|Formula 1 world championship|
|First start:||1984 Brazilian Grand Prix|
|Last start:||1994 San Marino Grand Prix|
|1984 Toleman • 1985–1987 Lotus • 1988–1993 McLaren • 1994 Williams|
|World Cup balance:||World Champion ( 1988 , 1990 , 1991 )|
|World Cup points :||614|
|Leadership laps :||2904 over 13,328.4 km|
Ayrton Senna da Silva (pronunciation: [ aˈiɾtõ ˈsenɐ da ˈsiwvɐ ] ) (born March 21, 1960 in São Paulo ; † May 1, 1994 in Bologna ) was a Brazilian automobile racing driver . He was world champion in Formula 1 three times , in which he drove from 1984 until his fatal accident on the Imola circuit at the 1994 San Marino Grand Prix .
Senna contested a total of 161 Grand Prix in Formula 1 with Toleman , Lotus , McLaren and Williams . He achieved 41 wins, 65 pole positions and 19 fastest laps; he achieved his greatest successes with McLaren-Honda.
Senna's intense rivalry with the Frenchman Alain Prost , with whom he fought a total of four world championships in the course of his career, attracted a lot of media attention . Because of his driving style, especially in the rain, Senna was nicknamed "The Magic" by Lotus team boss Peter Warr in 1985 .
In April 2004, Senna was voted the fastest Formula 1 driver in history by a 77-strong jury consisting of Formula 1 drivers, team bosses, engineers and journalists. In December 2006 and December 2009 there were again such surveys among experts, in which Senna again took first place. However, in the course of such surveys, the same experts always point out that the different eras of Formula 1 are difficult to compare.
Kart, Formula Ford and Formula 3
As the child of a wealthy family, Senna belonged to the privileged upper class of his country. He started his career in karting . At the age of 13, Senna drove his first official races and finally became South American kart champion in 1977 and 1978 and Brazilian kart champion four times in succession from 1978 to 1981. At the Kart World Championships he finished sixth in 1978, second in 1979 and 1980, fourth in 1981 and fourteenth in 1982.
At the same time, he began to build up his career in Europe and initially contested the British Formula Ford 1600 Championship with Van Diemen in 1981 , which he won with twelve wins from 19 races. In 1982 he was promoted to the Formula Ford 2000 Championship, won 21 of 27 races and won the British and European championship titles. In 1983 he competed in the British Formula 3 Championship , here too, with twelve victories of the season, he was instant champion after a tough battle with Martin Brundle . He also won the Macau Grand Prix , which was held for the first time in 1983 according to the Formula 3 regulations.
In 1983 Senna drove tests for Williams, Brabham , McLaren and Toleman (which was bought by Benetton in 1986 ) and finally signed a three-year contract with Toleman for the seasons 1984 to 1986. This caused astonishment, since Toleman was by far the weakest of these four teams . Senna later justified his choice by saying that he had preferred "to be number 1 in a second-class team" instead of being a newcomer, second driver in a top team.
For attention Senna first made on 12 May 1984 the re-opening of the Nurburgring in a show race with the then-new Mercedes-Benz 190 E 2.3-16 - touring cars . He won this race, which was held with 20 identical racing cars, against established greats such as Formula 1 world champions James Hunt , Niki Lauda and Keke Rosberg .
Toleman started the season with the defeated car from last year; The Toleman TG184 was only available from the fifth race, the French Grand Prix . The Monaco Grand Prix on June 3, 1984 was a decisive step in Senna's career. While several drivers spun from the wet track, Ayrton Senna, starting from the back of the field, drove a successful race and got closer to the leader Alain Prost lap after lap. However, race director Jacky Ickx broke off the race on the 31st of the originally scheduled 78 laps, so Prost won by a narrow margin over Senna.
Although Senna had a contract with Toleman that was valid until 1986, after this race he received an offer from Lotus team boss Peter Warr for the 1985 season . His father bought him out of the Toleman contract a few months later to enable him to move to the top team at the time. Toleman then did not let Senna start in the next race, the Italian Grand Prix . Instead Pierluigi Martini drove the car, but could not qualify. Thereupon Toleman gave in and let Senna start the two remaining races of the season again.
At Lotus, Senna won the second race of the season, the Portuguese Grand Prix, as early as 1985 and celebrated his first of a total of 41 Grand Prix victories. By 1987 he had five more victories with Lotus. These were the last victories in the history of the traditional British racing team. For the 1987 season , Lotus Senna contractually secured number one status ahead of teammate Satoru Nakajima .
