|description||British daily newspaper|
|publishing company||Guardian News & Media Ltd. ( United Kingdom )|
|First edition||May 5, 1821|
|founder||John Edward Taylor|
|Frequency of publication||Every day|
|Sold edition||132,821 copies|
|(ABC June 2019)|
|Range||0.695 million readers|
|(PAMCo June 2019)|
|Article archive||1999 ff.|
The Guardian [ ðə ˈgɑːdɪən ] is a British daily newspaper that was founded in Manchester in 1821 and was known until 1959 as The Manchester Guardian . The Guardian is operated by Guardian News & Media Ltd. published by Scott Trust Ltd. is, which as a foundation pursues the main goal of ensuring the journalistic and financial independence of the Guardian . The Sunday newspaper The Observer has also been part of Guardian News & Media Ltd. since 1993 . The head office is now in the London borough of Kings Cross .
The Guardian was founded in the environment of the Little Circle, a group of entrepreneurs and social reformer who are considered non-conformist. Politically, the Guardian traditionally takes a left-liberal position, in contrast to most other British daily newspapers, which are more conservative. The newspaper's target group is especially the “left-liberal, progressive, intellectual city dwellers [...] academics, cultural workers and students”. In the English-speaking world, the term Guardianistas (used rather disparagingly) is widespread for members of this segment of the population, a new middle class .
In May 2019, an amended House Style Guide was published, which provides for new, tightened language regulations for environmental reporting. Instead of climate change (climate change), for example, climate emergency, crisis or breakdown (climate emergency, crisis or breakdown ) should be used. According to editor-in-chief Katharine Viner, this writing style is intended to ensure that environmental concerns are scientifically and precisely communicated to the readership. With the tightening one follows the climate scientists and various UN organizations, who have also tightened their language. Reference is also made to statements made by Greta Thunberg shortly before .
At the British Press Awards in 1999, 2006, 2011 and 2014 , the Guardian was voted "National Newspaper of the Year".
The sold circulation of the Guardian fell from 360,000 copies in the first half of 2003 to 158,000 copies in the second half of 2016, a decrease of 56.1 percent. In April 2019, the sold circulation was 134,570 copies, which put the Guardian behind the two other national newspapers The Daily Telegraph (335,740 copies) and The Times (406,280 copies).
CP Scott made the Guardian known nationwide. From 1872 he was editor for 57 years, in 1907 he became the owner of the newspaper. Under his leadership, the Guardian supported William Ewart Gladstone when the Liberals split in 1886, and turned against popular opinion in favor of the Second Boer War . Scott supported the movement for women's suffrage , but opposed militant actions by the suffragettes . "The really grotesque situation is that Mr. Lloyd George is fighting for seven million women to be freed and at the same time the militants are desperately trying to stop him by breaking the windows of innocent people and breaking off meetings of benevolent associations." Scott believed that "the courage and dedication" of the voters "deserved a better occasion and more sensible leadership".
Scott's friendship with Chaim Weizmann played a role in the Balfour Declaration of 1917. In 1948 the Guardian supported the State of Israel. In her book Disenchantment: The Guardian and Israel, Daphna Baram tells the story of the Guardian and its relationship with the Zionist movement.
In June 1936 the ownership changed to the Scott Trust (named after the last owner, John Russell Scott , who became the first chairman of the trust). This move ensured the newspaper's independence.
Until 1959 the newspaper was called The Manchester Guardian ; it is still associated with this name, especially in North America . In 1964 the newspaper moved to London. In 1992 the Guardian took over the majority stake in the South African weekly newspaper Weekly Mail , which from then on appears as Weekly Mail & Guardian and since 1995 as Mail & Guardian . On September 13, 2005, the Guardian switched from the broadsheet to the Berlin format . In June 2006, the editorial team under editor-in-chief Alan Rusbridger dared to take the journalistically important and risky step of having articles appear on the Internet first and then in the print edition . In 2009, the Guardian's website was the sixth largest website of any daily newspaper in the world and had 26 million monthly users.
Since 2009 there has been a cooperation with the German-language weekly newspaper der Freitag . The Guardian has been trying the form of collaborative journalism since 2011 . By publishing the list of topics in their own blog, readers have the opportunity to contact the authors, provide information and help with research.
