Nike (company)

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Nike Inc.

legal form Corporation
ISIN US6541061031
founding 1964 (as Blue Ribbon Sports),
1971 (as Nike Inc.)
Seat Beaverton , Oregon , United States
United StatesUnited States 
Number of employees 76,700 (2019)
sales 39.1 billion US dollars (2019)

Nike Factory Store in Wisconsin
Nike football boots
Air Max Classic BW
Skateboard shoes from Nike

Nike Inc. ( English officially [ ˈnaɪki ], based on the Greek νίκη nike [ níːkɛː ], German 'victory' ; or " Nike, the goddess of victory ") is an internationally active US sporting goods manufacturer founded in 1964 and 1971 respectively . His company is based in Beaverton in the US state of Oregon . Nike has been the world's leading sporting goods supplier since 1989. Nike came mid-2018 to a market capitalization of 110.3 billion US dollars , making it one of the 100 most valuable companies in the world.


Bill Bowerman , the successful track coach at the University of Oregon in Eugene , founded in June 1964, together with Philip Knight , the company Blue Ribbon Sports . The company initially sold Onitsuka Tiger (today: Asics ) sports shoes , before starting in 1971, under the name Nike (name of the Greek goddess of victory ), producing shoes that were lighter and had more profiled soles than the usual US American shoes. In 1972 the first self-produced collection appeared.

Nike's commercial success was linked to loyalty to successful athletes. The company equipped Steve Prefontaine , who came fourth at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich over 5000 meters. He also made Nike shoes known to other runners. In 1978, Nike started selling shoes in Europe.

In 1984, Nike signed the then basketball player rookie Michael Jordan . Together they designed their own collections. In the first year of cooperation Nike generated 130 million US dollars with the brand Air Jordan . Overall, Jordan is said to have brought the company about 2.6 billion US dollars in sales.

In 1989, Nike achieved the leading position worldwide as a sporting goods supplier, which it still holds today.

In 1994 the soccer world champions from Brazil were "committed". In 1995, Nike took over the Canadian ice hockey supplier Canstar for 395 million US dollars, including the Bauer brand . 1996 saw the next coup after Michael Jordan with the then little-known golfer Tiger Woods . For five million US dollars a year, Nike became the outfitter for the future golf star. The professional cyclist and triathlete Lance Armstrong was later won over to the company.

In September 2003, Nike acquired the Converse brand for $ 305 million.

Knight resigned as director in 2004, and was succeeded by William D. Perez . In January 2006, Perez was replaced by Mark Parker .

With the campaign “Stand up, speak up!” (“Stand up, raise your voice!”), Nike has been campaigning against racism since February 2005 and advocating more tolerance and acceptance in European football stadiums.

In April 2008 the ice hockey division Nikebauer was sold to a group of investors from Kohlberg & Company and the Canadian businessman W. Graeme Roustan . The retail price was quoted at $ 200 million.

In addition, Nike has been the main sponsor of the NFL (the American professional league in American football ) since 2012 .

In 2015, Nike signed a lifelong advertising contract with an athlete, LeBron James, for the first time in its company's history .

The graphic design -Studentin Carolyn Davidson designed the for around $ 35 Logo , the so-called Swoosh . Today this “Nike hook” is one of the most famous trademarks in the world, as is the slogan Just do it . The two brand components are used either alone or in combination for branding.

Business figures

In fiscal 2017, Nike had sales of $ 34.4 billion with a profit of $ 4.2 billion. Since 2003, sales have more than tripled and profits more than eightfold. The stock market value rose in the same period from $ 11.8 billion to $ 99.2 billion and was approximately $ 142 billion in October 2018.

year Sales
in billion US dollars
in billions of dollars
in billions of dollars
Market value
in billion US dollars
2003 10.7 0.5 6.8 11.8
2004 12.3 0.9 7.9 18.0
2005 13.7 1.2 8.8 23.9
2006 15.0 1.4 9.8 ...
2007 16.3 1.5 10.7 ...
2008 18.6 1.9 12.4 32.2
2009 19.2 1.5 13.2 25.0
2010 19.0 1.9 14.4 32.1
2011 20.1 2.1 15.0 41.3
2012 23.3 2.2 15.5 ...
2013 25.3 2.5 17.5 47.3
2014 27.8 2.7 18.6 70.3
2015 30.6 3.3 21.6 83.7
2016 32.4 3.8 21.4 107.0
2017 34.4 4.2 23.3 99.2



When Nike was founded, it was initially just about manufacturing and selling sports shoes . The brand is still best known today for its various, mostly eye-catching shoe models; This range of shoes now includes popular sneakers and casual shoes and various running shoes in numerous colors and variations. As part of the project of organizing the first marathon run under 2 hours, NIKE has also changed the marathon running shoe in such a way that, thanks to a modified sole made of easily deformable thermoplastic and a thin, springy carbon plate in the sole, the running times can be increased by up to 4% can be improved. These Nike Vaporfly 4% or ZoomX Vaporfly Next% have proven in scientific tests to be so superior to other models and even spikes that they are now used by most top runners.