Senna's unyielding and uncompromising driving style earned him respect, but also disapproval. It often offended established colleagues. Above all, the previous Brazilian crowd favorite Nelson Piquet and the Briton Nigel Mansell , with whom he fought tough duels on the track, became Senna's great opponents.
In 1988 Senna switched to McLaren and formed a driver pairing with Alain Prost. McLaren had changed the engine supplier and was supplied with Honda - instead of the TAG - Porsche engines. The team was extremely superior and won 15 of the 16 races. Prost was up 1,990 valid discard rule, in which the poorest five races did not run in the general classification, undoing so that Senna won the title.
The climate between Senna and Prost changed in 1989 . When he was overtaken by Senna at the San Marino Grand Prix , Prost saw an agreement made between the two team-mates violated. This incident led to a conflict between the two teammates that was fought publicly. At the Italian Grand Prix , Prost questioned the material equal treatment with his teammate. Honda released telemetry data that proved Prost was losing time on Senna, especially in the fast Lesmo corners. At the Japanese Grand Prix in Suzuka , the penultimate race of the season, Prost was in the lead for a long time. Senna had to win to keep his title chances and started to overtake in front of the Casio Triangle chicane. Prost turned into the chicane anyway, the vehicles collided and rolled into the run-off zone . Prost got out, Senna allowed the marshals to push her and changed the defective front wing during a pit stop. He won the race ahead of Alessandro Nannini , but was disqualified after the race on the grounds that he had illegally shortened the chicane in which the accident happened to Prost. The rule said that shortening the race track - and that was skipping the chicane after the crash with cheers - is not allowed, not even as a result of an accident. McLaren tried in vain to argue that shortening the chicane to e.g. B. to prevent an accident, had not previously been punished in comparable cases and would also avoid risks. The FISA then changed the reason for the disqualification, it was now pronounced because of shortening the route and dangerous driving style. Senna felt that she was treated unfairly and accused the FISA of manipulation, especially since Jean-Marie Balestre, a compatriot Prosts, was at the head of the world association. Because of these tampering allegations, Senna was denied the license for the 1990 season and was fined $ 100,000 and placed on probation for six months. Senna relented, paid the fine and publicly withdrew the tampering allegations.
In 1990 and 1991 he went back to McLaren-Honda and won the world title two more times. Prost had meanwhile switched to Ferrari . There was another collision between Senna and Prost at the Japanese Grand Prix in 1990 . Before qualifying, the race stewards agreed to Senna's request to move the pole position from the inside of the lane to the outside, as it was already evident in the previous two years that the driver had disadvantages on the inside of the lane due to the dirt there at the start. After Senna had set the fastest lap in qualifying, the FISA decided to leave the first starting position on the inside of the lane and not to change the starting positions. Prost was able to use the traction advantage of the ideal line at the start of the race and took the lead, but Senna deliberately pushed him away in the first corner, as he admitted a year later. This time Prost should have won to preserve his World Cup chances. This incident escalated the rivalry between Senna and Prost. After the race in Suzuka, Prost stated:
“Everything that has happened here has shown the world his real face. For him it is much more important to win the championship than it is for me. It is the only thing he has in life. He is completely screwed up. This man has no value. "
“Everything that has happened here has shown the world its true colors. It's much more important for him to win the World Cup than it is for me. It's the only thing he has in life. He's completely crazy. This man has no values. "
Also in 1990, Senna was named World Sportsman of the Year by the French sports newspaper L'Équipe . In 1991 Senna left the victory at the Japanese Grand Prix to his teammate Gerhard Berger , with whom he was close friends, after his direct competitor Nigel Mansell was eliminated and he was once again confirmed as world champion.
In 1992 and 1993 Senna had no chance against the superior cars of the Williams team, which became world champions in 1992 with Mansell and 1993 with Prost. Since Honda withdrew from Formula 1 after the 1992 season, McLaren had to compete with the inferior Ford customer engines the following year . Prost signed a contract with Williams assuring him that Senna would not become his teammate. Since he no longer had the prospect of a good team in the cockpit for 1993, he agreed to start for McLaren for a million dollars per race. It was only in the middle of the season that Senna signed a contract for the rest of the season and was thus available for test drives. The 1993 European Grand Prix in Donington Park turned out to be one of the best races in Senna's career: in pouring rain, he overtook four opponents on the first lap, so that he came back from this lap as the leader. Instead of changing tires up to seven times due to the constantly changing weather, like most other drivers, he only changed them four times and won the race by a clear margin. At the Australian Grand Prix , Senna and Prost made a conciliatory gesture in Adelaide that ended his career: the victorious Brazilian asked his second-placed rival to join him on the top step of the podium.
