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Ford Motor Company

legal form Corporation
ISIN US3453708600
founding June 16, 1903
Seat Dearborn , Michigan , United States
United StatesUnited States 
management Jim Farley
(President and CEO)
William Clay Ford Junior
(Executive Chairman)
Number of employees 190,000 (as of 2019)
sales $ 155.9 billion (2019)
Branch Automotive industry
Website , , (English), homepage of the parent company

Ford Motor Company world headquarters in Dearborn , Michigan

The Ford Motor Company , based in Dearborn , USA, is the fifth largest automaker worldwide (as of 2014) after Toyota , Volkswagen , General Motors and Hyundai with a turnover of 159.6 billion US dollars and a profit of 7.8 billion US dollars. Dollar. The origin of the group is a factory founded by Henry Ford in Detroit in 1903. With the introduction of assembly line production in 1913, Ford brought about a radical change in the emerging auto industry.


First Ford car model A
"Fordmobile" (1903)
Model T (1908) - first
mass- produced industrial product manufactured on an assembly line -
record holder until 1972
Fordson tractor (1921)
1940s Ford product:
B-24 bomber
Dream of the "baby boomers":
Mustang sports car (1964)
Successful “world car” and car of the year 1999: the Ford Focus
From the F-series built since 1948:
Ford F-650 Pickup (2008)

Ford Motor Company was Henry Ford's second start into independence. In 1899 he founded the Detroit Automobile Company . It was unsuccessful and was reorganized in 1901 under the name Henry Ford Company . In March 1902 there were also disagreements in the management. Ford was looking for a car for a wide range of customers, but the donors, especially William Murphy and Lemuel Bowen, wanted to build expensive, lucrative vehicles. Ford left the first company that bore his name. In August 1902, Henry M. Leland , later co-founder of Lincoln , took over the business and renamed the company Cadillac .

On June 16, 1903, Henry Ford founded his own company again in Detroit (Michigan) with the Ford Motor Company with a capital of 28,000 US dollars . He initially named his vehicles according to the alphabet and produced only a few cars a day at his factory on Mack Avenue, where groups of two to three men assembled supplied parts. In the first two years, only about 1700 of the types A, C and AC were produced.

After the initially little success he had the Piquette Avenue Plant built in Detroit in 1904 , where from 1908 the Ford Model T known as "Tin Lizzy" was produced, which quickly became a sales success. In order to produce the figures required by the market, the company moved to the Highland Park Ford Plant as early as 1910 , where the new technology of assembly line production was perfected by 1913 . Henry Ford took over the replacement building concept, which was over 100 years old at the time, from Eli Whitney , who also designed the first production line. With mostly semi-skilled workers, the wagons could be manufactured cheaper and faster. The assembly time of a car chassis has been reduced from over twelve to just 1.5 hours. In 1918 half of all cars in the United States were "Model T". Regarding the car, Ford noted in his memoirs that its customers could get it in any color in the world - as long as it was black. (Original: “Any customer can have a car painted any color that he wants so long as it is black.” My life and work, 1922) When production was stopped in 1927, the company had produced over 15 million “Tin Lizzy”. This number was only exceeded by the VW Beetle at the beginning of 1972 .

On January 1, 1919, Edsel Ford succeeded his father at the helm of the group, but he still had influence on the management. In the 1920s the company lost market share. Their stated goal was to build a cheap car that every worker could afford. In order to keep the prices low, no additional equipment was offered. General Motors and other companies had already started to offer cars in other colors, some better equipped and also more luxurious. These companies also raised customers' credit lines so they could afford the more expensive cars. Ford complained at the time that the loans were damaging the economy, but due to market pressures, Ford eventually accepted the role of "second winner".

With the production of tractors of the Fordson brand (Henry Ford and Son), the group opened up an additional market from 1917. The Fordson -Traktoren were in 1964 under the name Ford continues to produce. The company expanded the agricultural machinery business considerably with the acquisition of New Holland in 1986; Furthermore, the Canadian agricultural machinery manufacturer Versatile was taken over in 1987 . The agricultural machinery division - and thus New Holland and Versatile - was sold to Fiat as early as 1991 . With this sale, Fiat was also assured that it would be able to sell tractors under the Ford brand until 2000.

Ford opened the Willow Run Factory near Ypsilanti (Michigan) in the early 1940s to produce B-24 Liberator bombers . Over 8,600 machines were manufactured there under license from Consolidated Aircraft . After aircraft production ceased in 1945, the car manufacturer Kaiser Motors took over the plant.

In 1951, Ford established a science laboratory in Dearborn, Michigan for basic research. For Ford, this led to a remarkable contribution to superconductor research. In 1964, Ford Research Lab landed a fundamental breakthrough with the invention of the superconducting quantum interference device SQUID .

In 1955, Ford became a public company .

Initially based on the Ford T-model, commercial vehicles were also manufactured, which soon evolved into independent models and extended into medium-sized payload classes. In Germany, the production of trucks above the Transit van introduced in 1953 was initially stopped in 1961.

In 1961 Philco , a manufacturer of televisions , radios and other electrical appliances, was acquired. In 1953 Philco developed the high-frequency surface-barrier transistor and in 1955 with Chrysler the first fully transistorized car radio. 1957–1963 Philco manufactured transistorized large computers. 1974 Ford sold Philco to GTE / Sylvania.

In the early 1960s, the process was anodic dip painting the primer of bodies (then known as Electro Coating designated) for the first time at Ford implemented. At the time, this was considered to be the greatest advance in automotive painting since the invention of the spray gun .

In 1973 Ford again presented two truck models for the European market, followed by the Transcontinental heavy truck type in 1975. The lighter models were replaced in 1981 by a uniform successor, which was discontinued without replacement at the end of the 1980s. Since then, Ford is no longer represented in the truck sector in Europe. In the USA, the truck product range that had always been uninterrupted until then, except for two series of compact hooded trucks, was discontinued in 1997 and the heavy truck division was sold to Freightliner .