Over the years many more sporting goods have been added to the range. These items include: shorts , browbands and wristbands, hoodies and sweatshirts, jackets and vests, jerseys , running pants or gymnastic and training pants , t-shirts and polo shirts.

Sports accessories

There are also numerous sports accessories , sports equipment and accessories from Nike. These include bags and rucksacks, hats and caps, tennis balls, basketballs and footballs, shin guards, socks, gloves, towels and watches.

Fitness tracker

With Nike +, the company entered the fitness tracker business and offered products such as the “Nike + Fuelband” fitness bracelet and various wearables . The company also released the “Nike + Running” smartphone app for iOS and Android , which can be used to record runs. In April 2014, Nike announced that it would stop developing its fitness bracelets. Existing products were supported until April 2018. In August 2016 the app was renamed “Nike + Run Club” and at the same time received a makeover, which triggered a lot of criticism. The Apple Watch Nike +, a collaboration between Apple and Nike , was released in October 2016 . Except for small differences, the smartwatch was a regular Apple Watch Series 2. For the Apple Watch Series 3, a new model appeared in collaboration between the two companies with the same name as its predecessor.

Sponsorship of athletes

The company equips many athletes in various sports:

"Breaking2" record attempt

On May 6, 2017, the three long-distance runners Eliud Kipchoge , Lelisa Desisa and Zersenay Tadese started together for Nike on the Formula 1 circuit in Monza in an attempt to set the best time for the marathon with specific preparation and equipment - " Breaking2 ”roughly translates as“ crack the 2 [hours] ”. They failed with this project; Kipchoge was fastest, 25 seconds over the two-hour mark. The result is not considered a world record, as the rules of the IAAFn World Athletics Association for marathons were violated during the race . 18 pacemakers in 6 groups were repeatedly exchanged.

Department store

Niketown Berlin, one month before closing in 2013

Under the name Niketown , Nike opened 14 department stores in the USA, Great Britain , France and Germany . The first Niketown opened in Portland in 1990 . Niketown , which opened in Manhattan in 1996, is Nike's flagship. From 1999 to 2013 there was the first German Niketown department store on Tauentzienstrasse in Berlin-Charlottenburg , in which a branch of the Japanese textile chain Uniqlo was opened in April 2014 . In February 2014, the Niketown department store was reopened a few meters from the old location.

Nike Barbershop

In June 2012, the company began a new advertising concept with the Nike Barber Shop , a 1920s-style hair salon. The salons opened simultaneously in Buenos Aires , Milan , Madrid , Mexico City , Moscow and Paris . The Paris barber shop is in the Cremerie de Paris and is limited to one month - a promotional video with footballer Mario Balotelli was shot for this “pop-up shop” .


Abuses in factories and suppliers

While large sums of money flow into marketing budgets, wages in production are kept as low as possible at the same time.

Since the 1970s to the present day, Nike has been confronted with allegations by human rights organizations about the working conditions in its factories. According to a study, around 650,000 people worked in partner factories for Nike in 2005, mainly in Southeast Asia. In up to 50 percent of the establishments, access to toilets and drinking water was restricted during working hours. More than half of the 700 factories worked more than 60 hours a week, and every fourth factory was paid less than the minimum wage.

Among other things, the company is accused of exploitation, child labor and other abuses in supplier companies in the Black Book of Brand Companies . The US filmmaker Michael Moore also criticized the company in the documentary The Great Makers . Nike had previously outsourced a large part of its shoe production to Indonesia, some of which were made there by children for 19 US cents an hour wages.

In 2016, more than a million people in 565 factories in 42 countries were doing contract work for Nike. In most Asian countries, their wages are barely enough for a living. A report published in 2016 by the regulatory authority Worker Rights Consortium (WRC) on a Vietnamese Nike factory with around 8,500 employees once again revealed numerous irregularities. In addition to insufficient pay and forced overtime, pregnant women were systematically dismissed. Employees were insulted and exposed to high temperatures and toxic fumes. Sick people were not allowed to take time off, and access to toilets was restricted.

Paradise Papers

In November 2017, Nike is listed in the Paradise Papers publications . As the Süddeutsche Zeitung reported, Nike is a client of Appleby, which helps Nike to pay hardly any taxes in Germany. Nike has reportedly used a tax loophole in the Netherlands called the CV-BV structure.

