Portland, Oregon

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Nicknames : Rose City, P-Town, Stumptown, Bridgetown, PDX, Little Beirut, Beertown
Portland with Mount Hood in the background
Portland with Mount Hood in the background
Seal of Portland
Portland flag
County and state location
Multnomah County Oregon Incorporated and Unincorporated areas Portland Highlighted.svg
Basic data
Foundation : February 8, 1851
State : United States
State : Oregon
Counties : Multnomah County
Washington County
Clackamas County
Coordinates : 45 ° 31 ′  N , 122 ° 41 ′  W Coordinates: 45 ° 31 ′  N , 122 ° 41 ′  W
Time zone : Pacific ( UTC − 8 / −7 )
Inhabitants :
Metropolitan Area :
639,863 (as of 2016)
2,260,000 (as of 2010)
Population density : 1,839.2 inhabitants per km 2
Area : 376.5 km 2  (approx. 145 mi 2 ) of
which 347.9 km 2  (approx. 134 mi 2 ) is land
Height : 15.2 m
Postcodes : 97222-97296
Area code : +1 503,971
FIPS : 41-59000
GNIS ID : 1136645
Website : www.portlandoregon.gov
Mayor : Ted Wheeler ( D )
Portland from the air

Portland is a city in the northwestern United States in the state of Oregon . Portland is the largest city and the economic center of the state.

With a population of 639,863 (2016 census), Portland is the second largest city in the Pacific Northwest region after Seattle in neighboring Washington and before Vancouver in Canada . More than 2.3 million people live in the greater Portland area. The city is the capital ( county seat ) of Multnomah County and seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Portland, Oregon .


Location and extent of the urban area

Portland is located on the northwestern edge of Oregon at the confluence of the Willamette River in the Columbia River . The metropolis has a total area of ​​376.5 km², consisting of 347.9 km² of land and 28.6 km² of water.


The highest temperature in summer is approx. 29 ° C, the lowest temperature in winter is approx. −2 ° C. Portland is one of the rainy areas in Oregon, with an annual mean rainfall of 1075 mm. Statistically, the most precipitation falls in the months of November to January. In summer it rains rather seldom, so that the annual amount of precipitation remains within the usual limits for these latitudes.

Portland, Oregon
Climate diagram
J F. M. A. M. J J A. S. O N D.
Temperature in ° Cprecipitation in mm
Source: National Weather Service, US Dept of Commerce ; wetterkontor.de
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Portland, Oregon
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Max. Temperature ( ° C ) 7.4 10.6 13.3 15.9 19.5 23.3 26.6 26.8 23.7 17.8 11.4 7.6 O 17th
Min. Temperature (° C) 0.9 2.3 3.7 5.2 8.3 11.6 13.6 13.8 11.1 7.2 4.2 1.6 O 7th
Precipitation ( mm ) 135.9 97.8 90.4 60.7 52.3 37.6 16.0 27.7 44.4 67.8 135.6 155.7 Σ 921.9
Hours of sunshine ( h / d ) 2.8 4.1 6.2 7.4 8.9 9.7 10.7 9.6 7.9 4.9 2.6 2.1 O 6.4
Rainy days ( d ) 14.7 12.9 14.4 11.1 9.0 6.3 2.8 4.1 6.3 9.4 15.9 15.7 Σ 122.6
Humidity ( % ) 81 78 75 72 69 66 63 65 69 78 82 83 O 73.4
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec


According to the 2010 census, the population was 72.2 percent white and 6.3 percent African-American; 7.1 percent were of Asian descent; 1.0% were Indians . 9.4 percent of the population were Hispanics . The median income per household in 2015 was 55,003 US dollars . 18.0 percent of the population lived below the poverty line.

Population development

year Residents¹
1950 373,628
1960 372,676
1970 382,619
1980 366.148
1990 437.319
2000 529.122
2010 583,800
2016 639.863

¹ 1950–2010: census results; 2016: US Census Bureau estimate

Thus, the population increased by 56% from 1950 to 2010.

Metropolitan area

The metropolitan area Portland (Metropolitan Statistical Area Portland - Vancouver - Hillsboro) includes 58 cities with the status 'City' according to the definition of the US Census Bureau from 2015. The largest cities are Vancouver in Washington State and Gresham , Hillsboro and Beaverton in Oregon. The smallest town is Prescott with 55 inhabitants.

