Australia - after an accident caused by a driving mistake when he failed to pass Button in the last corner. Alonso won again.

At the fourth round of the season, the San Marino Grand Prix , Schumacher secured his 66th pole position on April 22nd and won the race the following day. It was Ferrari's first victory after the controversial Indianapolis Grand Prix in 2005 . Fernando Alonso secured second place in San Marino from Juan Pablo Montoya.

On May 7th, Schumacher started the European Grand Prix from second place behind Alonso at the Nürburgring. Schumacher was able to overtake Alonso at his second pit stop and hold first place until the end of the race. Third place went to Schumacher's new team-mate Felipe Massa . The tire manufacturer Michelin announced after the race that it had misjudged the asphalt conditions and could not provide the Michelin teams with optimal tires. As a result, McLaren and Renault would have lost up to half a second per lap.

On May 14, 2006, at Alonso's home GP in Barcelona, ​​he won over Schumacher.

At the Monaco Grand Prix, after the Rascasse affair , Schumacher was transferred from pole to the bottom of the starting field and came in fifth.

In the following race at Silverstone, Schumacher had to admit - despite good times in interim test drives in Barcelona - that the Renault was still the faster vehicle over the race distance. A second place ahead of Räikkönen, who was still ahead of him in qualifying training, which he could only overtake with better racing tactics at the second pit stop, meant damage limitation behind the winner Alonso, who was able to celebrate his third triumph in a row.

Since Alonso struggled with difficulties at the US GP, Schumacher managed the hat trick from pole position, race win and fastest lap. Massa's second place was positive for the Constructors' Championship, but did not mean a turning point in the balance of power. However, the gap in the driver's table was reduced to 19 points.

At the French Grand Prix on July 16, Schumacher was able to shorten the gap in the world championship by two points by beating Alonso. With his eighth win at the same Grand Prix, he set a new record.

With his fourth win at the Hockenheimring , Schumacher shortened the gap to Alonso to a total of eleven points, as the Spaniard finished fifth here. After this race, Schumacher was mathematically able to win the drivers' championship on his own.

Alonso's pursuer Schumacher had to give up three laps before the end of the chaotic rain race on August 6, 2006 on the Hungaroring in Budapest with a broken tie rod. “That happened during the collision with Nick Heidfeld ,” said Schumacher, describing the key scene on the Hungaroring. “But you can't blame him.” The Ferrari driver, who was ranked eighth in the end, was awarded one world championship point after the seventh-placed BMW-Sauber driver Robert Kubica had been removed from the classification due to his car being underweight .

At the race in Istanbul on August 27, Schumacher had to be content with third place behind team mate Felipe Massa and world champion Fernando Alonso. The reason for this was that during the safety car phase Schumacher came into the pits at the same time as Massa, who was in the lead, and Schumacher had to stand behind him and wait for him to free the service space for him. A slip in the second stint cost him around 4.5 seconds.

Schumacher won the Italian Grand Prix in Monza on September 10th . The reigning world champion Alonso was only two points ahead at this point. In the constructors' world championship, the Ferrari team was able to overtake Renault and was three points ahead of the French with 168 points.

With the victory at the Chinese Grand Prix on October 1, 2006 in Shanghai , the last and 91st victory of his career, Schumacher drew level with the reigning world champion on points and had good prospects two races before the end of the season, his career with a world championship -Title to finish. He was now leading - because he had won one more race - 7: 6 in the overall standings.

In the subsequent Japanese Grand Prix , Schumacher retired on lap 37 while in the lead with an engine failure. Alonso won the race and was 10 points ahead of Schumacher in the penultimate run. The title win was only possible for Schumacher with a victory in the last race in Brazil, provided that Alonso would not get any points. He himself gave himself at best theoretical chances of victory: “I don't build my hopes on someone else's failure. […] I'm here to have a good race and I want to win the race. We can only give our maximum, finish the race first and second and then we have to see what the others do, whether it is enough for us to win the constructors' championship or not. "

Insufficient fuel pressure meant that he only qualified for tenth place on the grid at the Brazilian Grand Prix . During the race to catch up to the top, he overtook a few drivers in the first laps of the race, but fell back to last place after a flat tire while overtaking Giancarlo Fisichella on his front wing. Nevertheless, he fought his way up to fourth place continuously with the last fast lap of his career up to that point. After a long duel, he also overtook Kimi Raikkonen. Alonso finished the race in second place behind Schumacher's team-mate Massa and thereby won the world championship and his team Renault won the constructors' championship. Schumacher was satisfied with the outcome of the race: “These wheel-to-wheel duels are the high point of Formula 1, especially when you are on the way forward, when you have such a good car, have the opponents under control and can attack accordingly . Most of the time you wish the race was over at some point, but today I would have liked it to go a little longer. "

When asked whether there were already concrete plans for the future at this point in time, he decidedly in the negative. Despite the World Cup defeat, fans celebrated Schumacher's last race as a worthy farewell to Formula 1.

Resignation as an active driver

Michael Schumacher (2007)

The media speculated about Schumacher's resignation for the first time after he won the 2004 drivers' championship. He himself always denied, however. In 2006, the record world champion hesitated with such a denial, and speculation was all the more intense again. Ferrari emphasized the freedom of his driver and that he could decide on his own career. However, Schumacher did not want to deal with the subject in order to be able to concentrate on the upcoming races of the 2006 season. Under pressure from Ferrari President Luca Cordero di Montezemolo , Schumacher was forced to announce his decision until the Italian Grand Prix in Monza. In the months that followed, there was intense international media hype , which at the Italian Grand Prix in Monza appeared to be more important than the race itself.

Schumacher announced on September 10, 2006, after his 90th Grand Prix victory, at the Post-Race press conference in Monza, as agreed, that he would end his career at the end of the season. Ferrari reported this in a press release immediately after the end of the race at 3:17 p.m. As a motive, Schumacher stated that on the one hand he was still discovering the necessary energy and motivation in himself at the moment to drive at a level that was acceptable to him, but he could not assume that for the next few years. On the other hand, he does not want to destroy the career of his current teammate Felipe Massa after the commitment of Kimi Raikkonen.

As early as September, the declared “Schumacher fan”, Williams team boss Frank Williams , said that he could fully understand the decision of the German racing driver. If he puts himself in his shoes and sees how many high-speed accidents he has had and survived, it is the right time to resign.

Schumacher finished his last Formula 1 race for Ferrari on October 22, 2006 in São Paulo with fourth place.

Even in the run-up to the publication of his authorized short biography, new and detailed motives for his resignation were presented in advance publications in the specialist press. Schumacher named health problems that he had had particularly in the 2005 season. Longer training was only associated with increased pain in the neck and arms, which at least made testing a horror for him. However, this did not hinder him during the race. He himself attributed the pain to the expected signs of wear and tear after more than 20 years of motorsport. This was also a sign for him to stop active racing.

During test drives in particular, he realized that he was basically counting down the hours until the end of his career. He wanted more and more to be part of his family. Schumacher ruled out a comeback : “Formula 1 is constantly changing: the technology, the engines, the rules, the slopes. Once you're out, you're out. "

Of Auto Motor und Sport -Redakteur Michael Schmidt, the former Ferrari driver was Jean Alesi asked whether in his opinion the right time for Schumacher was to resign. Alesi replied: “It was the perfect time, even if many say after the last race that he could have gone on forever. Recently there have been more and more people who have said at the slightest mistake that they are too old. Michael doesn't deserve this. Before he has to be criticized like that, he'd better stop. "

Consultant and test driver at Ferrari (2007–2009)

From the end of December 2006, Schumacher had a new position at Ferrari as a talent scout for karting in order to spot promising driving talents at an early stage. According to Jean Todt, Schumacher recommended the Finn as one of his possible successors long before Kimi Räikkönen celebrated his entry into Formula 1 at Sauber . In addition, Schumacher worked out the racing strategy and advised the future team organization. According to Luca Cordero di Montezemolo, Schumacher should have his own office in Maranello and be given every freedom: "He can come whenever he wants."