From 2005 to 2012, the Guardian attempted to get legal access to letters from Prince Charles to ministries. Critics accuse Prince Charles of exceeding his powers and trying to enforce his views on ecology, alternative medicine and modern architecture with personal interventions. In September 2012 a Chamber of the UK Freedom of Information Court granted this request.
Espionage affair since 2013
Since May 2013, Glenn Greenwald has been publishing information on communications surveillance programs in the USA ( PRISM ) and Great Britain ( Tempora ), bringing the 2013 surveillance and espionage affair to the public. In June, Edward Snowden identified himself as an informant (" whistleblower "). On June 28, 2013, it became known that the US Army had blocked certain parts of the Guardian's site on its internal networks. As early as December 2010, the US Air Force blocked its employees from accessing the Guardian website and the New York Times , Le Monde and Spiegel Online news portals. The soldiers there had access to the US diplomatic dispatches published by WikiLeaks . The measure was heavily criticized in the media.
The editor-in-chief Alan Rusbridger wrote in the newspaper on August 19, 2013 that the British government had put his paper under heavy pressure to publish Snowden's revelations. The government is said to have threatened to take legal action against the newspaper if hard drives containing the information were not released or destroyed. Finally, in order to avoid a legal dispute that might have prevented further reporting on the affair for months, two hard drives were destroyed under the supervision of agents from the Government Communications Headquarters .
In addition, Glenn Greenwald's husband, David Miranda, had been held at London Heathrow Airport for almost nine hours. He had researched for his partner in Berlin and was on his way to see him in Rio de Janeiro ; the Guardian had paid for the flight. Miranda had to hand over his laptop and smartphone to the security authorities and reveal his passwords.
The Guardian and Glenn Greenwald received the Prize for the Freedom and Future of the Media 2013 from the Media Foundation of the Sparkasse Leipzig for their research on the communication surveillance programs in the USA . In April 2014, the Guardian, or the newspaper's US website, together with the Washington Post, received the Pulitzer Prize in the Public Service category for its coverage .
Financial consolidation of core operations
As a by-product, the Guardian Media Group operated various regional and specialist newspapers. The UK's largest online portal for used car trading emerged from a car magazine; it was bundled together with other online advertising portals in the Trader Media Group . When the Guardian sold a 49.99% stake in Trader Media Group in 2007, the purchase price was based on a valuation of £ 1.35 billion. In 2010 the Guardian separated from its regional papers and in 2014 it sold the second half of the Trader Media Group.
With the sale of all by-products and focus on the newspaper core, the foundation created a capital stock of £ 838.3 million in July 2014. This is intended to ensure the Guardian's independence over the long term. Income did not develop as hoped in the first year, so the publishing house management announced in January 2015 that editorial and administration would be cut by 20% over the next three years in order to avoid future losses.
Fiscal 2015 sales were £ 209.5m (€ 232m 1 ). The loss was thus 14.7 million ₤ (€ 16 million 1 ) in the previous year to 68.7 million ₤ (76 million € 1 rose). Editor-in-chief Katherine Viner and Guardian Media Group chairman David Pemsel presented a program that should reduce spending by 20% over a period of three years and generate new income through memberships and the Guardian Labs . In September 2016 it was announced that the number of jobs in the USA would be reduced by a third from 140 to just under 100.
In 2015, the Guardian introduced a membership system due to losses from lower advertising revenue. Supporters pay £ 5 a month, partners £ 15 a month and Patrons £ 60 a month and benefit from advantages such as priority bookings and discounts at events. At the beginning of 2017 there were 200,000 supporters, in mid-2018 there were 570,000 and for the first time in the history of the Guardian , the revenues of the digital sector exceeded that of the print products. The print edition had dropped to 138,000 copies in mid-2018. The Guardian is aiming for an end to the deficit and an increase in patrons to one million by 2019. This is to avoid a paywall .
In order to save money, the printed edition was switched to the tabloid format in January 2018 and the production was outsourced to the Daily Mirror printing works . This should save several million pounds. 300 jobs were cut in editorial and publishing. The 2018 fiscal year , which ran from April 6, 2018 to April 5, 2019, closed the Guardian with a profit of £ 800,000, the first time in over two decades. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic , the reduction of 180 jobs, 70 of them in the editorial office, was announced in July 2020.
The Guardian Weekly
The Guardian Weekly is an international, English-language newspaper by the group, founded in 1919, that brings together articles from the Guardian , Observer , Washington Post and Le Monde articles translated into English .