The last 2010 census found a population of 2,226,012, of which 24% is in the city of Portland itself.

The following table shows the population development of the Metropolitan Statistical Area Portland - Vancouver - Hillsboro according to the definition of the US Census Bureau 2015:

year Residents¹
1990 1,523,741
2000 1,927,904
2010 2,226,012
2016 2,424,955

¹ 1990–2010: census results; 2016: US Census Bureau estimate

The table shows an increase in the number of inhabitants from 1990 to 2010 of 46%.


Portland emerged as a settlement in the early 1840s and was initially The Clearing ( The Clearing ) or Stumptown ( stump town called). The latter name goes back to the numerous tree stumps that shaped parts of the townscape for a while. Due to the rapid growth, numerous trees were felled to make room for the site and building materials. The tree stumps were initially left in the ground for a long time.

The decision was allegedly made by tossing a coin, the names "Boston" and "Portland" were available. For many years Portland was overshadowed by the then capital, Oregon City . In 1850, Portland had about 800 residents. Until the 1890s, the port of Portland was of enormous importance in the region. Due to the expansion of the railroad and the new rail link between the region and the deep-water port of Seattle, the port in Portland lost its importance.

Portland, like other port cities on the west coast of the USA , was notorious for the so-called Shanghai seafarers. A tunnel system that was originally created for legal purposes and stretched over several blocks of the city center therefore had a reputation for being used as a Shanghai tunnel for kidnappings.

Politics and administration

Current Mayor Ted Wheeler

Portland is governed by a mayor , four city ​​commissioners and an auditor (treasurer), with all office holders being elected for four years. The city ​​council consists of the mayor and commissioners . The auditor is also responsible for the finance department and has no voting rights.

Portland and the surrounding area is governed by the Metro Oregon regional government , a type of district government. This administrative unit is the only directly elected regional government in the United States. The Metro Oregon regional government operates and owns the Oregon Convention Center , the Oregon Zoo , the Portland Center for Performing Arts, and the Portland Metropolitan Exposition Center .

Ted Wheeler has been the city's mayor since January 2017 . He is the successor to Charlie Hales .

Portland has nine twin cities and there is a city friendship with one city:

Culture and sights

Oregon Convention Center


  • Children's Museum (in Washington Park)
  • Oregon Historical Society
  • Oregon Museum of Science and Industry at the Eastbank Esplanade with the decommissioned in 1990 submarine USS Blueback the Barbel-class submarine with a length of 66.9 meters.
  • Pioneer Courthouse was built from 1869 to 1903 and is the oldest federal agency building in the Pacific Northwest
  • Pittock Mansion, an early 19th century mansion (now a museum)
  • The Portland Art Museum opened in 1892 and is the oldest art museum in the Pacific Northwest. It has an area of ​​22,000 m² and shows 35,000 works of art of all kinds, for example photographs, paintings, drawings and handicrafts. The PAM deals with topics such as Native American Art, Art of the Northwest and Asian Art. It also has a sculpture garden.
  • Portland Institute for Contemporary Art
  • Shanghai tunnel
  • Bathtub Art Museum
  • World Forestry Center


Portland's independent and alternative scene has been one of the liveliest in the Northwest since the early 1980s. In the early 1980s, hardcore punk was an important genre with bands like the Wipers and Poison Idea . The Portland independent scene includes internationally known indie bands such as Courtney Love , Stephen Malkmus and the Jicks , Sleater-Kinney , Team Dresch , Blitzen Trapper , Portugal. The Man , Quasi , The Decemberists , Modest Mouse , The Gossip , The Shins , Heatmiser , and musicians like John McEntire ( Tortoise , The Sea and Cake , Gastr del Sol , My Dad Is Dead ), Elliott Smith , Dave Allen ( Gang of Four and Shriekback ), Johnny Marr ( The Smiths , The Cribs ), Laura Veirs and others. a. Portland filmmaker Gus Van Sant is close to this scene . Other well-known musicians from the city include the bands The Dandy Warhols , Dan Reed Network and the guitarist of the band Kiss , Tommy Thayer .

The comedy series Portlandia , in which well-known Portland musicians have guest appearances, caricatures this alternative scene.