Ferrari sporting director Stefano Domenicali saw Schumacher actively involved in the races of the season as an advisor to both drivers: "Michael will support the decisions, observe the drivers and the technical developments". It is up to him whether he does this at the on-site meeting or via video conference; Everyone could benefit from the seven-time world champion's wealth of experience.

Test drives 2007

Following Ferrari's announcement that Schumacher would reactivate Schumacher as a driver with a wealth of experience due to the upcoming abolition of traction control so that he could advise Raikkonen and Massa, Schumacher took part in test drives for Ferrari on November 13 and 14, 2007 at the Circuit de Catalunya. He made a more than good impression and drove the best time of the day on both test days, leaving Ferrari test driver Luca Badoer well behind him on the first and second days. This gave the lie to numerous critics, including Niki Lauda, ​​who considered the Schumacher test to be an "advertising stunt" in advance. The test results also caused astonishment because he won the duel against regular driver Massa. Afterwards, Schumacher said that he had agreed, among other things, because he wanted to know whether it was "rusty" by then. Nevertheless, after emerging speculation about a comeback, he insisted that there were no plans for it. Manager Weber also referred to the existing contract with Ferrari as a test reason. In an interview with Johannes B. Kerner (in January 2009) Schumacher admitted that he had thought of a comeback for a short time, as he had noticed that he was still able to achieve very good lap times compared to the younger and established ones To graduate regular pilots. This statement suggests the results of the 2007 winter test drives.

Test drives 2008

In April 2008, Schumacher returned to Ferrari for test drives in Barcelona to carry out development work in the field of tires and aerodynamics.

Planned Formula 1 comeback in 2009

After the serious accident of his team mate Felipe Massa during qualifying for the Hungarian Grand Prix, Schumacher initially announced his return to Formula 1. “Although the topic of Formula 1 was long and completely closed for me, I cannot ignore this unfortunate situation because of my loyalty to the team. As a competitor that I am, I'm also looking forward to this challenge, ”wrote Schumacher on his website.

However, health problems after a motorcycle accident in February 2009 ruined Schumacher's plans, which is why he declared on August 11, 2009 not to replace Felipe Massa. Instead, Massa was initially represented by Luca Badoer and then by Giancarlo Fisichella .

Schumacher leaves Ferrari

On December 18, 2009, Ferrari President Luca Cordero di Montezemolo announced that Schumacher had asked Scuderia Ferrari to release his consulting contract. “He told me that there was a very, very, very high probability that he would drive in Formula 1 again in 2010 at the Mercedes GP . It's not yet 100 percent decided, but he told me that Wednesday morning. "

Comeback at Mercedes (2010–2012)

Schumacher in the Mercedes MGP W01 at the 2010 Canadian Grand Prix

After much speculation, Schumacher announced his comeback in Formula 1 on December 23, 2009. In 2010 he started alongside Nico Rosberg for Mercedes Grand Prix , the contract was initially concluded for three years. The new Mercedes team was presented in Stuttgart on January 25, 2010.


At the season opener in Bahrain he finished his first race in sixth place after a three-year break. After crossing the finish line behind Rosberg in the first four races, Schumacher classified himself ahead of Rosberg for the first time at the European opener in Spain , which he finished fourth. Schumacher attracted attention when he was able to keep World Champion Button behind for more than half of the race after an overtaking maneuver. A week later at the Monaco Grand Prix he caused a stir because he had overtaken Alonso, who was driving in front of him, in the last corner after a safety car phase. Schumacher received a drive-through penalty for his offense, but because the race was now over, it was converted into a 20-second penalty. As a result, he dropped from sixth to twelfth place and received no World Championship points with this placement. Ironically, his former rival Damon Hill was one of four stewards in this race. After the confusion over the interpretation of the regulations, whether Schumacher overtook during or after the safety car phase, the FIA ​​announced a simplification in this point. In the further course of the season Schumacher achieved two more fourth places, better placements were denied him. A battle for positions with his former Ferrari team-mate Barrichello at the Hungarian Grand Prix made for more headlines . Schumacher almost pushed the Brazilian, who had meanwhile been driving for Williams, against the pit wall and was then punished by the race stewards with a ten places back at the next race. Schumacher lost the team-internal duel with 72 to 142 points against Rosberg and ended the season in ninth place overall.


Schumacher at the Malaysian Grand Prix

In 2011 Schumacher scored three points in the first six races, with a fifth place in qualifying at the Monaco Grand Prix, his best starting position of the season. At the subsequent Canadian Grand Prix , 19 laps before the end of the race, Schumacher overtook Kamui Kobayashi and Massa in a curve and was in second place. With four laps to go, however, he was unable to keep the faster drivers Button and Mark Webber behind him and finished the race in fourth place, which was his and his team's best season position up to that point. In Belgium , Schumacher celebrated his 20th anniversary in Formula 1. In the race, starting from 24th place, he made up a few positions and finished in fifth place. At the subsequent Italian Grand Prix , Schumacher fought a duel with Lewis Hamilton , which he kept behind for a long time, but was overtaken and achieved another fifth place. At the end of the season he finished eighth in the world championship. Internally he was defeated by Rosberg with 76 to 89 points.


Schumacher in Monaco in 2012, where he achieved his last pole position

In 2012 , Schumacher played his third season for Mercedes alongside Rosberg. At the season opener in Australia he retired while in third place with technical problems. At the next Grand Prix in Malaysia , he qualified the car in third place. After a collision on the first lap, he lost a few positions and finally crossed the finish line in tenth place. In the third race, the Chinese Grand Prix , Schumacher started from position two for the first time in a Mercedes from the front row. He retired from the race after a wheel was not properly attached during his first pit stop. At the European opener, the Spanish Grand Prix, Schumacher collided with Bruno Senna , who was driving in front of him . Both pilots dropped out. The race stewards awarded him after the race for causing this collision with a penalty transfer of five places for the next race. At this event, the Monaco Grand Prix , Schumacher drove the fastest lap in the final qualifying section. Because of the penalty transfer, however, he only started the race from sixth place. After being in seventh place for a long time, he dropped out with technical problems.

At the European Grand Prix , Schumacher started a race to catch up in the final phase and finished in third place. It was his only podium finish for Mercedes and also the only podium finish after his return to Formula 1. At the Singapore Grand Prix , Schumacher again attracted attention with a rear-end collision. Schumacher had driven Jean-Éric Vergne into the rear and thus pushed himself and Vergne out of the race. Following the race against Schumacher, the race stewards imposed a penalty for the next race for ten positions.

Mercedes did not extend the contract with Schumacher, which expired at the end of the season, and signed Lewis Hamilton for the 2013 Formula 1 season as a replacement for Schumacher in the week after the Singapore Grand Prix . A week later, Schumacher announced his retirement as an active racing driver at the end of the season. Schumacher finished his last Formula 1 race in Brazil in seventh place.

At the end of the season he finished 13th in the world championship and lost to Rosberg with 49 to 93 points.

Driving style, setup and racing tactics

Much has been written about Schumacher's driving style and vehicle setup over the course of his career. The authors mainly referred to statements made by his former teammates or race engineers. Schumacher himself has never commented directly on this, but only stated in interviews that he also pays attention to GP drivers who are not necessarily among the top drivers, but who achieved particularly good times in certain corner sections, such as Ukyō Katayama or 1996 Pedro Diniz .

