Guadalajara (Mexico)

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Coordinates: 20 ° 40 ′  N , 103 ° 21 ′  W
Map: Jalisco
Guadalajara on the map of Jalisco
Basic data
Country Mexico
State Jalisco
Municipio Guadalajara
City foundation 1542
Residents 1,500,800  (2014)
- in the metropolitan area 4,956,328
City insignia
Escudo de Armas de Guadalajara (Jalisco) .svg
Flag of Guadalajara, Mexico.png
Detailed data
surface 151 km 2
Population density 9,939 inhabitants / km 2
height 1590  m
City structure 7 zones
Post Code 44100-44190
prefix 33
Time zone UTC  Central Standard Time Zone
Website Guadalajara
Guadalajara, México.jpg
Map of the Zona Metropolitana de Guadalajara
Map of the Zona Metropolitana de Guadalajara

Guadalajara Spanish [ gwaðalaˈxaɾa ] is the capital of the state of Jalisco and with approx. 1.9 million inhabitants (city) and approx. 5 million (metropolitan region) the second largest city in Mexico . The city is the seat of an archbishop and is also known under the name Perla del Occidente ( Spanish for "Pearl of the West"). The inhabitants of the city are known as tapatíos . The city is the starting point of many Mexican traditions such as the music of the mariachi and the dance Jarabe Tapatío .

Location and climate

Guadalajara is located in the west of the central Mexican highlands, about 550 km (driving distance) northwest of the capital Mexico City at an altitude of about 1590  m . The climate is temperate to warm; Rain (approx. 940 mm / year) falls mainly in the summer half-year.

Population development

While the population of the city (approx. 1.5 million) has hardly changed since 1990, it has increased in the metropolitan region (Zona Metropolitana) from around 3 million to around 5 million in the same period.


Guadalajara Commercial District

The city is a large trading center and an important industrial location . Textiles , clothing , shoes , glass , paper , chemicals , metal , food , silver jewelry and tableware are manufactured and processed .

The city is also called the "Silicon Valley" of Mexico. Around 60,000 people are employed in the electronics industry.

Established businesses

Many foreign companies such as Continental Automotive GmbH , Flextronics , General Electric , Hewlett-Packard , Hella KGaA Hueck & Co. , IBM , Intel , Oracle or Siemens as well as ZF Friedrichshafen AG , Sumida AG and Willy Voit GmbH & Co. KG produce in the city and its surroundings.


The city, an important traffic junction, is surrounded by a motorway ring, the Periférico. In addition, the Panamericana runs very close. In the town of unconventional roads are traffic junctions like roundabouts and through Whereabouts as connection points used.


The Guadalajara International Airport (officially Spanish Aeropuerto Internacional Don Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla ) is the third largest airport in Mexico with a passenger volume of 7.2 (2011) and 8.7 (2014) million.


Guadalajara's Tram Line System

There are two tram lines (Tren ligero) . The 15.5 km long Línea 1 crosses the city from the north Periférico Norte over the crossing station Juárez to the south to Periférico Sur . The 8.5 km long Línea 2 leads from Juárez to Tetlán in the east. This line operates as a subway.

In 2014, the construction of the 12 km long Línea 3 began; Most of the route is laid out as a viaduct, with only five stations in the center of Guadalajara in the tunnel. Commissioning is planned for 2017.

Another form of public transport, the Macrobús, was introduced for the Pan American Games. This is a three-axle articulated bus that can only be reached from platforms. It has its own lanes and runs east of Línea 1 from the northern Mirador station to the southern Fray Angélico station . There is also an extensive bus system on 288 routes. These are served by 14 companies. Two lines run with trolley buses (trolebús) .

Long-distance public transport

Since the railway lines are used to transport goods, the long-distance buses take on the task of long-distance passenger transport. There is a large long-distance bus station, the Nueva Central Camionera , which is located in the adjacent town of Tlaquepaque in southeast Guadalajara. There is also the old bus station Antigua Central Camionera , which is around one kilometer south of the city center. However, this only serves short routes such as to Tequila . The buses only stop at a few important places, such as at Periférico Sur, where tram line  1 ends, or at the beginning of the city. The light rail system, which consists of two T-shaped lines, largely corresponds to German technology.

Educational institutions

The city is home to several universities , including the second oldest in Mexico, the Universidad de Guadalajara , founded in 1792 . Other universities are the Universidad Autónoma de Guadalajara , the Universidad Cuauthémoc and the Universidad Panamericana as well as the private universities ITESO and ITESM .