Orchestra and choirs

The Oregon Symphony is a nationally important symphony orchestra with 88 full-time musicians, founded in 1896, which is located in the Arlene Schnitzer Concert Hall .

The Pink Martini group comes from Portland and was founded here in 1994 by Thomas M. Lauderdale. One of their best known hits is the title Sympathique from the album of the same name.

Libertarian morality

Portland and Oregon have a longstanding tradition of libertarian and individualistic morality.

Public nudity was allowed for established art as well as pornographic recordings for decades. Unusually for the United States, nudist beaches have long existed , just as nudity is allowed at county fairs. At least one county fair is known nationwide for naked people and overt cannabis use. The World Naked Bike Ride takes place in Portland at the end of June .


Portland has some of the liveliest nightlife in the United States. The city fights with San Francisco and Los Angeles for the highest density of strip clubs. Nightlife as it is today began to develop in 1989 when the 9th District Appellate Judge allowed total commercial nudity in the state of Oregon. The city's ban on simultaneously selling alcohol and offering a full nightclub program discriminates against businesses with alcohol licenses. In the three years to 1992, 50 strip clubs opened on the city 's east side , and by 1997 the number had risen to 80. There was also a growing market for escort services such as “underwear clubs”, “tanning salons for gentlemen” and the like.

While few clubs were newly founded, most clubs consist of older pubs and pool halls that have built an additional stage into their premises. Most of these clubs are located on the main streets and are easily recognizable as strip clubs from the outside due to minimal advertising requirements. They have established themselves as part of nightlife, in which at least men also go out normally and in public, meet friends or celebrate parties.

Various attempts by lawmakers to contain business failed. While the courts interpreted nude dancing as a form of expression falling under the freedom of expression clause, they ruled that several attempts to contain the industry were illegal. Urban plans to require at least 1,000 feet between nightclubs and housing developments, and at least two feet between dancer and customer, have not been successful.

In 1994 the city also allowed a form of gambling in pubs and clubs with video poker. Since Oregon does not levy sales tax, the additional public income from the gambling concessions was an argument that convinced city councils and the population relatively easily to the project.



Night panorama of downtown Portland
Downtown Portland with the Hawthorne Bridge

Portland has fourteen bridges that span the Willamette or Columbia.

Willamette River

Willamette River

The following bridges cross the Willamette :

  • The 529 meter long Broadway Bridge (built in 1913) is a bascule bridge and part of Broadway Street. It was designed by Ralph Modjeski .
  • Burnside Bridge (built in 1926) is a bascule bridge that is part of Burnside Street. It was designed by Gustav Lindenthal .
  • The Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge 5.1 is a lift bridge for rail traffic. It was built in 1908 as the longest swing bridge in the world and converted into a lift bridge in 1989.
  • The Fremont Bridge dates from 1973 and is the youngest in the city. The two-story bridge connects I-405 and US-30 with I-5. The 656-meter-long structure was not built on site, but was floated in here fully assembled. With a span of 383 meters, it is the second longest arched bridge in the world .
  • The Hawthorne Bridge was completed in 1910 and is the successor to the Madison Street Bridge (1891-1902). It was renovated from 1998 to 1999 and is now green with orange lines (previously yellow).
  • The Marquam Bridge serves the loop Interstate I-5 / I-405 (built in 1966)
  • The Morrison Bridge bascule bridge was completed in 1958. It is located north of Hawthorne Bridge and south of Burnside Bridge. To the east it connects Belmont and Morrison Streets; Washington and Alder Streets to the west. At this point there was previously a bridge that was built in the 1890s.
  • The Ross Island Bridge (built in 1926) was constructed by the world-famous engineer Gustav Lindenthal (he also planned the Burnside and Sellwood Bridges). Ross Island Bridge connects Arthur Street to the west and Powell Boulevard to the east.
  • Sellwood Bridge is the name of a bridge built in 1925 that connects the OR-43 state road south of John's Landing with the Sellwood district (east side). Due to its age, the bridge has poor statics and has been closed to heavy vehicles such as buses and trucks since 2005.
  • The green painted suspension bridge St. Johns Bridge (built in 1931) connects the north part with the north-west part over the road US-30 at 367.89 meters. It is currently proposed as a historical landmark . The designers were Holton Robinson and David Steinman .
  • The Steel Bridge, built in 1912, is a double lift bridge (the only one of its kind) and consists of two levels. The lower one is used for rail traffic, the upper one for tram and road traffic. It replaces a bridge that was built here in 1888.
  • The Tilikum Crossing, opened in 2015, is a cable-stayed bridge that is used exclusively for bus and tram traffic. Furthermore, pedestrians and cyclists are allowed. The term Tilikum stands for the word "people" in the Chinook language .