At the end of Schumacher's first season as world champion, the Dutch Schumacher team-mate Jos Verstappen , who is considered the shooting star of the scene, and the Finn JJ Lehto claimed that it was hardly possible to drive with Schumacher's vehicle setup that was extremely oversteer . Verstappen described the Benetton B194 as permanently moving because of the nervous rear axle and - from his perspective - difficult to control: "[...] as ultimately twitchy at the rear, its wings and tires all working towards huge front-end grip and a comparatively loose rear end."

In the following years, these statements were described in a similar form by Johnny Herbert , Eddie Irvine , Rubens Barrichello and Gerhard Berger , who all became acquainted with Schumacher's preferred Benetton vote. Berger himself, who was curious about the still reigning world championship vehicle from 1995, reacted with dismay to the capricious driving behavior and explained in retrospect that it was only afterwards that he learned to appreciate Schumacher's vehicle control. After a ride and two accidents, Berger identified the problem:

“At full speed, the car ' stalled ' on bumps, like an airplane where the aerodynamic effect suddenly breaks down. If this bump was in a fast curve, then the car could break out oversteering. [...] Michael Schumacher had a kind of supernatural reflex for the situation [...] He automatically anticipated the counter-steering on the bump, had already saved this process in himself. At this point, at the latest, I took back the last bit of reserve against Michael Schumacher: Anyone who had this car so well under control, even at the limit, had to be in a class of its own. "

Although other Grand Prix drivers of his era also came from the kart scene ( Jarno Trulli , Mika Häkkinen, Jos Verstappen, Nick Heidfeld or Gianni Morbidelli ), no one except Schumacher tuned his vehicle as he is used to on the kart track was. According to Pat Symonds , Ayrton Senna's former racing engineer at Benetton's predecessor Toleman , his then racing engineer at Benetton and later technical director at Renault , his driving style also corresponded to this setup. Since he had insight into telemetry , his statements are considered well-founded.

After that, Schumacher usually approached the curve at maximum speed, chose a closer line than most other drivers and braked much later, which Martin Brundle confirmed during an overtaking maneuver at the Belgian Grand Prix in 1995. So he took the speed with him into the curve in this way, only to throw the rear end around with targeted, metered thrusts and, like Senna, to feel his way to the curve limit. As soon as the vehicle was now back in the direction of travel, he was able to accelerate earlier than his opponents. This driving style at least explains its superiority in slow corners and - thanks to the dosed throttle - also in ultra-fast corners.

With the advent of left-hand braking, Schumacher was able to stabilize the vehicle even more. The unusual curve also explains why he was on the lookout for the alternatives mentioned above. In a television interview, he explained that sometimes he let the vehicle find its own line in order to test its efficiency. Such “experiments” have occasionally failed, as the failure in Monaco in 1996 showed. During training, for example, he found that the inside of a curb gave him more grip so that he could get into the next bend with improved traction . During qualification training, the trick worked to full satisfaction and he achieved pole position. On the first lap of the race, he did not take sufficient account of the fact that the curbs were now wet from the rain, and he got caught in the guard rails.

Especially in his first years at Ferrari from 1996 onwards, Schumacher was partly thrown back by the fact that the Ferrari tended to understeer , which was contrary to his setup wishes. It was not until 1998 that Ferrari tire supplier Goodyear offered wider front tires at the Argentine Grand Prix , not least under pressure from Ferrari and Schumacher themselves , which were similar to Bridgestone tires and provided more stability on the front axle. Schumacher was able to win this Grand Prix.

In 2003, the specialist magazine F1 Racing had the opportunity to compare telemetry data from various races Barrichellos and Schumacher and came to similar results:

“Michael Schumacher stays on the accelerator much longer than Barrichello, but before the actual 'correct' braking maneuver for the hairpin bend, he starts to stabilize the car by using the brakes of just five percent. In the corner itself, Barrichello accelerates fully, but Schumacher constantly accelerates and 'plays' with the brakes and accelerator to get the car around the corner as quickly and stably as possible. "

Schumacher's last overtaking maneuver in a Ferrari at the 2006 Brazilian Grand Prix (against Kimi Raikkonen )

One of the disadvantages of his driving style, however, was the fact that Schumacher put more stress on his front wheels and, unlike his teammates, often couldn't start with the softer tire compound, which resulted in a different racing strategy for both drivers. The brakes and engine were also more heavily stressed; the fuel consumption is likely to have been higher on average. However, as at the Canadian Grand Prix , Schumacher showed several times that he was able to adjust to the decrease in braking effect ("fading") after a short period of getting used to it. The increased tire wear, however, was identified by Irvine and Brawn as a possible cause for the decline in Schumacher's dominance even before the 2005 Formula 1 season .

“One thing that Michael has always done sensationally is to do an incredibly fast stint. […] He drove 20 laps of full capacity, came to the pits to change tires and then turned up again. This year, when only one set of tires per race is allowed, he will have to adapt. "

As with Jim Clark , Jackie Stewart and Senna, it became his trademark that he drove a series of fast racing laps at qualifying pace in order to create the necessary distance from his pursuers. By reintroducing the refueling stops, Schumacher was even able to become the “Sprint Master” quoted in the English specialist press. While it sometimes takes a terrifying amount of time to prepare an opponent to overtake and only the following cars have an advantage, the tactics of pit stops became increasingly important. Since in Ross Brawn he had the man as strategist at the pits who often made the best predictions with the help of computer simulations, and he himself was able to produce a series of even record laps almost on command whenever he needed it The racing situation allowed, Schumacher overtook some opponents more in the pit lane than on the track.

Especially in the in and out lap, the last and first round before and after visiting the box, Schumacher was hard to beat at the height of his career. In particular, the ability to go to the limit of the vehicle with full tanks often gave him the seconds he needed to get past the opponent. Ross Bentley, former racing driver, driving trainer and specialist book author, said: “It's worth watching Michael Schumacher in the lap before and after his pit stops. The man loses as little as possible. "


The "Silverstone Incident" in 1994

At the Grand Prix of England Damon Hill started from pole position, Schumacher from second place on the grid. During the warm-up lap, Schumacher overtook Hill several times and zigzagged ahead of him , which is not allowed under the regulations. For this, he should initially receive a ten-second time penalty, which his team did not obey. Thereupon Schumacher was punished with the black flag during the race, i.e. the immediate disqualification, but remained on the track according to a team instruction (“Keep going!”) And drove on. Apparently team boss Flavio Briatore had convinced the stewards to leave Schumacher in the race after serving the time penalty. He pitted for a stop-and-go penalty and finally finished the race in second place. Following the race, Schumacher was disqualified and banned for the next two races because he had ignored the black flag. An appeal failed.

The "floor slab affair" in Spa 1994

Schumacher clearly won the race in Spa in 1994. After the race he was disqualified because the wooden panel on the underbody of his car was sanded down beyond the permitted level. After the accidents of Roland Ratzenberger and Ayrton Senna, this wooden panel was included in the regulations in order to guarantee a minimum ground clearance and to make the vehicles less prone to a sudden loss of the ground effect . In the very uneven high-speed passages typical of Spa at the time, the cars often touched the underbody and sanded the floor slab. This property increases with increasing speed, the aerodynamic downforce when the suspension is set too soft. The training session was rainy, but the race took place in the dry. Since the compression in the Eau Rouge was bypassed by a slow chicane during training , the important yardstick for setting the suspension was omitted. So it was difficult for all teams to determine the correct ground clearance through the correct setting, because no reference values ​​from the training were available. The average speed of the fastest race lap in the dry was 27 km / h higher than that of the pole position in the rainy practice session. To this day, experts and fans argue about whether the Benetton was set incorrectly or whether the wooden plate was abraded too much by a lathe over the curbs.