After three previous foundings of the same name at Nochistlán , Tonalá and Tlacotán , today's city of Guadalajara was re-founded by the Spanish in 1542 by Cristóbal de Oñate under the name Espíritu Santo ; from 1560 to 1823 it was the capital of the province of New Galicia . During this time it experienced rapid growth. At the beginning of the 19th century Guadalajara played an important role in the Mexican struggle for independence (1810-1821). In the years 1818 and 1875 the city was partially destroyed by strong earthquakes , but was rebuilt again and again.

Railway accidents

Explosion accident in 1992

On April 22, 1992 there were numerous explosions in the sewer network of the Analco district over four hours. Three days before the explosion, residents of certain streets had complained about the smell of gasoline and steam fountains from the sewer system. In some cases, gasoline mixed with water came out of the pipes. Employees of the municipal utilities and civil protection actually discovered an explosive gasoline-air mixture in the sewers. However, those responsible did not take the danger seriously and the streets concerned were not evacuated. The explosions destroyed streets and adjacent houses like an earthquake. According to official figures, 206 people died in the rubble, 500 were injured and 15,000 were left homeless. Unofficially, however, a higher number of victims is assumed.

Culture and sights

Special days

On November 2nd, the Día de los muertos ( All Souls' Day ), families commemorate their deceased and go to the graves with food, flowers and mariachi . For this purpose there is the pan de los muertos , the bread of the dead.

December 28th is the Día de los santos inocentes , when you joke with friends; the day is comparable to our April 1st.


The Teatro Degollado is located in the center on the Plaza de la Liberación , it mainly presents performances from the Universidad de Guadalajara .


The Instituto Cultural Cabañas shows changing exhibitions and performances. The former orphanage was built in 1805 and has 23 courtyards. Today works by José Clemente Orozco , a Mexican painter and muralist , are exhibited there, including the well-known picture Man in Flames .

The Museo Regional de Guadalajara chronicles the history of the Mexican West and organizes readings and small theater performances.


sons and daughters of the town

Town twinning


Culinary specialties

The city and state specialties include birria (a thick goat and pork stew), torta ahogada (drowned flatbread), tejuino , jericallas (local dessert), and carne en su jugo (meat in its own juice). Near Guadalajara is the city of Tequila , where the famous Mexican liquor tequila is made from agaves .

Guadalajara International Book Fair (FIL)

The Guadalajara International Book Fair (Feria Internacional del Libro, FIL) takes place annually at the Guadalajara Exhibition Center. It is the largest book fair in the Spanish-speaking world and, with around 1900 exhibitors from 40 countries, is one of the largest book fairs in the world. It always starts on the last Saturday in November and lasts nine days.

It has been organized by the Universidad de Guadalajara since 1987 and every year offers a host country or region the opportunity to present itself. In 2011 Germany was the guest of honor. The Premio FIL de Literatura en Lenguas Romances , endowed with 150,000 US dollars, has been awarded since 1991 and has become one of the most important literary prizes in the Spanish-speaking world.

In parallel to the FIL, important conferences on the promotion of literature and reading take place every year; but also on other topics such as education, journalism and architecture.

Film festival

The Festival Internacional de Cine en Guadalajara is now the most important film festival in Mexico. Many film screenings take place in different places in the city in the open air. In addition to the largest Spanish-language book fair, the film festival is an integral part of the range of events in Guadalajara.

May Festival

The international cultural festival Festival de Mayo is dedicated every year to a host country whose traditional and avant-garde culture is comprehensively presented with its fine arts, concerts, theater performances and culinary events.

Since its inception, the May Festival has established itself as one of the most important cultural events in Mexico. Guest countries have been: Hungary (2003), Poland (2004), Austria (2005), Spain (2006), Mexico (for the 10th anniversary in 2007), Germany (2008), Japan (2009), Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Spain and Mexico (2010), USA (2011), Canada (2012), France (2013), California (2014). The United Kingdom was the host country in 2015.


Guadalajara is home to two Mexican premier league football clubs : Deportivo Guadalajara and Atlas Guadalajara . Deportivo Guadalajara is the most popular club in Mexico and is also known as las chivas or chivas rayadas (the striped goats). The biggest competitor of Deportivo Guadalajara is Club América from the capital Mexico City .

From October 14th to 30th, 2011, the 16th  Pan-American Games took place in Guadalajara .

Web links

Commons : Guadalajara (Mexico)  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Guadalajara - Climate tables
  2. Guadalajara - Population Development
  3. Guadalajara History