In 1989 Ford took over the Jaguar company , ten years later, in 1999, the car production and the associated trademark rights from Volvo .

In 1990 Ford sold its subsidiary Ford Aerospace to Loral Corporation , where it now operates as Space Systems / Loral . That same year, Ford acquired a 10.8% stake in Cummins Engine .

From the year 2000, Ford got into a serious crisis due to a wrong model policy on its home market. The group had relied on the profitable SUVs ( Ford Explorer ) and pick-ups ( Ford F-series ) and neglected the market for compact cars compared to foreign manufacturers. The associated loss of market share has long been ignored. After SUVs, pickups and other large vehicles became more difficult to sell due to increased gasoline prices, Ford was faced with a discount war similar to General Motors and Chrysler due to ongoing utilization problems in its plants .

The head of the Ford group, Alan Mulally , who was in office from 2006 to mid-2014 , had therefore decided on a drastic restructuring program that cost around 11 billion US dollars and which was intended to cut 44,000 jobs. In this context, up to 16 production sites were threatened with closure. The turn to more economical vehicles was to be achieved with a model range to be successively developed. The trend is increasingly towards compact vehicles both in the mid-range segment and in the SUV segment, where the trend is moving away from heavy off-road vehicles to lighter so-called crossover models such as the Edge and Freestyle models .

In June 2007, the Financial Times reported that Ford would sell its British subsidiaries Jaguar and Land Rover through investment banks Goldman Sachs , Morgan Stanley and HSBC . According to analysts, both divisions should be worth around 10 billion US dollars in the package. The Indian group Tata Motors took over both companies in March 2008.

In 2007, Ford was overtaken by Toyota in terms of sales figures on the US car market and is now ranked 3rd in the United States behind General Motors and Toyota. In January 2008, Ford announced a new severance pay program in order to cut another 13,000 employees. After a poor fiscal year 2009, the restructuring of the group and a focus on small cars, a surplus of 2.1 billion US dollars was achieved in the first quarter of 2010. The previous year's result for the same period was still a loss of 1.4 billion US dollars. At the same time, Ford increased its market share in the USA by 2.7 percentage points to 16.6 percent and was thus ahead of the insolvent General Motors group.

On December 9, 2011, Ford announced that it would distribute dividends for the first time in five years in March. Reasons are the good economic development of the company and the hope of regaining the trust of investors.

On August 31, 2012, Ford built the 350 millionth car after a 109-year history. It is a red Ford Focus that rolled off the assembly line at the Thai factory in Rayong.

There was a change in the top management at Ford in the summer of 2020. Bill Ford has announced that Jim Farley will become the new CEO of Ford. In the wake of the Corona crisis, Ford's sales figures collapsed and the industry expert Farley is supposed to get the group back on track. Farley takes over from Jim Hackertt. He was in office for 3 years and, as the former head of a furniture manufacturer, was supposed to drive forward the transformation of the group with an open mind.

Business figures

Business and employee development (respective fiscal year)
year Sales
in US $ million
Balance sheet profit
in million US $
Price per share
in US $
2005 176,835 1,440 5.70
2006 160.065 −12,613 6.08
2007 170,572 −2,795 3.80
2008 143,584 −14,766 4.31
2009 116.283 2,717 9.67
2010 128,954 6,561 9.87
2011 135.605 20,213 8.27
2012 133,559 5,613 11.88
2013 146.917 11,953 12.65 181,000
2014 144.077 1,231 12.38 187,000
2015 149,558 7,373 11.10 199,000
2016 151,800 4,596 10.95 201,000
2017 156,776 7,602 10.58 202,000
2018 160,338 3,677 9.93 199,000

Ford in Germany

From 1933 onwards, the Ford cars built in Cologne-Niehl were labeled as "German products".

Ford Motor Company Aktiengesellschaft was founded as a German subsidiary in Berlin in 1925 . After relocating the company's headquarters to Cologne in 1930, the company was changed to Ford-Werke AG in 1939 . After the exclusion of minority shareholders (" squeeze-out ") in 2002, when Ford Deutschland Holding GmbH acquired over 95% of the shares in the German Ford-Werke-AG shares, the legal form was converted to Ford- Works GmbH .

Ford in Denmark

In 1919 the Ford Motor Company opened an assembly plant in Denmark. In the rented halls in the Nørrebro district of Copenhagen , workers first assembled the individual parts of the Model T that were delivered from the United States. The vehicles produced in this way were then sold in Denmark as well as in Sweden, Norway, Finland, Germany and Poland. In 1921 Ford also began producing tractors for use in agriculture.

Due to the limited space in the previously used halls, Ford built a new factory on Sluseholmen , a peninsula in the southern harbor of Copenhagen, by 1924 . Until the restructuring in the mid-1960s, more than 320,000 vehicles were built there. From 1967 to 1974 Ford then manufactured tractors and backhoe loaders of the 4400 and 4500 types. Similar to the start of production in Denmark, these two types were also assembled from delivered tractors, front loaders and backhoe loaders on slurry beams.

Trademarks of the Ford Motor Company

In addition to the Ford brand , the automobile brands Lincoln and Troller belong to the group. The brands Jaguar and Land Rover , which were taken over in 1989 and 2000, were sold to the Tata Group in March 2008 . The Mercury brand was discontinued in 2010. From 1979 to 2015 the Ford Motor Company was involved in Mazda . Spare parts are sold under the Motorcraft brand . Other brands that are not directly involved in automobile manufacturing and the spare parts business have been sold or discontinued by Ford in recent years due to the concentration on the core business, such as the Hertz car rental company , such as the discount repair shop chain Kwik-Fit . In 2010, the troubled Swedish car brand Volvo , which was bought in 1999, was sold to the Chinese car manufacturer Geely for 1.8 billion US dollars .