The "Villeneuve ramming" 1997

Before the last race in Jerez, Schumacher was one point ahead of Villeneuve in the world championship. Schumacher initially led the race, but Villeneuve caught up and finally started overtaking on lap 47. Schumacher pulled in and the two cars touched. Villeneuve was able to continue and became world champion, while Schumacher slipped into the gravel and had to give up the race.

The FIA ​​judged Schumacher's ramming to be deliberate and took him out of the 1997 World Cup. She also wanted to set an example once and for all in order to prevent decisions that are brought about by collisions - as in 1964 , 1989 , 1990 and 1994  . However, he was allowed to keep the results he achieved this season for statistics.

The "Coulthard Incident" in 1998

In the chaos race at Spa 1998, Schumacher was the undisputed leader. All he had to do was drive home the win when he ran into the Coulthard to be lapped in the rain and looked for an opportunity to overtake several corners. Coulthard supposedly wanted to let the jostling Schumacher pass on the outer lane and reduced his speed by suddenly taking off the gas. Because it is otherwise - with deliberate and controlled overtaking in the race - that the person to be overtaken deviates from the ideal line to make room, Schumacher recognized too late in the spray that Coulthard was slowing down very strongly on the ideal line. Schumacher hit Coulthard's car at the rear despite an evasive attempt, tore off the right front wheel and suspension and had to give up after driving into the pits on only three wheels. From Schumacher's point of view, Coulthard's behavior seemed at least unusual, perhaps even deliberate. In a rage, Schumacher ran to Coulthard and had to be prevented by the surrounding pit crews from physically attacking him. After a few laps, Coulthard was able to get back into his repaired vehicle and finish the race - lapped several times. To this day, both fan camps argue about how this accident could have come about. In 2003 Coulthard himself came into a similar situation and saw his misconduct. Schumacher and Coulthard have now agreed on the question of guilt for the accident and no longer hold any grudges for one another.

The "Rascasse Affair" 2006

At the Monaco Grand Prix , Schumacher set the fastest time in qualifying. A few seconds before the end of the last qualifying session, he seemed to lose control of the car at the narrow Rascasse bend, braked too hard and left the vehicle in such a way that he could neither have turned into the nearby pit lane by turning in a controlled manner other vehicles could pass without any safety concerns and yellow flags were consequently waved. As a result, some of the drivers behind him - in addition to Alonso and Nico Rosberg , who were both on a fast lap - were hindered and could not improve. Schumacher stated that the engine died after a driving mistake, as the on-board electronics used automatically shut off the engine after ten seconds for safety reasons. Schumacher's behavior was condemned from many quarters. RTL co-commentator Niki Lauda , otherwise rather sympathetic to Schumacher, expressed serious doubts about his reasoning and assumed that he intended. Keke Rosberg described Schumacher extremely excitedly as a "bastard" who had caused great damage to the sport and had to resign. Alonso remained diplomatic on the advice of Renault's press spokesman and kept his opinion to himself that "everything else is a decision of the race stewards" who would investigate the case. Schumacher was also heavily criticized by former drivers. So also of Jacky Ickx , who was quoted as saying: "It is a shame that he has done. If it was on purpose, then it was bad. If he did it unintentionally, it would be even worse. ” Stirling Moss said,“ Whether guilty or innocent, it is definitely a very stupid thing for him, something that will damage his reputation for a long time. ”The After eight hours of intensive consultation, the race management judged Schumacher's behavior, after viewing the data and video material and after questioning those involved, in a controversial decision as willful and grossly unsporting; he was moved back from pole position to last place on the grid.

Schumacher denied the allegations and asserted that he had made a normal driving error. He apologized by saying, “I definitely didn't want to destroy Alonso's last lap. If it looked like this, I apologize. "

In view of similar events in Monaco in the previous year and the decisions in the two previous races in which other drivers were also punished for allegedly obstructing subsequent pilots, the FIA's decision was only logical in order not to lose their reputation. For security reasons, every action that appears to be "blocking" is punished consistently in order to prevent further occurrences of this type in the future.

Charge of tax evasion

Schumacher cited the reason for choosing his place of residence in Switzerland that he was able to negotiate a “reasonable tax agreement” with Switzerland. In Germany, “they are stupid themselves if they do not make me an offer and forego my tax money entirely.” This has been criticized from various quarters as tax evasion.

Hobby motorcycle racer

On March 20, 2008, Schumacher took part in his first competition at the Pannonia Ring in Hungary as a hobby motorcycle racer . As part of a so-called Racing-for-Fun event (SKOOX Cup), he drove a Honda CBR1000RR from the Holzhauer Racing Promotion (HRP) team to third place in the race that started with 27 participants and only had to face the Austrian professional racing drivers Martin Bauer and Andreas Meklau bow. During the event, he let an MSa journalist know that he was planning a full racing-for-fun season in 2008 .

After this race and another on the Circuit de Catalunya (overall victory with a Triumph Daytona 675 ), Schumacher contested his first rated motorcycle race on March 30, 2008 in Misano, Italy . As part of the KTM Trophy run, he drove a KTM Super Duke to fourth place overall. A total of 22 participants took part in the race.

As a result, Schumacher contested nine of the 16 races in the Superbike class of the 2008 International German Motorcycle Championship for Holzhauer Racing Promotion . His results improved noticeably over the course of the season. While he suffered one retirement and a position outside the top 20 on the first three race weekends, he finished 15th in the first run of the penultimate event of the season in Oschersleben . This would have even led to a championship point, for which Schumacher was not entitled as a guest starter. At the season finale in Hockenheim, he came in 18th twice.

Ski accident 2013

On December 29, 2013, Schumacher fell while skiing in Méribel, France and hit his head against a rock, where he suffered a traumatic brain injury . According to the prosecutor's investigation, which u. a. evaluating the images from his helmet camera, he drove a few meters off the marked runway, but not at excessive speed. Schumacher's condition was subsequently critical; he was put into what is known as an artificial coma . After a quick emergency rescue, he was treated at the University Hospital in Grenoble ; At the beginning of April 2014 he showed "Moments of Awareness and Awakening". On June 16, 2014, his manager Sabine Kehm announced that Schumacher was no longer in a coma and had left the hospital in Grenoble to "continue his long phase of rehabilitation ". To this end, he was initially housed in the University Hospital of the Canton of Vaud in Lausanne . Since September 2014 he has continued his rehabilitation at home. No official information has been given about his health since then. In November 2018, Archbishop Georg Gänswein published details of a visit to the Schumacher family's house in 2016 and described impressions he had of Michael Schumacher. Among other things, he said: “You can feel that he perceives encounters, that he is conducting an inner monologue with himself. You can feel that being close to his family is important to him. ”On September 9, 2019, Schumacher was admitted to the Paris clinic Hôpital européen Georges-Pompidou for stem cell therapy .

social commitment

On April 15, 2002, Schumacher was appointed a special ambassador by UNESCO for his many years of service in the aid projects Education for Children in Need . He also took part in charity football matches for many years, for example in Italy with the Nazionale Piloti , a team made up of active and former motor sports enthusiasts. He also appeared alongside international stars at other charity events.

In November 2004, Schumacher's manager Willi Weber presented a check for 1.15 million euros on his behalf at the Unesco charity gala for children in need . After the floods in Indonesia and Thailand in December 2004, Schumacher donated $ 10 million on January 4, 2005. He was indirectly personally affected by this event, as one of his bodyguards and one of his children had a fatal accident. During the floods in 2002 and 2013 , Schumacher donated 1 million and 500,000 euros, respectively.