During the 1993 season, Senna had signed for the 1994 season with Williams. Test drives before the season showed that the rule changes in the area of electronic driving aids (prohibition of active chassis, ABS, traction controls and automatic transmissions) had robbed the Williams team of the competitive advantage of previous years. This led Senna to a driving error at the season opener, the Brazilian Grand Prix in Interlagos , when he spun out in second place on the 56th of 71 laps. Senna explained that the car was difficult to control because it understeers once and then oversteers in the next corner . In the second race, the Grand Prix of the Pacific , Senna hit it even earlier, he was eliminated in the first corner after a collision through no fault of his own. Since he had started the season as a self-declared favorite despite the melted technical advantage of his team and his direct competitor Michael Schumacher had won the first two races, Senna was under the pressure of expectation to finally live up to his leading sporting role in the third race.
Two serious accidents occurred in the run-up to the third race of the season in 1994, the San Marino Grand Prix in Imola: Rubens Barrichello broke his nose in free practice on April 29th, Roland Ratzenberger had a fatal accident on April 30th. After Ratzenberger's death, Senna no longer took part in qualifying.
Course of events
When restarting, Senna stayed in the lead from Schumacher. On the seventh lap, Senna's car came off the lane in the fast Tamburello bend and shot straight over the hard shoulder, braking fully and with no discernible steering correction. When it hit the boundary wall, the right front wheel tore off, with a strut of the suspension boring through Senna's helmet. According to different media reports, citing race doctor Sid Watkins , Senna's head was hit by the front wheel, and the force of the impact severed all of the large blood vessels in the brain. Senna suffered severe head injuries and was flown by rescue helicopter directly from the scene of the accident to an accident clinic in Bologna, but was declared brain dead a few hours later .
The cause of Senna's fatal accident is controversial and there are three hypotheses . In April 2014, shortly before Senna's twentieth anniversary of death, designer Adrian Newey named a fourth possible cause.
- The first explanation assumes a break in the steering. Since the beginning of the season, Ayrton Senna has repeatedly complained about an uncomfortable seating position in his Williams Renault. In Imola, Patrick Head and Adrian Newey agreed to Senna's request to change the position of the steering wheel. The technicians extended the handlebars before the first training session by cutting it open and welding a thinner tube into it. After the accident, the steering was broken at the welding point. So it could be that the weld seam could not withstand the heavy loads caused by the centrifugal forces in the Tamburello curve and Senna could only brake when his car left the curve in a straight line.
- The second explanation is based on insufficient ground clearance of the chassis due to the tires having cooled down too much as a result of the safety car phase (see above). As a result, the car could have landed so hard on an unevenness in the Tamburello curve that the aerodynamic contact pressure suddenly ceased and Senna could no longer control the car. Camera recordings show that Senna's car already hit the ground hard the previous lap at the subsequent accident site. After the accident at the start of the race, the safety car initially neutralized the race and released it again at the end of the fifth lap. At the start of the seventh lap, Senna raced straight ahead in the Tamburello curve, so he had exactly one lap to get his tires to the optimum temperature before his accident. That could possibly have failed: In an interview with the BBC, Senna's last team-mate Damon Hill expressed the conviction that Senna had deliberately ignored the potential danger posed by the cold tires and made a driving error. He himself knows how tricky the car was to drive and can therefore imagine that Senna took too high a risk because he was under pressure in the world championship. Senna's competitor at the time, Michael Schumacher, who was driving close behind the Brazilian at the time of the accident, also expressed his impression at the press conference immediately after the race that Senna had lost control of his car. However, the fact that Senna drove the (unofficially) third fastest lap of the entire race in 1: 24.887 minutes on the lap before his accident speaks against the theory of cold tires. However, it supports the assumption that Senna drove with possibly too high a commitment.
- Background: If the tires on a racing vehicle cool down due to reduced racing speed (for example during a safety car phase), the pressure inside the tires and thus the ground clearance also decrease - the vehicle touches down faster.
- The third possible cause is a gradual loss of pressure in Sennas Williams' tires, as a sharp CFRP splinter from the start-up accident could have pierced one of his tires. However, this theory is hardly taken into account in the public debate.