Countries with Ford offices
Ford Automobile Brand Timeline from 1893 to Present
brand 1890 1900 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s 60s 70s 80s 90s 2000 2010
Fordson ford New Holland
New Holland
Aston Martin
jaguar Swallow sidecars jaguar
Land Rover
  •  Automobile brand of an independent company before takeover by Ford, possibly already active in other areas beforehand
  •  Automobile brand of a company that is majority owned or controlled by Ford
  •  Ford automobile brand
  •  Automobile brand, or majority sold
  • Ford brand car models

    Timeline of the European Ford models

    Timeline of the European Ford models since 1945
    Type 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s 2020s
    5 6th 7th 8th 9 0 1 2 3 4th 5 6th 7th 8th 9 0 1 2 3 4th 5 6th 7th 8th 9 0 1 2 3 4th 5 6th 7th 8th 9 0 1 2 3 4th 5 6th 7th 8th 9 0 1 2 3 4th 5 6th 7th 8th 9 0 1 2 3 4th 5 6th 7th 8th 9 0 1 2 3 4th 5 6th 7th 8th 9 0
    Microcar Ka Ka Ka +
    Small car Fiesta I Fiesta II Fiesta III Fiesta IV Fiesta V Fiesta VI Fiesta VII Fiesta VIII
    Compact class Popular 103E / 100E Popular
    Anglia E04A / E494A Anglia / Escort 100E Anglia 105E / 123E Escort I Escort II Escort III / IV Escort V / VI / VII / Classic
    ... Prefect E93A / E493A Prefect / Squire 100E / 107E Orion I Orion II Focus I Focus II Focus III Focus IV
    Middle class Taunus G73A Taunus P1 (G13) Taunus P4 P6 Taunus TC Sierra Mondeo I Mondeo II Mondeo III Mondeo IV Mondeo V
    Consul I Consul II Cortina I Cortina II Cortina III Cortina IV / V
    Consul Classic Corsair
    upper middle class pilot Zephyr I Zephyr II Zephyr III Zephyr IV Consul
    P2 P3 P5 P7
    Vedette Granada I Granada II Scorpio I Scorpio II
    Zodiac I. Zodiac II Zodiac III Zodiac IV
    Sports car Comète Consul Capri Capri I Capri II Capri II sample Cougar
    Mustang / T5 Mustang / T5 II Mustang VI
    GT40 GT40 RS200 GT GT
    Minivan fusion B-MAX
    Compact van Focus C-MAX /
    C-MAX I.
    C-MAX II
    Van Wind star S-MAX S-MAX II
    Galaxy I Galaxy II Galaxy III
    SUV EcoSport
    Maverick I Maverick II Kuga I. Kuga II Kuga III
    Mustang Mach-E
    Edge II
    Explorer II Explorer VI
    Pick up ranger ranger Ranger (T6)
    High roof combination / van Courier Transit Courier
    Fordson E04C / Thames E494C Thames 300E Thames 307E Escort Van I / II Escort Express III / VI Escort Express / Express V / VI / VII Transit Connect I. Transit Connect II
    Vans Fordson / Thames E83W Thames 400E Transit II Transit III Transit IV Transit V Transit VI Transit Custom
    FK 1000 / Taunus Transit Transit VII
  • built by Ford France SA, taken over by Simca from 1954
  • built by Ford in Cologne, until 1967 as the Taunus brand
  • Built by Ford of Britain, van until 1950 as Fordson , then as Ford Thames
  •  from 1967: Ford of Europe
  •  on Ford Global Platform as a world car in Europe, America and possibly other markets
  • Ford of Europe together with VW
  • Ford of Europe together with Nissan
  • Ford of Europe together with Fiat
  • Ford together with Mazda
  •  also offered by Ford USA in Europe
  • Type overview in Europe

    Construction period
    Produced vehicles
    model series annotation image


    Ka First generation of the small car from Ford. The technical basis was the Fiesta '96. Ford KA front 20080730.jpg
    Streetka Two-seater convertible based on the first Ka. Ford StreetKa (2003-2005) rear MJ.JPG
    2008-2016 Ka Second generation of the small car based on the 2007 new Fiat 500 . Ford Ka II front 20100809.jpg
    2016-2020 Ka + With the third Ka generation, Ford uses the so-called B platform, on which the B-Max, EcoSport and Fiesta models are also based. Similar to Fiesta and Focus, it is offered as a world car in almost identical versions in many markets. Ford Ka + Active Sindelfingen 2020 IMG 2388.jpg

    Small car

    1976-1983 Fiesta '76 The first generation of the small Ford car started in mid-1976. In mid-1981 it was slightly revised, which was noticeable, among other things, in the non-chromed steel bumpers with plastic corners. Ford Fiesta (early days) Garmisch-Partenkirchen.jpg
    1983-1989 Fiesta '84 The second generation was sold from the summer of 1983 with a rounded front, different interior fittings and significantly improved technology. In addition, a diesel engine and a regulated catalytic converter were now available. Ford-fiesta-mk2.jpg
    1989-1996 Fiesta '89 New development with modern chassis, new engines and many technical innovations such as ABS, power steering, airbag and air conditioning. The Fiesta '89 was offered in parallel to its successor, which appeared in autumn 1995, as an affordable entry-level version "Classic" until summer 1996. Ford Fiesta MK3 front 20070926.jpg
    1995-2001 Fiesta '96 / '99 The fourth generation had largely the same floor pan, but differed from its predecessor in terms of a modernized body, a new interior and new engines. After the facelift in late summer 1999 with modified headlights and a redesigned radiator grille in accordance with the new New Edge design , Ford described this Fiesta as the fifth generation. Fourth and fifth generations were also available as Mazda 121. Ford fiesta mk5.jpg
    2001-2008 Fiesta '02 The sixth generation has been completely redesigned, now with modern diesel engines with direct injection. As with the Focus, there was also a sport version with the addition ST . A facelift followed in autumn 2005. Ford Fiesta (VI, Facelift) - front view, June 17, 2011, Wülfrath.jpg
    > 1,000,000
    Fiesta '09 Seventh generation. Parts of the floor pan, the chassis and some technical parts were taken over from the predecessor, the rest was newly developed. The Verve study , on which the shape of the production vehicle is based, served as the basis . Has been used as the Ford Fiesta RS WRC in the World Rally Championship since 2011 . A facelift followed in autumn 2012. 2014 Ford Fiesta 1.5L Sport in Cyberjaya, Malaysia (01) .jpg
    since 2017 Fiesta '18  The eighth generation was officially presented on November 29, 2016 at a  Go Further event at the Cologne-Niehl plant  . Production started on May 16, 2017, and the official market launch took place on July 8, 2017. Ford Fiesta MK7.jpg