In 1997 and 1998 he promoted a life without alcohol and other drugs on posters and in a television commercial as part of the No Power to Drugs campaign . In 2005, Schumacher sat down as a member of the Sportler für Organspende e. V. for organ donations .


Schumacher sometimes played amateur football for teams from FC Echichens.

In 1996 Schumacher bought a 600 m² holiday home in Trysil ( Hedmark ), Norway, for his winter vacation . In 2006 he sold this property and instead bought a holiday home in the ski resort of Courchevel in the south of France .

Schumacher's circle of friends includes only a few from the early days of his training and karting. As he himself emphasized, he only cultivated closer friendships in driving circles with Aguri Suzuki , who taught him to dive , and Jos Verstappen , for whose career he campaigned several times. Also, Riccardo Patrese , his teammate at Benetton in the Formula 1 1993 season and Felipe Massa call themselves friends Schumacher. In addition, Schumacher is good friends with the ex-Ferrari team boss and current FIA President Jean Todt .

In 2006 he took over in the Pixar - animated film Cars both in the original English and the German version of the voice and synchronous voice of a Ferrari F430 , a - "[n] real Michael Schumacher Ferrari" -, according to the film. In 2008 he took on the role of Schumix in the film Asterix at the Olympic Games . In 2009 he had a cameo in the movie Horst Schlämmer - Isch kandidiere!

Since 2010 it has no longer been managed by Willi Weber, but by his former press spokeswoman Sabine Kehm. Since then, Willi Weber has mainly been responsible for merchandising .


  • The exhibition Die Welt der Schumachers was shown in the Michael Schumacher Kart and Event Center in Kerpen-Sindorf from 2002 to 2009 .
  • On the same day that Schumacher started working for Ferrari, Father Don Alberto (* 1931) took over the parish of Maranello. Since then, he has rung the church bells for every Ferrari victory. He gave up his post almost at the same time as Schumacher's preliminary Formula 1 career ended.
  • An asteroid discovered by two German researchers in September 1992 was named " (15761) Schumi ".
  • In early 2008 it was announced that the 29-story Schumacher skyscraper would be built in Dubai.
  • During the real estate fair Cityscape Dubai 2008, the Michael Schumacher World Championship Tower project was presented in Abu Dhabi, which is to consist of seven skyscrapers, one of which is 1000 meters high, each of which is to symbolize a world championship title.
  • In the first episode of the 13th season of the BBC car magazine Top Gear , Schumacher was introduced as the mysterious "The Stig" after setting a record time in his Ferrari FXX .
  • On May 19, 2013 Schumacher drove together with Bernd Mayländer , Nico Rosberg , Bernd Schneider and Karl Wendlinger in the Mercedes F1 W03 , a current Formula 1 vehicle, as part of the 24-hour race at the Nürburgring in the Grand Prix Track and Nordschleife . Juan Manuel Fangio last drove a Mercedes Formula 1 vehicle over the Nordschleife in 1954. However, Schumacher had problems with the gear shift and drove at a slow pace to Döttinger-Höhe , where all four drivers drove together over the indicated finish line.
  • From February 15, 2016 to December 21, 2018, the special exhibition Michael Schumacher - The Record World Champion was shown in the DVAG adventure world in Marburg .
  • On June 15, 2018, the permanent exhibition Michael Schumacher Private Collection opened at Motorworld Cologne-Rhineland.
  • Ferrari is dedicating a special exhibition to Schumacher for his 50th birthday on January 3, 2019, which was organized in collaboration with the Keep Fighting Foundation : The Ferrari Museum in Maranello shows a review of his greatest successes at Scuderia Ferrari.
  • On the occasion of Schumacher's 50th birthday, the Keep Fighting Foundation created a virtual museum that was published as the Official Michael Schumacher App : The app illuminates Michael Schumacher's career, statistics and records. It illustrates his racing cars in 3D and their engine sound. An interview recorded in 2013 will also be shown. A virtual tour leads through both the Michael Schumacher Private Collection exhibition in Motorworld Cologne-Rhineland and the historic kart track in Kerpen-Manheim.
  • The official Michael Schumacher app links to a Schumoji app with special emojis by Michael and Mick Schumacher, which was also published on Michael Schumacher's 50th birthday.


Unveiling of the "Michael-Schumacher-S" (curve 9/10, formerly "Shell") on the Nürburgring 2007 by Schumacher and Bernie Ecclestone


Career stations

  • 1973–1987: karting
  • 1988: Formula König (champion)
  • 1988: European Formula Ford (2nd place)
  • 1988: German Formula Ford (6th place)
  • 1989: German Formula 3 (3rd place)
  • 1990: German Formula 3 (champions)
  • 1990: World Sports Car Championship (5th place)
  • 1991: World Sports Car Championship (9th place)
  • 1991 : DTM (not placed)
  • 1991: Japanese Formula 3000 (12th place)
  • 1991 : Formula 1 (14th place)
  • 1992 : Formula 1 (3rd place)
  • 1993 : Formula 1 (4th place)
  • 1994 : Formula 1 (world champion)
  • 1995 : Formula 1 (world champion)
  • 1996 : Formula 1 (3rd place)
  • 1997 : Formula 1 (disqualified)
  • 1998 : Formula 1 (2nd place)
  • 1999 : Formula 1 (5th place)
  • 2000 : Formula 1 (world champion)
  • 2001 : Formula 1 (world champion)
  • 2002 : Formula 1 (world champion)
  • 2003 : Formula 1 (world champion)
  • 2004 : Formula 1 (world champion)
  • 2005 : Formula 1 (3rd place)
  • 2006 : Formula 1 (2nd place)
  • 2010 : Formula 1 (9th place)
  • 2011 : Formula 1 (8th place)
  • 2012 : Formula 1 (13th place)

Statistics in the Formula 1 World Championship

These statistics include all the driver's participations in the Formula 1 World Championship .

Grand Prix victories

Grand Prix by number of wins

Michael Schumacher celebrates a victory (US Grand Prix, 2004)
Grand Prix Victories
1. France ( Magny-Cours ) 8th
2. Canada ( Montréal ) 7th
San Marino ( Imola ) 7th
4th Belgium ( Spa-Francorchamps ) 6th
Europe ( Nürburg 5 / Jerez 1) 6th
Japan ( Suzuka ) 6th
Spain ( Barcelona ) 6th
8th. Italy ( Monza ) 5
Monaco ( Monte Carlo ) 5
USA ( Indianapolis ) 5
11. Australia ( Melbourne ) 4th
Grand Prix Victories
Brazil ( Interlagos ) 4th
Germany ( Hockenheim ) 4th
Hungary ( Mogyoród ) 4th
15th Great Britain ( Silverstone ) 3
Malaysia ( Sepang ) 3
17th Austria ( Spielberg ) 2
Pacific ( Aida ) 2
19th Argentina ( Buenos Aires ) 1
Bahrain ( Sakhir ) 1
China ( Shanghai ) 1
Portugal ( Estoril ) 1