The following bridges cross the Columbia :

  • The Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge 9.6 is a swing bridge for rail traffic over the Columbia River. It was built in 1908, also based on designs by Ralph Modjeski.
  • The Glenn Jackson Bridge was built in 1982 and is Portland's youngest bridge. It has a length of 3581 meters and serves the I-205. It leads to Washington via Government Island. The bridge was named after a senior Oregon Highway Commission official, Glenn Jackson.
  • The 1076.24 meter long Interstate Bridge was built in 1917/1958 and consists of two parts (east part in 1917, west part built in 1958).

Historic Buildings

Pioneer Courthouse Square with Jackson Tower (center)
  • The Arlene Schnitzer Concert Hall is a concert hall on Broadway with a rococo interior. The house was built in 1928 as The Paramount theater and was converted into a concert hall in 1974. The Heathman Hotel is attached to it.
  • The Benson Hotel was built in 1912 and has been an elegant 375-room hotel ever since.
  • The Lloyd Center shopping mall was the largest in the world when it opened in January 1960.
  • The Meier & Frank Building, built between 1909 and 1932, is an administration building of the former department store chain Meier & Frank (SW Fifth, Alder, Sixth and Morrison St).
  • The Oregon Convention Center is a large convention center on Willamette with two large spars as an architectural eye-catcher.
  • The Pittock Mansion is a sophisticated villa from the early 20th century that is open to visitors.
  • Rose Garden Arena , a stadium and home of the Portland Trail Blazers
  • Union Station, an old train station with a clock tower
  • Pioneer Courthouse, the oldest federal building in the Pacific Northwest (Pioneer Courthouse Square)
  • In the old town there are numerous cast iron buildings from the Wilhelminian era.
  • Weatherly Building , commercial building 1926
  • The Alberta Rose Theater , built in 1926 as the Alameda Theater , was Portland's only African American-run cinema and center of blaxploitation films in the 1960s .
  • The Portland Building by Michael Graves , built in 1982, is one of the first large structures of postmodern architecture . It has 15 floors and is used by the city administration (1120 SW 5th Avenue in the city center).

The National Park Service has three National Historic Landmarks for Portland (as of December 2016): the Pioneer Courthouse, the Skidmore / Old Town Historic District and the Aubrey Watzek House . A total of 570 structures and sites are listed in the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) (as of January 3, 2019).

Tall structures

  • Wells Fargo Center (166 m, built 1972)
  • US Bancorp Tower (163 m, built 1983)
  • KOIN Center (155 m, built 1984)
  • PacWest Center (127 m, built 1984)
  • Fox Tower (133 m, built 2000)
  • Standard Insurance Center (112 m, built 1971)
  • Congress Center (98 m, built 1980)
  • Mark O. Hatfield United States Courthouse (97 m, built 1997)
  • ODS Tower (94 m, built 1999)
  • 1000 Broadway (88 m, built 1991)
  • John Ross Tower (99 m, built 2007)

Gardens, parks and green spaces

The city has a large number of gardens, parks and green spaces.

Washington Park

Portland Japanese Garden

Washington Park has an area of ​​52.41 hectares and is located on a hill (61 to 265 m). It includes the Oregon Zoo with 200 species, a Japanese garden with a size of 22,000 m², the Hoyt Arboretum founded in 1928 with 10,000 trees, a children's museum and the World Forestry Center (since 1906). There are also a number of monuments, fountains and memorial plaques.

Portland has an ideal climate for rose plants . These are kept here in many public and private gardens. In Washington Park there is an International Rose Test Garden with 7000 rose species and 500 varieties.

Berry Botanic Garden

Berry Botanic Garden is a non-profit botanical garden (11505 SW Summerville Ave.) that went from private to public in 1978. A special feature is the large population of rhododendrons .