    2002–2012 fusion A minivan based on the Fiesta '02. How this changed in autumn 2005. Ford Fusion front 20080222.jpg
    2012-2017 B-MAX A minivan based on the Fiesta '09. The B-Max manages without B-pillars and therefore has a very wide door opening. Discontinued in 2017 due to lack of demand. Ford B-Max Titanium - front view, February 22, 2014, Ratingen.jpg

    Compact class

    Escort '68 The "Dog Bone" Escort, developed in Great Britain as the successor to the Anglia , was produced from the end of 1967 and offered as a sedan and station wagon. From 1973 it was also available as the RS 2000 with 100 hp. Ford Escort MkI 1100 1972.JPG
    Escort '75 Revised body with a new radiator grille and the technology of the predecessor. The RS1800 was the basis for the world championship cars by Björn Waldegård and Ari Vatanen . Ford Escort 2 Estate overlooked by Victor FD (despeck color balance etc) .jpg
    1980-1985 Escort '81 New design with a change to transverse engines and front-wheel drive. The five-door tournament and the convertible followed in 1983 . Three sport versions ( XR3 (i) , RS1600i and RS Turbo ) were also on offer. Ford Escort MKIII XR3i front 20090115.jpg
    1983-1985 Orion '83 Four-door notchback version of the '81 Escort. The name Orion and small changes in appearance made it appear as a separate model. Ford Orion 22-5-07.JPG
    1986-1990 Escort '86 At the beginning of 1986 there was a facelift (body and interior) with a lot of technical innovations. Many body parts were changed, passive safety increased and rust prevention, the chassis and the engines improved. Some engine variants were now also available with a G-Kat. The interior has been redesigned and matched to that of the Sierra and Scorpio. The XR3i and the RS Turbo were still the top models in the series. Ford Escort MK4 front 20081215.jpg
    1986-1990 Orion '86 Escort '86 with notchback. Here, too, the front, with a slightly changed shape of the radiator grille, pointed to the Orion, which was positioned by Ford as an independent one. Ford Orion rear 20071227.jpg
    1990-1995 Escort '91 / '93 New development with a new floor pan and a different rear axle. For the first time, modern 16-valve motors are available with the Zetec and the RS2000. The top model is the RS Cosworth , which, as a homologation model for rallying, has the Sierra's floor pan and all-wheel drive. In autumn 1992, the series was refreshed with a facelift. Ford Escort front 20080205.jpg
    1990-1993 Orion '91 Notchback version of the Escort '91, released at the same time as it. This Orion also got the changes parallel to the Escort '93 in autumn 1992. From the beginning of 1994 he was offered as an escort. Ford Orion rear 20071031.jpg
    1995-2000 Escort '95 Last and extensive facelift for the Escort '91. The five-door hatchback and the tournament were built for another two years from October 1998 as the Escort Classic with the successor Focus. Ford escort mk7.JPG
    1998-2004 Focus '98 In autumn 1998 the successor to the Escort appeared in the New Edge design , which was the best-selling car model worldwide in 2000 and 2001. Initially it was introduced as a three- or five-door hatchback, while the notchback and tournament followed in early 1999. The vehicle was used as the Ford Focus WRC in the World Rally Championship from 1999 . A facelift was carried out in autumn 2001. Ford Focus 1.8 Zetec (Europe) .jpg
    2004-2010 Focus '04 In autumn 2004 Ford presented the second generation of the Focus. The variety of bodies was also great here, although in early 2007 it was expanded to include a coupé-convertible, which became the first open Ford in the compact class since the Escort convertible, which was discontinued in 1998. At the end of 2007, all models in the series were given a facelift. Ford Focus Style (II, Facelift) - front view, October 18, 2015, Düsseldorf.jpg
    2011-2018 Focus '11 The third generation of the compact car introduced in both Europe and the USA. The body variety is limited to a five-door hatchback, a notchback and the Kombi tournament . As a further innovation, new EcoBoost motors were introduced in spring 2012. They have a turbocharger and direct petrol injection. In autumn 2014, visual and technical modernization measures were carried out. Ford Focus - Mondial de l'Automobile de Paris 2014 - 008.jpg
    since 2018 Focus '18 The fourth generation of the compact car introduced in both Europe and the USA. As with the previous model, the variety of bodies is limited to a five-door hatchback, a notchback and the Kombi Tournament . Ford Focus Mk IV Hybrid at IAA 2019 IMG 0413.jpg