Figures in bold = record winner on this GP racetrack

general overview

season team chassis engine run Victories Second Third Poles nice
Race laps
Points WM-Pos.
1991 Team 7UP Jordan Jordan 191 Ford 3.5 V8 1 - - - - - - 14th
Camel Benetton Ford Benetton B191 Ford 3.5 V8 5 - - - - - 4th
1992 Camel Benetton Ford Benetton B191B / B192 Ford 3.5 V8 16 1 3 4th - 2 53 3.
1993 Camel Benetton Ford Benetton B193 / B193B Ford 3.5 V8 16 1 5 3 - 5 52 4th
1994 Mild Seven Benetton Ford Benetton B194 Ford Zetec-R 3.5 V8 14 1 8th 2 - 6th 8th 92 1.
1995 Mild Seven Benetton Renault Benetton B195 Renault 3.0 V10 17th 9 1 1 4th 8th 102 1.
1996 Scuderia Ferrari Ferrari F310 Ferrari 3.0 V10 15 2 3 3 2 4th 2 59 3.
1997 Scuderia Ferrari Marlboro Ferrari F310B Ferrari 3.0 V10 17th 5 3 - 3 3 78 - 3
1998 Scuderia Ferrari Marlboro Ferrari F300 Ferrari 3.0 V10 16 6th 2 3 3 6th 86 2.
1999 Scuderia Ferrari Marlboro Ferrari F399 Ferrari 3.0 V10 10 4 2 3 1 3 5 44 5.
2000 Scuderia Ferrari Marlboro Ferrari F1-2000 Ferrari 3.0 V10 17th 9 2 1 9 2 108 1.
2001 Scuderia Ferrari Marlboro Ferrari F2001 / F2001B Ferrari 3.0 V10 17th 9 5 - 11 3 123 1.
2002 Scuderia Ferrari Marlboro Ferrari F2001B / F2002 Ferrari 3.0 V10 17th 11 5 1 7th 7th 144 1.
2003 Scuderia Ferrari Marlboro Ferrari F2002 / F2003-GA Ferrari 3.0 V10 16 6th - 2 5 5 93 1.
2004 Scuderia Ferrari Marlboro Ferrari F2004 Ferrari 3.0 V10 18th 13 2 - 8th 10 148 1.
2005 Scuderia Ferrari Marlboro Ferrari F2004M / F2005 Ferrari 3.0 V10 19th 1 3 1 1 3 62 3.
2006 Scuderia Ferrari Marlboro Ferrari 248F1 Ferrari 2.4 V8 18th 7th 4th 1 4th 7th 121 2.
2010 Mercedes GP Petronas Mercedes MGP W01 Mercedes-Benz 2.4 V8 19th - - - - - 72 9.
2011 Mercedes GP Petronas F1 Team Mercedes MGP W02 Mercedes-Benz 2.4 V8 19th - - - - - 76 8th.
2012 Mercedes AMG Petronas F1 Team Mercedes F1 W03 Mercedes-Benz 2.4 V8 20th - - 1 - 1 49 13.
total 307 91 43 21st 68 77 1566
1 Schumacher was suspended for two races.
2The French Grand Prix is ​​considered not to have started because Schumacher was out during the opening round.
3Schumacher was taken out of the classification because of a collision with Jacques Villeneuve .
4th Schumacher had an accident at the British GP and then dropped out for six more races.