Leach Botanical Garden

Established in 1973, the Leach Botanical Garden has an area of ​​15.6 acres and is located south of the city (6704 SE 122nd Ave). The public garden focuses on plants from the Pacific Northwest and an ecological garden culture.

Forest Park

A special feature is the Stadtwald Forest Park with a size of 20.23 km². It is the largest urban forest in the United States and is located to the west of the city. Established in 1948, the park has 112 km of hiking trails. 112 bird and 62 mammal species live here.

Tom McCall Waterfront Park

Tom McCall Waterfront Park

The Tom McCall Waterfront Park is located on the west bank of the Willamette in downtown dotted with docks for ocean-going vessels. The annual Waterfront Blues Festival takes place in the park .

Portland Classical Chinese Garden

Since 2000 there has been a privately owned 4000 m² traditional Chinese garden near Chinatown (NW 3rd and NW Everett St.).

Mount Tabor

Mount Tabor is a small park in the southeast of the city and features one of three extinct small volcanic craters in Portland.

Mill Ends Park

Mill Ends Park

The Mill Ends Park is located on SW Naito Parkway SW corner of Taylor in the city center on a traffic island and is 60 centimeters in diameter, the smallest official park in the world.

Westmoreland City Park

The Westmoreland City Park is located at the Southeast McLoughlin Boulevard and Bybee Boulevard and is open daily from 5 am to midnight.


The Portland Trail Blazers basketball team , founded in 1970 and playing in the North American professional league NBA , is based here. The Blazers have played their home games at the Moda Center since 1995 .

Other major sports clubs include the Portland Timbers and Portland Thorns football clubs and the Portland Winterhawks ice hockey team .

Previously based in Portland, the Portland Beavers baseball team moved to Tucson , Arizona in 2010 . There was also an arena football team in Portland , the Portland Steel , which stopped playing after the 2016 season.


The Portland Rose Festival has been held annually in June since 1907. The central event here is a parade through town (the Floral Parade ), which, with over 500,000 spectators, is the second largest parade in the United States.

Another big event is the Mayor's Ball , which takes place every spring , but this is not a ball in the traditional sense.

Every year in July, the Oregon Brewers Festival takes place, which as a kind of fair is the largest event of its kind in the United States. The Portland International Beerfest also takes place in July . The Spring Beer and Wine Festival takes place in April and the Holiday Ale Festival in December .

The Portland Marathon has been held since 1971 and is usually held in October with 9,000 participants.

The Oregon Handmade Bicycle Show has taken place every October since 2010.

Economy and Infrastructure

The metropolitan area of ​​Portland generated an economic output of 165.5 billion US dollars in 2016, making it 20th among the metropolitan areas of the United States. The unemployment rate was 3.4 percent and was thus below the national average of 3.8 percent (as of May 2018).


The city has the largest number of breweries in the United States by population . Portland is considered to be the pioneer in the microbreweries that sprang up in the country during the 1980s and established themselves nationwide. Large companies are:


Tram at a stop at Portland State University

Local public transport is operated by the Trimet company. In Portland, environmental protection is very important. Use of the Portland Streetcar tram , the MAX Light Rail (a type of light rail) and buses was free until September 2012 within the Free Rail Zone, which includes the city center and the Lloyd Center. Subsequently, it was necessary to switch back to the collection of fares, as the financing gap resulting from the free use of local public transport in the city center could no longer be covered and, in addition, the travel times of the buses had been greatly extended by many short-distance users. In downtown Portland, there are special parking spaces for electric vehicles that are free (unlike normal car parking spaces) and free electricity to charge the vehicles.

To the northeast of the city is Portland International Airport , which is 30 to 45 minutes from downtown.

The seaport , which is located on the Willamette and Columbia Rivers, is a major economic factor in the city. This is where the largest amount of wheat in the United States is shipped; It is the third largest port in the United States by tonnage and the fifteenth largest by container handling. The terminals are connected to the rail network as well as to the motorway and inland waterway network. Cargo handling recently had a volume of 12 billion US dollars.

The Portland Aerial Tram is a cable car and has been connecting Marquam Hill with the Oregon Health and Science University (OHSU) Center for Health & Healing in South Waterfront since December 2006.