    Middle class

    1939-1942 /
    Taunus G93A The "humpback Taunus". A mid-range car that was offered between the small Ford Eifel and the large Ford V8. A design was chosen in which the body is welded to the frame. Stylistically, it was based on the American Lincoln Zephyr . MHV Ford Taunus G93A 1949 01.jpg
    Taunus 12M / 15M The "Weltkugeltaunus" with the engine of its predecessor. From 1955 with a new 1.5-liter engine, also available as the 15M. Body versions were sedan, convertible, tournament and panel van. MHV Ford Taunus G13 03.jpg
    Taunus 12M Revised edition of the "globe" model, which was also called "Streifentaunus". The Taunus 12M Super also has a 1.5-liter engine. Ford 12 M, built 1959 - 1962.jpg
    Taunus 12M (P4) First front-wheel drive Ford. Developed under the name Ford Cardinal in the USA for the local market in competition with the VW Beetle, but was later produced in Cologne. In addition to a limousine, they are also available as a convertible, coupé and tournament. Taunus, Belgian p2.JPG
    Taunus 12M / 15M (P6) Successor to the P4 with the same V4 engines, front-wheel drive and new strut front axle. Until August 1967 the cars were called "Taunus" 12M / 15M, after that the addition "Taunus" was dropped and they were called 12M / 15M. In addition to a two- or four-door sedan, it was also available as a coupé and tournament. 15mRSCoupé0769.jpg
    1970-1975 Taunus TC '71 / '74 The newly developed Taunus appeared at the same time as the British Cortina on the same platform and is therefore called Taunus TC . Also called “Knudsen-Taunus” because of the characteristic front section, which was initiated by the then Ford CEO Semon E. Knudsen. New engines and rear wheel drive. Also as a coupé and tournament. Ford Taunus 1.3 TC ca 1974 Schaffen-Diest 2012.jpg
    1976-1982 Taunus TC '76 / '80 From the beginning of 1976 externally streamlined model with the technology of the "Knudsen-Taunus". The coupé was omitted and the equipment was renamed. Revised in autumn 1979. The TC '80 had a new body, although it looked almost the same. Ford Taunus front 20080722.jpg
    1982-1986 Sierra '82 New construction with the engines of the predecessor Taunus TC '80. From late summer 1982, only the five-door hatchback was initially available. The tournament followed at the end of 1982 and the three-door hatchback sedan in the summer of 1983. The P100 pick-up was also available for some markets. Sporty models were the XR4i , the all-wheel drive XR4x4 and the RS Cosworth . Sierra 1984.jpg
    1987-1993 Sierra '87 / '90 The second generation, presented at the beginning of 1987, was available not only as a hatchback and station wagon version but also as a notchback version in order to win back conservative customers. In the spring of 1990, the model was updated and a more modern 1.8-liter diesel engine was introduced. Ford Sierra front 20080108.jpg
    1993-1996 Mondeo '93 Newly designed world car from Ford with transverse engine and front-wheel drive. Body versions: hatchback and notchback sedans and station wagons. Ford Mondeo front 20071012.jpg
    1996-2000 Mondeo '97 Revised version of the first generation, which is run as a second series due to the larger differences. Although designed as a “world car”, the Mondeo was never able to establish itself outside of Europe. The sporty variant ST200 followed in 1999 as a notchback and station wagon. Ford Mondeo front 20071011.jpg
    2000-2007 Mondeo '01 New development with extensive improvements and new engines and the new New Edge design. There were small changes towards mid-2003 and autumn 2005. Ford Mondeo front.JPG
    2007-2014 Mondeo '07 The fourth generation is based on the same platform as the Galaxy, which was renewed in spring 2006, as well as its sporty offshoot S-Max and has grown considerably in all dimensions. At the end of 2010, the Mondeo was revised and, in addition to the daytime running lights, also got two new engines with direct petrol injection and turbochargers. Ford Mondeo Tournament IV front 20091003.jpg
    since 2014 Mondeo '13 After the closure of the Belgian plant in Genk in the summer of 2013, around a year late, the fifth generation of the Mondeo went on sale from the beginning of 2015. In addition to the new EcoBoost petrol engines with 1.5 and 2.0 liters, the Mondeo also offers a hybrid drive with a displacement of two liters for the first time. The Vignale, which appeared in autumn 2015, is the luxurious top model in the range. In terms of body variants, sedans with hatchbacks and notchbacks as well as a station wagon are still available. Ford Mondeo Tournament Hybrid FL Monrepos 2019 IMG 1960.jpg

    upper middle class

    Taunus 17M (P2) The Ford P2 was the second new construction of a car after the Second World War, which was produced by the German Ford works after the smaller "Weltkugeltaunus" Ford G13 / G4B. Because of its shape it was also called "Baroque Taunus". Ford Taunus 17M deLuxe 1.JPG
    Taunus 17M (P3) With the new "Line of Reason" Ford turned away from the playful design of the "Baroque Taunus". Also known by the nickname "Bathtub". 2007-09-08 Ford 17M, manufactured in 1963 (ret) .jpg
    Taunus 17M / 20M (P5) The successor to the P3 was also available as the 20M with a V6 engine. Ford Taunus 17M.jpg
    17M / 20M / 26M (P7) With a new body and the engines of the P5. For the first time the name "Ford" was used instead of "Taunus". Ford P7 front 20081002.jpg
    1972-1975 Consul Economy version of the Granada, mostly with a V4 engine, and as a tournament the largest in its class. In the autumn of 1975 the name was given up, from then on the cheaper variants were also called Granada. Ford Consul.jpg
    Granada '72 / '75 Successor to the Ford 20m / 26m (P7). The body styles included two- and four-door sedans, a coupe and the tournament. In autumn 1975 the front was redesigned (less chrome trim). In addition, four-cylinder engines were now on offer after the Consul was discontinued. Ford Granada Coupe before rear three quarters reworked.JPG
    Granada '78 / '82 The second Granada in smooth form. The body variants were now limited to sedans and station wagons. The coupé was omitted, its replacement was the two-door sedan. In the late summer of 1981 the Granada was revised and the two-door model disappeared with it. The end of the series came in early 1985. Ford granada ghia x.jpg
    1985-1994 Scorpio '85 Successor to Granada. Atypical for its class, it was only built as a hatchback for a long time, which, after an initially good start in March 1985, did not sustain sales despite the generous amount of space and good safety equipment. The classic notchback sedan followed at the end of 1989, and the tournament did not come to dealers until the beginning of 1992 . Ford Scorpio front 20070801.jpg
    1994-1998 Scorpio '95 In autumn 1994 the new Scorpio '95 followed with an American-inspired design, with the sideline of the predecessor being retained. However, only the station wagon brought satisfactory sales figures, which is why it was revised in the late summer of 1997. After a total of almost four years, the Scorpio was discontinued in the summer of 1998 and was no longer replaced. Ford Scorpio front 20080214.jpg