Single results

season 1 2 3 4th 5 6th 7th 8th 9 10 11 12 13 14th 15th 16 17th 18th 19th 20th
1991 Flag of the United States.svg Flag of Brazil (1968–1992) .svg Flag of San Marino (1862–2011) .svg Flag of Monaco.svg Flag of Canada.svg Flag of Mexico.svg Flag of France.svg Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Flag of Germany.svg Flag of Hungary.svg Flag of Belgium (civil) .svg Flag of Italy.svg Flag of Portugal.svg Flag of Spain.svg Flag of Japan.svg Flag of Australia.svg
DNF 5 6th 6th DNF DNF
1992 Flag of South Africa (1928–1994) .svg Flag of Mexico.svg Flag of Brazil.svg Flag of Spain.svg Flag of San Marino (1862–2011) .svg Flag of Monaco.svg Flag of Canada.svg Flag of France.svg Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Flag of Germany.svg Flag of Hungary.svg Flag of Belgium (civil) .svg Flag of Italy.svg Flag of Portugal.svg Flag of Japan.svg Flag of Australia.svg
4th 3 3 2 DNF 4th 2 DNF 4th 3 DNF 1 3 7th DNF 2
1993 Flag of South Africa (1928–1994) .svg Flag of Brazil.svg Flag of Europe.svg Flag of San Marino (1862–2011) .svg Flag of Spain.svg Flag of Monaco.svg Flag of Canada.svg Flag of France.svg Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Flag of Germany.svg Flag of Hungary.svg Flag of Belgium (civil) .svg Flag of Italy.svg Flag of Portugal.svg Flag of Japan.svg Flag of Australia.svg
DNF 3 DNF 2 3 DNF 2 3 2 2 DNF 2 DNF 1 DNF DNF
1994 Flag of Brazil.svg Flag of the Pacific Community.svg Flag of San Marino (1862–2011) .svg Flag of Monaco.svg Flag of Spain.svg Flag of Canada.svg Flag of France.svg Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Flag of Germany.svg Flag of Hungary.svg Flag of Belgium (civil) .svg Flag of Italy.svg Flag of Portugal.svg Flag of Europe.svg Flag of Japan.svg Flag of Australia.svg
1 1 1 1 2 1 1 DSQ DNF 1 DSQ EX EX 1 2 DNF
1995 Flag of Brazil.svg Flag of Argentina.svg Flag of San Marino (1862–2011) .svg Flag of Spain.svg Flag of Monaco.svg Flag of Canada.svg Flag of France.svg Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Flag of Germany.svg Flag of Hungary.svg Flag of Belgium (civil) .svg Flag of Italy.svg Flag of Portugal.svg Flag of Europe.svg Flag of the Pacific Community.svg Flag of Japan.svg Flag of Australia.svg
1 3 DNF 1 1 5 1 DNF 1 11 * 1 DNF 2 1 1 1 DNF
1996 Flag of Australia.svg Flag of Brazil.svg Flag of Argentina.svg Flag of Europe.svg Flag of San Marino (1862–2011) .svg Flag of Monaco.svg Flag of Spain.svg Flag of Canada.svg Flag of France.svg Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Flag of Germany.svg Flag of Hungary.svg Flag of Belgium (civil) .svg Flag of Italy.svg Flag of Portugal.svg Flag of Japan.svg
DNF 3 DNF 2 2 DNF 1 DNF DNS DNF 4th 9 * 1 1 3 2
1997 Flag of Australia.svg Flag of Brazil.svg Flag of Argentina.svg Flag of San Marino (1862–2011) .svg Flag of Monaco.svg Flag of Spain.svg Flag of Canada.svg Flag of France.svg Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Flag of Germany.svg Flag of Hungary.svg Flag of Belgium (civil) .svg Flag of Italy.svg Flag of Austria.svg Flag of Luxembourg.svg Flag of Japan.svg Flag of Europe.svg
2 5 DNF 2 1 4th 1 1 DNF 2 4th 1 6th 6th DNF 1 DNF
1998 Flag of Australia.svg Flag of Brazil.svg Flag of Argentina.svg Flag of San Marino (1862–2011) .svg Flag of Spain.svg Flag of Monaco.svg Flag of Canada.svg Flag of France.svg Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Flag of Austria.svg Flag of Germany.svg Flag of Hungary.svg Flag of Belgium (civil) .svg Flag of Italy.svg Flag of Luxembourg.svg Flag of Japan.svg
DNF 3 1 2 3 10 1 1 1 3 5 1 DNF 1 2 DNF
1999 Flag of Australia.svg Flag of Brazil.svg Flag of San Marino (1862–2011) .svg Flag of Monaco.svg Flag of Spain.svg Flag of Canada.svg Flag of France.svg Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Flag of Austria.svg Flag of Germany.svg Flag of Hungary.svg Flag of Belgium (civil) .svg Flag of Italy.svg Flag of Europe.svg Flag of Malaysia.svg Flag of Japan.svg
8th 2 1 1 3 DNF 5 DNF INJ INJ INJ INJ INJ INJ 2 2
2000 Flag of Australia.svg Flag of Brazil.svg Flag of San Marino (1862–2011) .svg Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Flag of Spain.svg Flag of Europe.svg Flag of Monaco.svg Flag of Canada.svg Flag of France.svg Flag of Austria.svg Flag of Germany.svg Flag of Hungary.svg Flag of Belgium (civil) .svg Flag of Italy.svg Flag of the United States.svg Flag of Japan.svg Flag of Malaysia.svg
1 1 1 3 5 1 DNF 1 DNF DNF DNF 2 2 1 1 1 1
2001 Flag of Australia.svg Flag of Malaysia.svg Flag of Brazil.svg Flag of San Marino (1862–2011) .svg Flag of Spain.svg Flag of Austria.svg Flag of Monaco.svg Flag of Canada.svg Flag of Europe.svg Flag of France.svg Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Flag of Germany.svg Flag of Hungary.svg Flag of Belgium (civil) .svg Flag of Italy.svg Flag of the United States.svg Flag of Japan.svg
1 1 2 DNF 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 DNF 1 1 4th 2 1
2002 Flag of Australia.svg Flag of Malaysia.svg Flag of Brazil.svg Flag of San Marino (1862–2011) .svg Flag of Spain.svg Flag of Austria.svg Flag of Monaco.svg Flag of Canada.svg Flag of Europe.svg Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Flag of France.svg Flag of Germany.svg Flag of Hungary.svg Flag of Belgium (civil) .svg Flag of Italy.svg Flag of the United States.svg Flag of Japan.svg
1 3 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 1
2003 Flag of Australia.svg Flag of Malaysia.svg Flag of Brazil.svg Flag of San Marino (1862–2011) .svg Flag of Spain.svg Flag of Austria.svg Flag of Monaco.svg Flag of Canada.svg Flag of Europe.svg Flag of France.svg Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Flag of Germany.svg Flag of Hungary.svg Flag of Italy.svg Flag of the United States.svg Flag of Japan.svg
4th 6th DNF 1 1 1 3 1 5 3 4th 7th 8th 1 1 8th
2004 Flag of Australia.svg Flag of Malaysia.svg Flag of Bahrain.svg Flag of San Marino (1862–2011) .svg Flag of Spain.svg Flag of Monaco.svg Flag of Europe.svg Flag of Canada.svg Flag of the United States.svg Flag of France.svg Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Flag of Germany.svg Flag of Hungary.svg Flag of Belgium (civil) .svg Flag of Italy.svg Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Japan.svg Flag of Brazil.svg
1 1 1 1 1 DNF 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 12 1 7th
2005 Flag of Australia.svg Flag of Malaysia.svg Flag of Bahrain.svg Flag of San Marino (1862–2011) .svg Flag of Spain.svg Flag of Monaco.svg Flag of Europe.svg Flag of Canada.svg Flag of the United States.svg Flag of France.svg Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Flag of Germany.svg Flag of Hungary.svg Flag of Turkey.svg Flag of Italy.svg Flag of Belgium (civil) .svg Flag of Brazil.svg Flag of Japan.svg Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
DNF 7th DNF 2 DNF 7th 5 2 1 3 6th 5 2 DNF 10 DNF 4th 7th DNF
2006 Flag of Bahrain.svg Flag of Malaysia.svg Flag of Australia.svg Flag of San Marino (1862–2011) .svg Flag of Europe.svg Flag of Spain.svg Flag of Monaco.svg Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Flag of Canada.svg Flag of the United States.svg Flag of France.svg Flag of Germany.svg Flag of Hungary.svg Flag of Turkey.svg Flag of Italy.svg Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Japan.svg Flag of Brazil.svg
2 6th DNF 1 1 2 5 2 2 1 1 1 8th* 3 1 1 DNF 4th
2010 Flag of Bahrain.svg Flag of Australia.svg Flag of Malaysia.svg Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Spain.svg Flag of Monaco.svg Flag of Turkey.svg Flag of Canada.svg Flag of Europe.svg Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Flag of Germany.svg Flag of Hungary.svg Flag of Belgium (civil) .svg Flag of Italy.svg Flag of Singapore.svg Flag of Japan.svg Flag of South Korea.svg Flag of Brazil.svg Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg
6th 10 DNF 10 4th 12 4th 11 15th 9 9 11 7th 9 13 6th 4th 7th DNF
2011 Flag of Australia.svg Flag of Malaysia.svg Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Turkey.svg Flag of Spain.svg Flag of Monaco.svg Flag of Canada.svg Flag of Europe.svg Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Flag of Germany.svg Flag of Hungary.svg Flag of Belgium (civil) .svg Flag of Italy.svg Flag of Singapore.svg Flag of Japan.svg Flag of South Korea.svg Flag of India.svg Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg Flag of Brazil.svg
DNF 9 8th 12 6th DNF 4th 17th 9 8th DNF 5 5 DNF 6th DNF 5 7th 15th
2012 Flag of Australia.svg Flag of Malaysia.svg Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Flag of Bahrain.svg Flag of Spain.svg Flag of Monaco.svg Flag of Canada.svg Flag of Europe.svg Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Flag of Germany.svg Flag of Hungary.svg Flag of Belgium (civil) .svg Flag of Italy.svg Flag of Singapore.svg Flag of Japan.svg Flag of South Korea.svg Flag of India.svg Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg Flag of the United States.svg Flag of Brazil.svg
DNF 10 DNF 10 DNF DNF DNF 3 7th 7th DNF 7th 6th DNF 11 13 22 * 11 16 7th
colour abbreviation meaning
gold - victory
silver - 2nd place
bronze - 3rd place
green - Placement in the points
blue - Classified outside the point ranks
violet DNF Race not finished (did not finish)
NC not classified
red DNQ did not qualify
DNPQ failed in pre-qualification (did not pre-qualify)
black DSQ disqualified
White DNS not at the start (did not start)
WD withdrawn
Light Blue PO only participated in the training (practiced only)
TD Friday test driver
without DNP did not participate in the training (did not practice)
INJ injured or sick
EX excluded
DNA did not arrive
C. Race canceled
  no participation in the World Cup
other P / bold Pole position
SR / italic Fastest race lap
* not at the finish,
but counted due to the distance covered
() Streak results
underlined Leader in the overall standings

Records in Formula 1

  • Most world titles: 7 (1994, 1995, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004)
  • Most consecutive world titles: 5 (2000-2004)
  • Most Grand Prix victories: 91
  • Most wins with the same team: 72 (Ferrari)
  • Most fastest laps: 77
  • Most fastest laps on a track: 7 (Circuit de Catalunya)
  • Most guide kilometers: 24,110
  • Most lead laps: 5,111
  • Most Grand Prix victories in one season: 13 (2004) 5
  • The fastest World Championship decision: after 11 of 17 races (64.7%) in 2002
  • Most hat tricks : 22
  • Most hat tricks in one season: 5 (2004) 6
  • Most Grand Prix victories: 8 at the French GP 7
  • Most consecutive seasons with one win: 15 (1992–2006)
  • Most pole positions at a Grand Prix: 8 at the Japanese GP 8
  • Most fastest laps in a season: 10 out of 18 starts (55.6%) in 2004 9
  • Most consecutive podium finishes: 19 (2001–2002)
  • Most podium finishes in one season: 17 in 17 races (2002) 10
  • Most podium finishes per race in a season: 100% (17 in 17 races) in 2002
  • Most consecutive podiums at the same Grand Prix: 7 (Canadian GP 2000–2006) 11
  • Most second places: 43
  • Most point placements (absolute): 221
  • Most finishings per race in a season: 100% (17 in 17 races) in 2002 12
  • The highest average speed in a Grand Prix: 247.586 km / h in Monza (2003)