- In April 2014, the designer of the Williams FW16, Adrian Newey , admitted a design flaw as a possible cause of the accident. The side pods of the vehicle were too long, which resulted in a stall when the vehicle touched down on bumps and the rear of the vehicle breaking out. Senna's steering correction then caused the car to turn. A correction of the side pods was planned, but could not be implemented in time for the race in Imola.
Senna's death and its aftermath
His death came as a shock to many Brazilians. Brazil's President Itamar Franco ordered three days of state mourning after his death . More than three million people paid their last respects during the funeral procession in his hometown of São Paulo.
Senna's family created the Instituto Ayrton Senna , an organization that helps poor and needy children, especially in Brazil. Ayrton Senna had already expressed the idea of founding such an organization a few weeks before his death. He wanted to discuss the possible approach to such a project with his sister Viviane in more detail, but this never happened. Viviane Senna also built up the Ayrton Senna Foundation , which is responsible for the marketing of the license rights to the name Ayrton Senna and whose income flows completely into the Instituto Ayrton Senna. An important source of income is Senninha , a cartoon character who portrays eight-year-old Ayrton.
After Roland Ratzenberger's fatal accident, on the morning of May 1, 1994, Senna had discussed the establishment of the Driver Safety Council with several other drivers , which was supposed to take care of improving safety in Formula 1. The FIA decided to make various changes to the Formula 1 regulations in order to increase safety for drivers and spectators. Since these could only be introduced to a very limited extent during the 1994 season, the FIA decided, in cooperation with the Driver Safety Council, to defuse potentially dangerous bends in the remaining races by installing chicanes. In order to reduce the maximum speed of the cars, the cubic capacity was reduced from 3.5 to 3 liters in 1995 and longitudinal grooves were prescribed for dry tires for a few years. The FIA tightened the crash test requirements for the monocoques , which then had to be extremely reinforced in order to be able to absorb greater impact energies. In addition, the seats and head stabilization were revised and the HANS system was introduced. Thanks to these changes, many Formula 1 accidents have ended relatively lightly since then. For 21 years, Senna's fatal accident was the last in a Formula 1 race, until Jules Bianchi had an accident at the Japanese Grand Prix in 2014 and died as a result nine months later.
Legal proceedings against the team
The Italian judiciary initiated proceedings for negligent homicide against those responsible in Team Williams . According to the public prosecutor's office, the extension of the steering column was not welded in properly and was therefore broken shortly before the accident. This was the result of an independent commission of inquiry, including the racing driver Emanuele Pirro .
The defenders of Williams explained the accident as a lack of grip, caused by the cooled tires after the safety car phase, and bumps on the road, which had ultimately made the vehicle break out of control. The steering shaft was therefore only broken by the impact.
On December 16, 1997, the proceedings ended in an acquittal, although the presiding judge Antonio Costanzo saw the "broken steering column as the only logical and conclusive explanation for the accident". However, it was not possible to clearly assign blame to the technical directors Patrick Head and Adrian Newey. In an appeal in 1999, a possible complicity of the team was cleared up and a chain of unfortunate circumstances was made responsible for the accident. This judgment came under fire because shortly beforehand there had been indications from leading Formula 1 circles that the further implementation of Formula 1 races in Italy was being questioned.
Officially because of formal errors, the proceedings surrounding Senna's death were reopened in 2004. Adrian Newey was acquitted in May 2005 because, as chief designer, he could not be held responsible for subsequent modifications to the car. The proceedings against Patrick Head were closed due to the statute of limitations, but with the finding that he was responsible for the changes to the steering column, which had broken due to the improperly welded extension.
Senna's parents were Milton da Silva, a large landowner and industrialist, and Neyde Senna. He had an older sister, Viviane, and a brother, Leonardo. He was also the uncle of Bruno Senna , who also drove in Formula 1 from 2010 to 2012 .
Ayrton Senna married Liliane Vasconcelos, two years younger than him, in 1981; The couple divorced just a year later.
Senna herself was a Christian and read the Bible regularly during flights and before car races.