    Coupé / convertible

    since 1964 mustang Sports coupe from the USA. In Germany sold as T5 for legal reasons . At the end of 2004, the fifth edition came on the US market, stylistically based on the original from 1964. The sixth generation has been officially available again in Germany since summer 2015. Ford Mustang I IMG 3182.jpg
    about 2,200
    OSI-Ford 20 M TS Sports coupé on the platform of the Taunus P5 with Gran Turismo body from Officine Stampaggi Industriali , OSI for short MHV Ford-OSI 01.jpg
    Capri '69 / Capri '73 Sports coupé based on the Cortina, in Germany also with a V-engine from the Taunus. A facelift followed in autumn 1972. At the end of 1973, Ford stopped production of the first generation Capri. Ford Capri 1600 1598cc July 1969.JPG
    1974-1977 Capri II / Capri II '76 Second generation of the sports coupé, which from then on was available with a large tailgate. In mid-1976, the equipment lines were rearranged and details changed. Production ended at the end of 1977. Ford Capri II GT rear.jpg
    1978-1986 Capri II '78 In the spring of 1978, a more comprehensive facelift followed for the sports coupé. The Capri now also received an injection engine and a turbo version with a carburetor that developed up to 188 hp. From the end of 1984 the Capri was only sold in Great Britain, but continued to roll off the production line in Cologne (right-hand drive) until the end of 1986. Cars-redcapri-blackpool-amoswolfe.jpg
    RS200 Homologation model for Group B of the World Rally Championship . 200 units were necessary for the homologation, but only about 140 ready-to-drive units were built. Ford RS200.jpg
    1988-1992 Sample '89 A sports car that was initially only introduced to the US market. From the end of 1990, Ford also imported the vehicles to Europe and equipped them with yellow indicators, among other things. The '89 Probe was a joint production between Ford and Mazda. Its basis was the coupe version of the Mazda 626 (Japan: Mazda MX-6). Ford Probe I gray vr.jpg
    1992-1997 Rehearsal '93 Second edition of the US sports car, which was also based on the MX-6. Initially only a 2.5-liter V6 gasoline engine was offered, which was followed at the end of 1993 by a two-liter engine with four cylinders and 16 valves. Ford Probe front 20071025.jpg
    1997-2001 puma The small coupe is based on the Fiesta '96. There were three engines from 1.4 to 1.7 liters displacement on offer. Ford puma voor.JPG
    Cougar Sports coupé based on the Mondeo '97. The Cougar was sold as Ford in Europe because of the low level of awareness of the Mercury company . In the USA it ran under the Mercury brand. Ford Cougar 20090402 front.JPG

    High roof combination

    2002-2013 Tourneo Connect Kombi version of the delivery van, here with a long wheelbase and high roof Ford transit connect.JPG
    since 2013 Ford Tourneo Connect II The successor to the first Tourneo Connect was introduced at the beginning of 2014 and now has modern engines. Ford Tourneo Connect - Mondial de l'Automobile de Paris 2012 - 001.jpg
    since 2014 Ford Transit Courier Small high-roof station wagon, which despite the name is not based on the Ford Transit and Transit Custom derived from it, but on the platform of the Fiesta and the minivan B-MAX. 2013-03-05 Geneva Motor Show 8237.JPG

    Compact van

    2003-2010 820,000 Focus C-MAX '03 / C-MAX A compact van based on the second Focus generation. Until the facelift in spring 2007 it was still called the Focus C-MAX. Ford C-Max Facelift 20090912 front.JPG
    2010-2019 C-MAX / Grand C-MAX '10 Second generation of the compact van, also available in a larger version with sliding doors at the rear as the Grand C-MAX. As in the Focus '11, the new EcoBoost motors are also finding their way into the C-MAX, with an output of up to 134 kW. Ford C-Max 1.6 TDCi Trend (II) - front view, July 30, 2011, Mettmann.jpg


    1995-2006 Galaxy '95 Big family van, nearly identical with VW Sharan and Seat Alhambra I . The facelift carried out in June 2000 brought new headlights and rear lights in the style of the New Edge design. Ford Galaxy front 20080331.jpg
    1995-2003 Wind star A large US van from Ford that was sold in Europe between mid-1998 and spring 2002. 2001-2003 Ford Windstar Limited.jpg
    2006-2015 Galaxy '06 The second generation is now a Ford in-house development in the kinetic design of the Mondeo '07. In spring 2010 the Galaxy was given a facelift. Ford Galaxy II front 20100815.jpg
    2006-2015 S-MAX The S-Max is the shorter, lower and sportier van compared to the Galaxy. The engines available were the same, but the five-cylinder turbo from the Mondeo '07 with 162 kW was also available. With the facelift in spring 2010, this was replaced by a four-cylinder EcoBoost engine with a displacement of two liters. Ford S-Max rear 20090920.jpg
    since 2015 Galaxy '15 The third generation is again an in-house development. In 2019 the Galaxy underwent a facelift. 2018 Ford Galaxy Titanium X TDCi 2.0 Front.jpg
    2006-2015 S-MAX The second generation of the S-MAX was introduced in 2015. In 2019 it was visually revised. Ford S-Max Titanium (II) - front view, November 8, 2015, Düsseldorf.jpg

    Off-road vehicle

    1993-1998 Maverick '93 The first Maverick was an off-road vehicle based on the Nissan Terrano II . Ford Maverick front 20071231.jpg
    since 1990 Explorer A larger off-road vehicle that was also sold in Europe from 1993 to 2001. The sixth generation has been offered again in Europe since 2019. Ford Explorer (sixth generation) at IAA 2019 IMG 0603.jpg
    since 1982 ranger A pickup truck that appears in a different form in the USA. Four generations of the Ranger have been produced so far. The current version has been built since the beginning of 2012. Ford Ranger 2.2 TDCi Limited Double Cab (III) - front view, April 6, 2012, Velbert.jpg