Former records

  • Most double victories by teammates: 24 (with Rubens Barrichello, 19 wins for Schumacher) - outbid on May 1, 2016 at the 2016 Russian Grand Prix by Lewis Hamilton and Nico Rosberg
  • Most pole positions: 68 - beaten by Lewis Hamilton on September 2, 2017
  • Most front row starting positions: 116 - outbid on October 22, 2017 by Lewis Hamilton
  • Most wins from pole position: 40 - beaten by Lewis Hamilton on May 13, 2018
  • Most victories at different Grand Prix: 22 - outbid on June 24, 2018 by Lewis Hamilton
  • Most listed races: 142 - outbid by Lewis Hamilton on September 29, 2019
  • Most podiums: 155 - outbid by Lewis Hamilton on August 16, 2020
  • Most points (with retrospective conversion to the 2010 system): 3890 - outbid on August 16, 2020 at the 2020 Spanish Grand Prix by Lewis Hamilton


5For this rating, all placements were converted according to the FIA ​​points system used since the 2010 season, including those achieved in 1997 in which Schumacher was subsequently removed from the rating. According to the points actually achieved, Schumacher is only in sixth place in these statistics with 1566 points (as of 10/2018).
5together with Sebastian Vettel (2013)
6thwith Alberto Ascari (1952)
7th together with Lewis Hamilton (GP Hungary)
8thtogether with Ayrton Senna (GP San Marino) and Lewis Hamilton (GP Australia)
9together with Kimi Räikkönen , who also achieved this result in 2005 and 2008
10 together with Sebastian Vettel (2011) and Lewis Hamilton (2015, 2016, 2018, 2019), who needed more races
11 together with Ayrton Senna (Hungary 1986–1992), Sebastian Vettel (GP Japan 2009–2015) and Lewis Hamilton (GP Great Britain 2014–2020)
12together with Nick Heidfeld (2008 in 18 races) and Lewis Hamilton (2017 in 20 races and 2019 in 21 races).

Le Mans results

year team vehicle Teammate Teammate placement
1991 SwitzerlandSwitzerland Team Sauber Mercedes Mercedes-Benz C11 AustriaAustria Karl Wendlinger GermanyGermany Fritz Kreutzpointner Rank 5


  • A life at the limit - the exceptional talent Michael Schumacher. Production: Premiere , 60 min., Germany 2006.
  • Michael Schumacher - The Red Baron. Director: Peter Warren, 78 min., Australia 2012 (English).
  • Michael Schumacher - On the trail of a phenomenon. Director: Andreas Troll, 45 Min., Germany 2019.
  • The Michael Schumacher story. Production: RTL , 45 min., Germany 2019.
  • Schumi - legend of Formula 1. Production: picture , 24:50 min., Germany 2020.


  • Markus Alexander: Michael Schumacher - A biography. Baltic Sea Press, Rostock 2010, ISBN 978-3-942129-07-7 .
  • Claus-Peter Andorka: Michael Schumacher. Copress, Munich 1995, ISBN 3-7679-0476-4 .
  • Christopher Hilton: Michael Schumacher. (= Grand Prix Stars, Volume 1). Translated from the English by Walther Wuttke. Heel, Königswinter 1996, ISBN 3-89365-528-X .
  • Sabine Kehm (Ed.): MSC - The career of Michael Schumacher, told based on his racing cars. (= Official book for the Michael Schumacher Private Collection). Offizin Scheufele, Stuttgart 2018.
  • Willy Knupp (Ed.): Thank you, Schumi! The Michael Schumacher story. Zeitgeist Media, Düsseldorf 2006, ISBN 3-926224-59-2 .
  • Willy Knupp (Ed.): Michael Schumacher - Life for the 1st Zeitgeist-Verlag, Düsseldorf 1995, ISBN 978-3-926224-90-3 .
  • Willy Knupp (Ed.): Michael Schumacher - Triumph in Rot. Motorbuch-Verlag, Stuttgart 2000, ISBN 978-3-613-30443-7 .
  • Willy Knupp (Ed.): Red Magic - Michael Schumacher and Ferrari. At the limit . Motorbuch, Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 3-613-30377-9 .
  • Ferdi Kräling , Elmar Brümmer: Man Schumi - Michael Schumacher. The comeback. Delius Klasing, Bielefeld 2007, ISBN 978-3-7688-1899-5 .
  • Ferdi Kräling, Bodo Kräling, Elmar Brümmer: Schumi man - Michael Schumacher - victories, myths, records. Delius Klasing, Bielefeld 2006, ISBN 3-7688-1899-3 .
  • Ferdi Kräling, Helmut Zwickl : Schumi - Michael Schumacher; Fascination with a career. Heel, Königswinter 2001, ISBN 3-89880-015-6 .
  • Claus Mühlberger, Michael Schmidt: 50 years of Michael Schumacher: Man - The career - The victories. (= auto motor und sport Edition - 50 years Michael Schumacher ). Motor Presse, Stuttgart 2018, ISBN 978-3-613-30890-9 .
  • Heinz Prüller : Michael Schumacher - child prodigy and world champion. Orac, Vienna / Munich / Zurich 1994, ISBN 3-7015-0341-9 .
  • Achim Schlang: Michael Schumacher - All victories of the record champion. Motorbuch, Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 3-613-02762-3 .
  • Rainer W. Schlegelmilch : Michael Schumacher - A world career. Heel, Königswinter 2006, ISBN 3-89880-701-0 .
  • Michael Schumacher, Sabine Kehm, Michel Comte : Michael Schumacher - The official and authorized inside story about the end of a career. Süddeutsche Zeitung, Munich 2006, ISBN 3-86615-403-8 .
  • Michael Schumacher, Sabine Kehm, Michel Comte: Michael Schumacher - Driving Force. Steidl, Göttingen 2003, ISBN 978-3-88243-889-5 .
  • Karin Sturm: Michael Schumacher - The first German Formula 1 world champion. Ullstein, Berlin 1994, ISBN 3-548-27649-0 .
  • Karin Sturm: Michael Schumacher - The Biography. Herbig, Munich 2014, ISBN 978-3-7766-2741-1 .
  • Karin Sturm: Michael Schumacher - A life for Formula 1. 6., updated and expanded new edition. Herbig, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-7766-2649-0 .
  • Karin Sturm: Michael Schumacher - An era is coming to an end. The story of a world career. Herbig, Munich 2006, ISBN 3-7766-2502-3 .
  • Karin Sturm: Michael Schumacher - Man and Myth. Herbig, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-7766-2326-8 .
  • Karin Sturm: Michael Schumacher - superstar. Ullstein, Frankfurt am Main / Berlin 1994, ISBN 3-548-27629-6 .
  • Mary Thürmer, Markus Götting: Michael Schumacher - The success story of the 1st German Formula 1 World Champion. Heyne, Munich 1994, ISBN 3-453-08951-0 .
  • Leonildo Turrini (ed.): Ferrari. Best of: The Models - The Drivers - The Victories. Panini Verlags GmbH, Stuttgart 2017, ISBN 978-3-8332-3496-5 , pp. 108-113.
  • Helmut Uhl: King Schumi. His life - his victories - his tears. Weltbild, Augsburg 2006, ISBN 3-89897-598-3 .

Web links

Commons : Michael Schumacher  - Collection of images, videos and audio files


  1. Manager Willi Weber had "mistaken" Circuit Zolder for Spa. see. Mary Thürmer, Markus Götting: Michael Schumacher. The success story of the 1st German Formula 1 world champion . Wilhelm Heyne, Munich 1994, p. 49.
  2. Jochen Rindt was a German citizen, but started with an Austrian racing license and was considered an Austrian under the FIA ​​regulations.

Individual evidence

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