Web links

Commons : Nike  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. a b 2019 FORM 10-K. Nike, July 30, 2019, accessed June 11, 2020 .
  2. Riddle around the pronunciation of the brand "Nike" solved. In: Yahoo Finance. June 4, 2014, accessed March 26, 2019 .
  3. a b Company history - 1980s ( Memento from February 28, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Nikebiz (English)
  4. ^ Nike on the Forbes Top Regarded Companies List . In: Forbes . ( [accessed November 20, 2017]).
  5. Charles Panati: Universal History of Ordinary Things . Frankfurt 1994, p. 233 f.
  6. Company history - 1950s ( Memento from May 29, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Nikebiz (English)
  7. Company history - 1970s ( Memento from July 10, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Nikebiz (English)
  8. The “Jordan Effect” The world's greatest basketball player is also one of its great brands. What is his impact on the economy? CNN, June 22, 1998 (English)
  9. How Michael Jordan Still Makes $ 100 Million A Year ., March 11, 2015; accessed on June 13, 2016
  10. The Economics Of Nike's Air Jordan Brand ., September 19, 2015; accessed on June 13, 2016
  11. Company history - 1990s. ( Memento of July 13, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Nikebiz (English)
  12. Zubin Jelveh: Just Buy It . (English)
  13. Nike Completes Sale of Bauer Hockey! ( Memento from April 28, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Nikebiz, April 17, 2008 (English)
  14. LeBron James with Lifetime Advertising Contract: Until Death Do Their Part. In: Spiegel Online . December 8, 2015, accessed December 8, 2015 .
  15. The Nike logo. $ 35 for a logo design. Retrieved July 22, 2014.
  16. Nike Classic Logo Vector
  17. Nike | NKE | Sales revenues. Retrieved October 20, 2018 .
  18. ^ Allison Goldstein: "Everything You Wanted to Know About the Biomechanics of the Nike Vaporfly 4%" of February 23, 2019
  19. Hoogkamer et al .: How biomechanical improvements in running ecoinomy couold break the 2-hour marathon barrier. Sports Medicine 47 (9), 1739-170
  20. Bernes & Kilding: A randomized cross-over study investigating the running economy of highly trained male and female distance runners in marathon racing shoes versus track spikes. Sport Medicine 49th 2019. (2), 332-342
  21. Arnd Krüger : New thinking in endurance sports? Competitive sport (magazine) 49.2019 (5), 32–34
  22. Nike decides to end the Fuelband , accessed on July 16, 2014.
  23. Fitness not first: Nike gives up Fuelband . In: FAZ.NET . ISSN  0174-4909 ( [accessed July 15, 2018]).
  24. Benedikt Fuest: App update: This is how Nike pissed off its jogging customers . In: THE WORLD . August 29, 2016 ( [accessed July 15, 2018]).
  25. Collaboration with Nike: Apple's running watch is coming on October 28th . In: . October 17, 2016 ( [accessed July 15, 2018]).
  26. Apple Watch Series 3: Nike version now available in stores . In: . October 6, 2017 ( [accessed July 15, 2018]).
  27. The Nike monopoly in sport ( February 28, 2014, accessed March 6, 2014)
  28. Nike Golf Officially Announces Signing Of McIlroy, Immediately Releases New TV Ad (sportsbusinessdaily January 14, 2014, accessed March 6, 2014)
  29. Breaking2: Questions and Answers (accessed May 6, 2017)
  30. Marathon under two hours: Eliud Kipchoge just fails  ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) FAZ Online, May 6, 2017@1@ 2Template: Dead Link /
  31. Construction site in Berlin A lot more is being dredged in City West , Der Tagesspiegel , April 3, 2014
  32. Berlin-Charlottenburg Quick change at the Europa-Center , Der Tagesspiegel , February 15, 2014
  33. Nike opens new flagship store in Berlin  ( page no longer available , search in web archives ),, February 10, 2014@1@ 2Template: Toter Link /
  34. Opening of the Nike Barbershop in the Cremerie de Paris ( Memento from June 16, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
  35. Creation of the Nike Barbershop in the Cremerie de Paris ( Memento from June 10, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
  36. Nike Barbershop Video ( Memento from November 19, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
  37. Sports goods giant Nike is pilloried, accessed on September 14, 2018
  38. Klaus Werner, Hans Weiss: Black Book Brand Firms - The machinations of global corporations (in various languages, including: German, English, French)
  39. Michael Moore ( : Score one for 'the big one'! - Nike Raises Minimum Age ( Memento from August 19, 2007 in the Internet Archive ), May 12th 1998 (English)
  40. The sneaker manufacturers try their hand at fair production, accessed on September 14, 2018
  41. Worker Rights Consortium, accessed September 14, 2018
  42. Nike reacts to US student protests over labor conditions, accessed on September 14, 2018
  43. ^ Paradise Papers - The research of the Süddeutsche Zeitung . Retrieved November 7, 2017.
  44. ^ Süddeutsche de GmbH, Munich Germany: This is how the tax saving model from Nike works. Retrieved November 8, 2017 .