    Sports utility vehicle

    2000-2007 Maverick '01 The second Maverick generation followed in autumn 2000 and has now been classified as an SUV. It was based on the North American Ford Escape I and also shared its platform with the Mazda Tribute . Ford Maverick.JPG
    since 2003 Ford EcoSport This mini SUV has been rolling off the assembly line in Brazil since 2003. The second edition, which has been in production since spring 2012, was launched in Europe in mid-2014. Ford EcoSport II 02 Auto Chongqing 2012-06-07.JPG
    2008–2012 Kuga '08 The Kuga is an SUV based on the Focus '04. It was developed in Cologne and is being built in Saarlouis. Ford Kuga 20090811 front.JPG
    2012-2019 Kuga '13 The introduction of the second generation of the Kuga began in March 2013. It is based on the third edition of the Ford Escape , which is only available in the USA. Ford Kuga in Limburg.jpg
    since 2016 Edge The second generation of the Ford Edge has also been available in Europe since early summer 2016. Ford Edge - Mondial de l'Automobile de Paris 2014 - 014
    since 2019 puma The Puma has been available since September 2019. It is positioned between EcoSport and Kuga. Ford Puma (2019) IMG 3129.jpg
    since 2019 Kuga '20 The third generation of the Kuga has been available to order since September 2019. Ford Kuga (third generation) IMG 3128.jpg
    from 2020 Mustang Mach-E Battery-electric powered SUV, which will be available from 2020. 2020 Ford Mustang Mach-E.jpg

    Historic Ford models


    Ford Model A, 1903
    Ford Model T Tin Lizzy , 1911

    Great Britain

    (no more own models since 1970)


    (In 1954, the Poissy automobile plant was sold to Simca along with the models produced there )


    Major models outside of Europe

    Ford GPW, 1942
    Ford Mustang, 1964
    Ford Torino, 1970
    Ford Thunderbird, 1973
    Ford Escort, 1981
    Ford Bronco, 1987
    Ford Crown Victoria, 1992
    Ford Taurus, 1996
    Ford Explorer, 2001
    Ford F150, 2005
    Ford Focus, 2009
    Ford Expedition, 2018

    USA / Canada

    Timeline of Ford Models in North America, 1946–1979 - later  »
    Type 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s
    6th 7th 8th 9 0 1 2 3 4th 5 6th 7th 8th 9 0 1 2 3 4th 5 6th 7th 8th 9 0 1 2 3 4th 5 6th 7th 8th 9
    Small car Pinto Pinto Pinto
    Compact class Falcon Falcon Falcon
    Maverick Fairmont
    Middle class Fairlane Fairlane Fairlane Fairlane Granada
    Torino Torino Torino LTD II
    Full-size car 1941 1949 Ford 1952 Ford Fairlane LTD LTD LTD LTD
    Galaxy Galaxy Galaxy Galaxy Galaxy
    Custom Custom Custom Custom
    Upper class Thunderbird Thunderbird Thunderbird Thunderbird Thunderbird Thunderbird Thunderbird
    Sports car Thunderbird mustang mustang mustang mustang Mustang II mustang
    «  Before - Timeline of Ford models in North America, since 1980
    Type 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s 2020s
    0 1 2 3 4th 5 6th 7th 8th 9 0 1 2 3 4th 5 6th 7th 8th 9 0 1 2 3 4th 5 6th 7th 8th 9 0 1 2 3 4th 5 6th 7th 8th 9 0
    Small car Fiesta Festiva Aspire Fiesta
    Compact class Pinto Escort Escort Escort
    Focus Focus Focus
    Middle class Fairmont tempo tempo Contour fusion fusion
    Granada LTD Taurus Taurus Taurus Taurus Taurus
    Full-size Five Hundred Taurus
    LTD LTD Crown Victoria Crown Victoria Crown Victoria
    Luxury car Thunderbird Thunderbird Thunderbird Thunderbird
    Compact sports car EXP Escort EXP sample sample Escort ZX2 ZX2 Fiesta ST
    Focus ST
    Focus ST
    Sports car mustang mustang mustang mustang
    GT GT
    Compact pickup Courier ranger ranger ranger ranger ranger ranger
    Mid-range pickup Explorer Sport Trac Sport Trac
    Full-size pickup F series F series F series F series F series F series F series
    Super duty Super duty Super duty Super duty Super duty
    Vans Econoline Econoline / E series E series transit
    Off-road vehicle Bronco II Explorer Explorer Explorer Explorer Explorer Explorer
    Compact SUV EcoSport
    Bronco Sport
    Escape Escape Escape Escape
    Mid-size SUV Edge Edge
    Full-size SUV Bronco Bronco
    expedition expedition expedition expedition
    Crossover SUV Freestyle Taurus X Mustang Mach-E
    Compact van C-MAX
    Minivan Aerostar
    Wind star Freestar Transit Connect Transit Connect


    Ford Falcon XR6, 2005


    Ford EcoSport, 2007

    India, South Africa

    Ford commercial vehicles

    A Ford dealer in Los Toldos, Buenos Aires.

    Since 1908, Ford has also manufactured commercial vehicles that were initially derived from the Ford T-model and which soon developed independently. In addition to the USA, Ford commercial vehicles were produced, sold or manufactured under license in Argentina , Australia , Brazil , Germany , France , Great Britain , India , Canada , the Netherlands , the Philippines , Spain and Turkey , including in Canada under the brand Mercury , in Great Britain as Ford , from 1933 to 1939 as Fordson , from 1939 to 1957 as Fordson Thames (for car-based vans also Ford Thames ), from 1957 to 1965 as Thames and then again as Ford and in Spain under license under the Ebro brand .

    Most of these branches of production and sales have now expired. The US activities above light trucks were sold in 1997 to the Daimler subsidiary Freightliner , which continues to operate them under the brand name Sterling Trucks . In Germany, truck production above the Transit van was abandoned in 1961, experienced a revival since 1973 and ended again at the end of the 1980s when the remaining production facilities were sold to Iveco . Ford plans to discontinue its truck business in South America in 2019. Ford has been successfully represented in Europe since 1953 with the Ford Transit van, which is currently in its sixth generation.