Statistics in the Formula 1 World Championship
Grand Prix victories
Grand Prix by number of wins
Figures in bold = record winner on this GP racetrack
|1984||Toleman Group Motorsport||
Toleman TG183B /
|Hard 1.5 L4 Turbo||14th||-||1||2||-||1||13||9.|
|1985||JPS Team Lotus||Lotus 97T||Renault 1.5 V6 Turbo||16||2||2||2||7th||3||38||4th|
|1986||JPS Team Lotus||Lotus 98T||Renault 1.5 V6 Turbo||16||2||4th||2||8th||-||55||4th|
|1987||Camel Team Lotus Honda||Lotus 99T||Honda 1.5 V6 Turbo||16||2||4th||2||1||3||57||3.|
|1988||Honda Marlboro McLaren||McLaren MP4 / 4||Honda 1.5 V6 Turbo||16||8th||3||-||13||3||94 (90)||1.|
|1989||Honda Marlboro McLaren||McLaren MP4 / 5||Honda 3.5 V10||16||6th||1||-||13||3||60||2.|
|1990||Honda Marlboro McLaren||McLaren MP4 / 5B||Honda 3.5 V10||16||6th||2||3||10||2||78||1.|
|1991||Honda Marlboro McLaren||McLaren MP4 / 6||Honda 3.5 V12||16||7th||3||2||8th||2||96||1.|
|1992||Honda Marlboro McLaren||McLaren MP4 / 6B /
MP4 / 7A / MP4 / 7B
|Honda 3.5 V12||16||3||1||3||1||1||50||4th|
|1993||Marlboro McLaren||McLaren MP4 / 8||Ford 3.5 V8||16||5||2||-||1||1||73||2.|
|1994||Rothmans Williams Renault||Williams FW16||Renault 3.5 V10||3||-||-||-||3||-||-||-|
|DNF||1||7 *||DNF||16||DNF||DNF||10 *||DNF||2||3||3||1||2||DNF||DNF|
|1||1||1||1||DNF||3||3||4 *||7 *||1||1||2||2||5||2||1|
|2||1||1||DNF||2||1||18 *||4th||5 *||4th||DNF||4th||DNF||DNF||1||1|
|green||-||Placement in the points|
|blue||-||Classified outside the point ranks|
|violet||DNF||Race not finished (did not finish)|
|red||DNQ||did not qualify|
|DNPQ||failed in pre-qualification (did not pre-qualify)|
|White||DNS||not at the start (did not start)|
|Light Blue||PO||only participated in the training (practiced only)|
|TD||Friday test driver|
|without||DNP||did not participate in the training (did not practice)|
|INJ||injured or sick|
|DNA||did not arrive|
|no participation in the World Cup|
|other||P / bold||Pole position|
|SR / italic||Fastest race lap|
|*||not at the finish,
but counted due to the distance covered
|underlined||Leader in the overall standings|
- Most consecutive pole positions: 8
- Most starts from the front row in a row: 24
- Most wins in a row at the same GP: 5 (GP Monaco 1989–1993)
- Most pole positions at the same GP: 8 (together with Michael Schumacher and Lewis Hamilton)
- Most pole positions at the same GP in a row: 7 (GP San Marino 1985–1991)
- Most podiums at the same GP in a row: 7 (Hungarian GP 1986–1992, together with Lewis Hamilton, Michael Schumacher and Sebastian Vettel)
- Christopher Hilton: Ayrton Senna - Hart am Rande des Genies , Serag, Pfäffikon SZ 1991, ISBN 3-908007-65-8 .
- Christopher Hilton: Ayrton Senna , Serag, Pfäffikon SZ 1994, ISBN 3-908007-74-7 .
- Christopher Hilton: Ayrton Senna - How time flies, Serag, Pfäffikon SZ 1999, ISBN 3-908007-85-2 .
- Willy Knupp: Ayrton Senna - Leben am Limit , Motorbuch, Stuttgart 1994, ISBN 3-613-01641-9 .
- Tom Rubython: Ayrton Senna - A life at the limit (original title: The Life of Senna , translated by Claudia Buchhol), Delius Klasing, Bielefeld 2013, ISBN 978-3-7688-3685-2 .
- Karin Sturm: Ayrton Senna - His victories - his legacy , Sportverlag, Berlin 1994, ISBN 3-328-00642-7 .
Ayrton Senna's life has been the subject of several documentaries. Under the title Ayrton Senna , the BBC produced an award-winning documentary by director Stuart Cabb in 1995 (Royal Television Society Award 1996 in the category Best Sports Documentary ). In 2010 the cinema production Senna was made , directed by Asif Kapadia from Britain . The film, made in agreement with the Senna family, took six years to make, and was produced by Universal Pictures , Studio Canal and Working Title Films . The film premiered in Tokyo at the beginning of October 2010; in Germany it was shown in cinemas from May 12, 2011.