List of the 100 best English-language novels
(Compiled for The Guardian in 2015 )
- Official website (English)
- John F. Jungclaussen: Ingenious, Loved, Endangered. In: Die Zeit (paid article in online edition). January 31, 2013, accessed February 9, 2013 .
- Hannah Pilarczyk: We didn't buy our users. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung (online edition). January 31, 2013, accessed February 9, 2013 .
- The New Yorker: Freedom of Information , Oct. 7, 2013 - Portrait of the Guardian and its Editor-in-Chief.
- 1 Exchange rate as of August 24, 2020
- The Guardian abc.org.uk
- The Guardian newsworks.org.uk
- History of the Guardian. In: The Guardian (online edition). Retrieved August 20, 2013 .
- 'Farewell, readers': Alan Rusbridger on leaving the Guardian after two decades at the helm. In: The Guardian. May 29, 2015
- Ayerst: The Guardian. 1971, p. 471.
- John F. Jungclaussen: “Guardian” ": Ingenious, loved, endangered. In: zeit.de. February 9, 2013, accessed December 8, 2014 .
- Damian Carrington: Why the Guardian is changing the language it uses about the environment , article in The Guardian on May 17, 2019, in English, last accessed May 18, 2019
- The winners and shortlists for The Press Awards 2010. (No longer available online.) In: The Press Awards. Archived from the original on April 19, 2012 ; accessed on February 9, 2013 (English): "WINNER World Cup 2010 Guide"
- Guardian wins newspaper and website of the year at British press awards. , guardian.com, April 2, 2014 (accessed Aug. 30, 2014).
- Circulation of The Guardian in the United Kingdom (UK) from 1st half 2003 to 2nd half 2016 (in 1,000 copies) statista.com
- Circulation of newspapers in the United Kingdom (UK) as of April 2019 (in 1,000 copies) statista.com
- A celebration of 20 exceptional years in journalism Mail & Guardian on November 24, 2005 (English), accessed on July 13, 2013.
- The Guardian - Friday. In: Der Freitag (online edition). Retrieved February 9, 2013 : "Friday is a syndication partner of the British daily The Guardian"
- Sabine Bürger: "Guardian" experiments with an open list of topics. In: Der Standard (online edition). October 10, 2011, accessed February 9, 2013 .
- Lobby suspicion: British government has to release letters from Prince Charles. In: Der Spiegel (online edition). September 18, 2012, accessed February 9, 2013 .
- US Army blocks access to "Guardian" articles. In: Spiegel Online. June 28, 2013, accessed December 8, 2014 .
- Phillip Molnar: The Guardian news website blocked at Presidio of Monterey. (No longer available online.) June 26, 2013, archived from the original on June 30, 2013 ; accessed on August 23, 2013 .
- Surveillance and the state: this way the debate goes on , guardian. 23rd August 2013.
- British government puts “Guardian” under massive pressure , FAZ.net. August 20, 2013.
- Khuê Pham : The true betrayal . In: The time . No. 35 , August 22, 2013, p. 1 ( available online [accessed 23 August 2013]).
- Media Foundation of the Sparkasse Leipzig "Prize for the freedom and future of the media: Prize winners 2013: Glenn Greenwald and The Guardian" Media Foundation of the Sparkasse Leipzig. (No longer available online.) In: www.leipziger-medienstiftung.de. Archived from the original on November 9, 2016 ; Retrieved November 9, 2016 .
- pulitzer.org: 2014 Pulitzer Prize Winners , accessed April 15, 2014.
- The Guardian : Guardian News & Media to cut costs by 20% , January 25, 2016.
- Jasper Jackson: Guardian's losses hit £ 69m but it gains more than 50,000 paying members. In: theguardian.com. July 27, 2016, accessed December 16, 2016 .
- James Martinson: Guardian Media Group to cut nearly a third of US jobs. In: theguardian.com. November 1, 2016, accessed December 16, 2016 .
- Road to 1 million: The Guardian has gone from 15,000 to 200,000 paying 'members' in the past year digiday.com, February 2, 2017
- The Guardian sees light on the horizon nzz.ch, July 27, 2018
- page change sueddeutsche.de, January 15, 2018
- Light at the end of the long, long tunnel sueddeutsche.de, May 2, 2019
- Downsizing at "Guardian", BBC and "Daily Mirror" sueddeutsche.de, July 16, 2020