    Ford brand construction machinery

    In addition to passenger cars and commercial vehicles, Ford also manufactured construction machinery at times. Both hydraulic excavators with crawler and wheeled chassis as well as backhoe loaders and wheel loaders were offered . For example, Ford built 4400 and 4500 backhoe loaders in its Danish plant between 1967 and 1974.


    • In the years 1932 to 1934, the gangster couple Bonnie Parker and Clyde Barrow made large parts of the United States unsafe. The preferred getaway vehicle was a Ford V8 sedan. In a letter to Henry Ford, Clyde is said to have praised the quality of Ford vehicles. The authenticity of the letter is doubtful, but Ford definitely took advantage of the gangsters' popularity for an advertising campaign.
    • Although the Ford Motor Company built and supplied military vehicles for the Nazi regime, the rulers in the Third Reich banned the use of the Ford logo. Instead, the logo of Cologne Cathedral was emblazoned on the radiator grille of Ford models during the Nazi era .
    • On October 20, 1977, a major fire destroyed around 75 percent of the central Ford spare parts warehouse in Cologne-Merkenich and caused damage of over 300 million marks. With the help of the other European Ford spare parts centers and the preserved data center, parts deliveries could be resumed just two days after the fire; however, many parts for older car model series are no longer available.
    • Ford was ranked 8th on the Toxic 100 Index in 2010 .
    • In December 2018, former Ford managers Pedro Müller and Héctor Francisco Sibilla were sentenced to long prison terms by an Argentine court for allegedly collaborating with the Argentine military regime in the 1970s in the kidnapping and torture of trade unionists .
    • In 2020 Ford will recall 2.15 million vehicles in America. The reason for this is a defective door lock, which ensures that the door can open while driving. Ford is not yet aware of any accident due to this defect, but the company has decided to retrofit the vehicles.

    In fiction

    • Louis-Ferdinand Céline : Voyage au bout de la nuit , French 1932, German adaptation (inadequate) 1933, German new translation Schmidt-Henkel, for the first time in 2005 (the anti-hero now ends up in America, where he works for Ford works on the assembly line)
    • Upton Sinclair : The Flivver King USA 1937. Numerous translations into German with varying titles; most recently Area-Verlag, Erftstadt 2004 (as double volume with jungle )


    • Joachim Kuch: Ford in Germany since 1925 . Motorbuch Verlag, Stuttgart 2003, ISBN 3-613-02345-8 .
    • Ford-Werke Cologne: Ford moves - 75 years of Ford in Germany . Delius Klasing Verlag, Bielefeld 2000, ISBN 3-7688-1239-1 .
    • Rainer Braun, Ferdi Kräling: Snapshots - A journey through time through 75 years of Ford Motorsport in Germany . HEEL Verlag GmbH, Königswinter 2000, ISBN 3-89365-904-8 .
    • Robert DeLaRive Box: Ford's Passenger Cars - USA, 1945–1965 . Serag, 1990, ISBN 3-908007-64-X .
    • Börry Lauenstein: FORD type customer. All cars from 1948 for the German market. Delius Klasing, Bielefeld 2005, ISBN 3-7688-1620-6 .
    • Christian Steiger: Ford passenger car since 1945, type compass . Motorbuch Verlag, Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 3-613-02692-9 .

    Web links

    Commons : Ford  album with pictures, videos and audio files
    Commons : Category: Ford  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files

    Individual evidence

    1. a b Ford Motor Company: Annual Report 2019 (PDF; 11MB) Retrieved June 13, 2020 (English). [1]
    2. ^ David L. Lewis: They may save our honor, our hopes — and our necks. In: Michigan History Online (Originally published September / October 1993). ( Memento from January 14, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
    3. ^ Ann Johnson: How Ford invented the SQUID . IEEE Spectrum, No. 11.14, Posted 27 Oct 2014 (English)
    4. Lakeland Ledger: Ford Moves to Acquire Philco Assets September 14, 1961.
    5. PHILCO Computer History -TRANSAC 2000 Transistor Mainframe (Electronics Radio) NORAD NASA SOLO Computer History Archives Project (CHA),, December 15, 2018, accessed November 29, 2019. - Timeline table via Philco at 12:32 / 12 : 43 of the video.
    6. New method of priming technology. In: Motor vehicle technology 9/1964, p. 339.
    9. US car market - Toyota overtakes Ford
    10. ROUNDUP: Ford surprises with billions in profits
    11. After losing billions: Ford pays dividends again on ( Memento from January 12, 2012 in the Internet Archive ), December 9, 2011
    12. Big anniversary at Ford - the 350 millionth car on , August 31, 2012
    13. Jim Farley: The new boss should provide more speed at Ford. Retrieved August 5, 2020 .
    14. Jim Farley: The new boss should provide more speed at Ford. Retrieved August 5, 2020 .
    15. Ford Motor Revenue 2006-2018 | F. Retrieved October 22, 2018 .
    16. a b Ulf Böge, Daniel Foged: Yearbook Construction Machinery 2019 . Podszun-Verlag, 2018, ISBN 978-3-86133-894-9 , page 6.
    17. Financial Times Deutschland Online from March 26, 2008 ( Memento from August 1, 2012 in the web archive )
    18. Now Mazda and Ford also divorced, November 18, 2015
    19. Ford sells Volvo to the Chinese
    20. Three million Ford Focus produced in Europe. February 26, 2004, archived from the original on October 18, 2009 ; Retrieved February 21, 2009 .
    21. Plant closes: Ford ceases truck business in South America., February 20, 2019, accessed on May 21, 2019.
    22. ^ Criminal cases and scandals in the 20th century, Orbis-Verlag, ISBN 3-572-00983-9 .
    23. Car logos and what they mean
    24. Chronicle of Ford
    25. ^ Former Ford directors convicted of kidnapping and torture on, accessed December 19, 2018.
    26. Car maker: Ford recalls over two million cars in America. Retrieved June 14, 2020 .
    27. For the German title variants see the name article Sinclair, there also web links to a German online version and a German online selection