- Literature by and about Ayrton Senna in the catalog of the German National Library
- German-language memorial site
- The Senna Files
- Portal Ayrton Senna (Portuguese and English)
- Senna fan page
- Ayrton Senna on f1racing.ch
- Ayrton Senna in the Internet Movie Database (English)
- YouTube: "F1's Greatest Lap?" : Ayrton Senna in the rain race in Donington (European GP) 1993
- YouTube: "Ayrton Senna's first F1 win" : Grand Prix of Portugal 1985
- YouTube: Top 10 Moments of Ayrton Senna : Compilation of notable moments in his career (s)
- "Experts: Senna the fastest driver of all time" (Motorsport-Total.com on December 28, 2006); “Experts choose Senna over Schumi” ( Memento from October 22, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) (Sport1.de on December 29, 2006); "Formula 1's greatest drivers" (Autosport in December 2009)
- "Expert survey: Senna depends on Schumacher" (Motorsport-Total.com on December 29, 2006)
- results from the show race on May 12, 1984 at the Nürburgring. PistonHeads.com, accessed December 2, 2011 .
- Fábio Seixas: O contrato de Senna em 1987 , Folha de S. Paulo , July 10, 2013, accessed on July 13, 2013
- cf. the documentation Senna by Asif Kapadia .
- Richard Williams: The Death of Ayrton Senna . Penguin Books, London 2010 ISBN 978-0-241-95012-8 p. 103
- Salcito: "Ho tagliato il cinghino del casco di Senna". Il dottore che era sulla Medical Car con Sid Watkins racconta le concitate fasi dei soccorsi ad Ayrton. it.motorsport.com, May 1, 2014, accessed May 30, 2016 (Italian).
- Michael Schmidt: Michael Schmidt on the cause of death of Senna. Discussion forum on auto-motor-und-sport.de. auto-motor-und-sport-com, April 30, 2014, archived from the original on May 30, 2016 ; accessed on May 30, 2016 .
“I am convinced that he made a mistake, but many people will never believe that he could. Why not? He made many mistakes in his career. I have listened to and read endless theories about why, or how, he could have crashed on such a 'simple' corner like Tamburello. No-one other than Ayrton Senna and me know what it was like to drive that car, through that corner, in that race, on that day, on cold tires. He was identified with pushing to the limit and beyond. He would often prefer to crash into his opponent rather than be defeated. It was not the fault of anyone else that he kept his foot flat when he could have lifted. "
“I believe he made a mistake, but a lot of people will never believe he did it. Why not? He made a lot of mistakes in his career. I've heard and read endless theories as to why or how he could crash on such a 'simple' curve as Tamburello. No one other than Ayrton Senna and I know what it was like to drive this car, through this corner, in this race, on that day, on cold tires. He was identified with going to the limit and beyond. Often he would rather drive into his opponent than be beaten. It's not anyone else's fault that he let his gas foot down when he could have lifted it. "
"I saw that his car was already touching quite a lot at the back on the lap before, the car was very nervous in this corner, and he nearly lost it. On the next lap he did lose it. The car touched with the rear skids, went a bit sideways, and he just lost it. "
“I saw that the back of his car hit the ground pretty hard on the previous lap, the car was very nervous on this corner and he almost lost control, which he actually did on the next lap. The back of the car touched the ground, turned a little to the side and he simply lost control. "- Michael Schumacher (1994 San Marino GP winners' press conference transcript at Motorsport.com ) ( Memento from October 12, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- Senna contemporary witness Adrian Newey: "Had offset me against the car". auto-motor-und-sport.de, April 28, 2014, accessed June 29, 2015 .
- Formula 1: Newey sees the cause of the Senna accident in aerodynamics. Wienerzeitung.at, April 28, 2014, accessed April 30, 2014 .
- Summary of the trials against those responsible for Williams by Katrin Sturm
- Tuvia Tenenbom: "Racing drivers come to hell" , Die Zeit from May 16, 2014, accessed on May 21, 2019
- cf. Princess Diana Interview Crowns Panorama Triumph in TV Awards . In: The Guardian , February 23, 1996, p. 9
- cf. Doc in driver's seat . In: Variety , January 3, 2011, p. 2
- Kolbuch, Sandy: The perfect racing driver. Kino-Zeit.de, accessed on May 8, 2011 .
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Senna da Silva, Ayrton (full name)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Brazilian Formula 1 racing driver and three-time Formula 1 world champion|
|DATE OF BIRTH||March 21, 1960|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||São Paulo|
|DATE OF DEATH||May 1, 1994|
|Place of death||Bologna|