Middle School graduation
The middle school leaving certificate , traditionally also called the middle school leaving certificate , is in the school system of the Federal Republic of Germany an educational qualification that can usually be obtained at the end of the 10th grade of the general school . The names for this are different in the federal states :
- Middle school leaving certificate ( MSA ) ( Bavaria , Berlin , Bremen , Hamburg , Schleswig-Holstein )
- Middle school leaving certificate / secondary school leaving certificate ( Fachoberschulreife) ( North Rhine-Westphalia )
- Middle school leaving certificate ( Mecklenburg-Vorpommern )
- High school and Middle education / work Secondary school or high-school diploma ( Baden-Wuerttemberg )
- Realschule certificate ( Saxony , Saxony-Anhalt , Thuringia )
- Secondary qualification I - secondary school qualification ( Lower Saxony )
- Technical college entrance qualification / secondary school leaving certificate ( Brandenburg )
- Intermediate degree ( Hessen )
- Qualified secondary education I ( Rhineland-Palatinate )
- Middle educational qualification ( Saarland )
From 1832 onwards, secondary school qualifications in Prussia were recognized as entitlement to access to middle careers . The middle school- leaving certificate was also called the one-year -old because young men with this educational qualification only had to serve one year instead of the normal three-year military service on a voluntary basis (if they had to pay for accommodation, food, uniform, cold weapon and, in the case of riding units, the horse themselves). These were called one- year volunteers and the middle school- leaving certificate was called “scientific qualification for one-year voluntary military service”.
In 1970 the terms secondary school leaving certificate and secondary school leaving certificate were largely used synonymously. No intermediate maturity was obtained in grammar school. High school students who did not pass the Abitur examination or who had previously left the high school therefore did not have a school leaving certificate.
The German Education laid in 1970 with the structure plan for the education system a long-term perspective for the West German educational system before. A new qualification was planned for all Hauptschulen, Realschulen and Gymnasien, which was similar to the previous middle school leaving certificate. This should be named as the working title “Abitur I”. The “school-leaving certificate” after finishing high school would have become the “Abitur II”.
However, it was a long time before this was implemented. For example, in 2002 in Thuringia, in contrast to most other federal states, there were no examinations or automatic awarding of the middle school leaving certificate after the 10th grade. The lack of prospects after dropping out of high school was then considered the motive of the perpetrator in the rampage in Erfurt . Only then was a qualification after the 10th grade introduced in all federal states in high schools. However, the concrete implementation (from a uniform examination for all school types to an automatic award of qualifications at grammar schools) has remained different to this day.
The education politicians of the different countries could not agree on a common name either. So from the previously uniform terms "middle school leaving certificate" and "Realschulabschluss" (secondary school leaving certificate), seven different names have emerged (see overview at the beginning of this article).
The middle school leaving certificate is the prerequisite for attending school types of the upper secondary level ( technical schools (FOS), vocational schools (BOS), vocational colleges (BK), grammar schools , etc.). However, depending on the state and type of school, admission to a secondary school is also tied to a certain average grade. In some federal states, a distinction is made between a certificate of the 10th school year with and without a qualification note. A “qualified” qualification, for example an extended lower secondary qualification, then entitles you to attend an upper level .
Since education policy is a matter for the federal states, the respective school laws , guidelines and decrees in the individual federal states regulate the types of schools at which the intermediate maturity / technical college entrance qualification can be achieved.
As a rule, it is the completion of a secondary school , a high school (in Brandenburg), a vocational school (for example in Baden-Württemberg), in the Mittlere-Reife-Zug (the term as such is only common in Bavaria, according to the matter there is but also in other federal states) at a secondary school (in Baden-Württemberg Werkrealschule ), at a business school in Bavaria or at a comprehensive school or at a grammar school after grade 10.
In all federal states with the exception of Rhineland-Palatinate, acquiring the secondary school leaving certificate is now tied to central exams. In North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony these exams took place for the first time at the end of the 2006/2007 school year, in Schleswig-Holstein in May 2009, in the other federal states they were already introduced or have never been abolished, such as in Thuringia. In a number of federal states high school students are excluded from this, but by no means in all (for example not in Berlin, North Rhine-Westphalia, Brandenburg).
The Realschule generally leads to middle school after the 10th grade. In some federal states it is also possible to leave the Realschule after the 10th grade only with an extended secondary school leaving certificate if the exams for the middle school leaving certificate have not been passed, but the class goal has been achieved.
In the Land of Brandenburg for the 2005/2006 school year, the secondary schools and comprehensive schools were without high school seniors in high schools converted. The degree is based on the grade point average and other criteria. After the final exams at the end of the 10th grade, the advanced vocational qualification (corresponds to the extended secondary school qualification), the technical high school qualification (FOR; formerly secondary school qualification) and the technical high school qualification with entitlements to attend the upper secondary level (FORQ) can be acquired. The change from a high school to a grammar school can take place after the 9th grade at the latest, as the Abitur is already taken after 12 school years.
Middle School (formerly Hauptschule)
At a middle school , the intermediate maturity can be achieved under certain conditions:
- Baden-Württemberg → Werkrealschule or middle school with Werkrealschule
- Bavaria → Middle-Reife train
- Lower Saxony and Berlin → Voluntary 10th school year with so-called e-courses in the main subjects German, mathematics and English
- North Rhine-Westphalia → Middle School Grade 10 Type B
- Rhineland-Palatinate and Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania → Regional school
- Saarland → Extended secondary school
At a comprehensive school , the secondary school leaving certificate (called “Fachoberschulreife” in North Rhine-Westphalia and Brandenburg) can be achieved with the completion of the 10th grade. A distinction is made between a degree with or without access authorization to attend the upper level of the gymnasium (in North Rhine-Westphalia or Brandenburg: Fachoberschulreife (FOR) or Fachoberschulreife with qualification (FORQ)).
At the grammar school, depending on the federal state, after the 10th grade, either examinations for the acquisition of the secondary school leaving certificate are carried out, or the transfer certificate to grade 11 is sufficient as proof of secondary school leaving certificate.
The successful completion of vocational training (apprenticeship) can under certain circumstances also lead to secondary school leaving certificate if further general subjects are taken at the vocational school and a certain average grade is achieved (model 9 + 3).
The business school in Bavaria leads in two to four stages (depending on the requirements) to the intermediate educational qualification.
In addition, there are opportunities for further training via the second educational path , for example via distance learning , via the evening secondary school or via special school forms at vocational schools ( e.g. vocational college ). The prerequisite for this is the secondary school leaving certificate .
Polytechnic high school in the GDR
A comparable certificate was obtained in the GDR after completing the 10th grade of the polytechnic high school (ten- grade graduation). Today it is equated with that of a secondary school leaving certificate. At the end of the 10th grade, GDR-wide central exams took place. These passed
- written exams in Russian, German, mathematics as well as biology, physics or chemistry,
- at least two and at most five oral exams,
- an exam in sports - athletics and gymnastics.
The final examination was completed with a grade, which resulted from the average of all grades from the certificate:
- with distinction (mostly ones, maximum 2 twos)
- very good (grade 1)
- good (grade 2)
- satisfactory (grade 3)
- sufficient (grade 4)
- unsatisfactory (grade 5)
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