Portland is also a very cyclist-friendly city: on 400 km of bike paths, around 16% percent of the workforce commute to work this way, which is also supported by many local companies by setting up bicycle parking spaces, changing rooms and showers. The city was recognized as a Bicycle Friendly Community by the League of American Bicyclists and received the highest level of platinum certification as one of four municipalities in the USA (alongside Boulder , Fort Collins and Davis ) .


newspapers and magazines

The largest newspaper is The Oregonian . Founded in 1850 as the Weekly Oregonian , it is the state's largest newspaper. The intellectually influenced paper has been published daily since 1861 and its target group is the people of Portland and the surrounding area. In 2001, The Oregonian won the Pulitzer Prize for Public Service for its coverage of the US Immigration and Naturalization Service.

The Portland Tribune newspaper appears weekly (Thursdays) and sees itself as a competitor to The Oregonian as well as an "alternative paper".

The Willamette Week is published weekly on Wednesdays and sees itself as an "alternative sheet". The paper mainly writes articles about local politics, news and culture.

The Portland Mercury newspaper primarily writes about music, musicians and music events. It appears weekly.

Radio and television

The following broadcasters are based in Portland: KATU, KGW, KNMT, KOIN, KOPB-TV , KORS-CA, KPDX, KPOU, KPTV, KPXG, KWBP, KWVT-LP, KXRY and the market leader Oregon Public Broadcasting .

Portland is also the main filming location for the American fantasy and mystery crime series Grimm .


School system

There are about 100 public schools. Founded in 1869, Lincoln High School is the oldest public high school west of the Mississippi. There are also the following private high schools: Catlin Gabel School, Central Catholic High School, German American School of Portland, Jesuit High School, The Northwest Academy, Oregon Episcopal School, St. Mary's Academy and Valley Catholic High School.

Universities and colleges


  • The public university Portland State University (PSU) is the largest with 24,000 students Oregon University. It was founded in 1946 and employs 2248 people.
  • The Reed College is a private elite university with 1,350 students (2005). The 400,000 square meter campus is located in Eastmoreland (South Portland). It was founded in 1908 as the Reed Institute and has its own nuclear reactor.
  • The Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) is focused on medical education and public.
  • The Portland Public Community College (PCC) was founded in 1961 and is the largest community college in Oregon with 83,000 students. The three campuses (in Sylvania, Rock Creek and Cascade), which are not all in the metropolitan area, have a size of 3900 km².
  • Lewis and Clark College



  1. ^ US Census Bureau: Portland, Oregon. Retrieved November 7, 2017 (American English).
  2. Trudy Flores, Sarah Griffith: Stumptown . Oregon Historical Society, 2002
  3. ^ Margit Brinke: USA - West . Iwanowski´s Reisebuchverlag, 2011, ISBN 9783861970132 , p. 459
  4. City of Portland - Sister Cities , accessed March 5, 2018
  5. a b c d Sanchez p. 247
  6. Sanchez p. 239
  7. Sanchez p. 248
  8. List of NHL by State . National Park Service , accessed January 3, 2019.
  9. Search mask database in the National Register Information System. National Park Service , accessed January 3, 2019.
  10. ^ US Department of Commerce, BEA, Bureau of Economic Analysis: Bureau of Economic Analysis. Retrieved July 4, 2018 (American English).
  11. ^ Alan Berube, Jesus Leal Trujillo, Tao Ran, and Joseph Parilla: Global Metro Monitor . In: Brookings . January 22, 2015 ( brookings.edu [accessed July 4, 2018]).
  12. Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro, OR-WA Economy at a Glance. Retrieved July 4, 2018 .
  13. That's why cities failed because of the free local transport report in the daily newspaper Hannoversche Allgemeine dated February 14, 2018, accessed on June 25, 2919
  14. Christina Neuhaus: Portland is the city of bike crazy people. In: Welt Online . October 2, 2008, accessed June 5, 2015 .
  15. Current Bicycle Friendly Communities 2014. (PDF) In: bikeleague.org . November 14, 2014, p. 1 , accessed June 5, 2015 (English).


  • Lisa Sanchez: Sex and Space in the Global City in: Richard Warren Perry (ed.): Globalization under construction: governmentality, law, and identity U of Minnesota Press, 2003 ISBN 0-8166-3966-3 pp. 239-272.

Web links

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