A shoe (from Old High German scuoh , this probably to idg. * Skeu- 'cover', 'envelop') is a footwear with a solid pad made of leather, wood, rubber or plastic that is always connected to the upper part, which primarily protects the sole of the foot serves.
Whether sneakers with synthetic fiber shafts and molded rubber outsoles, glued high-heeled shoes with sequins, welted western boots or vulcanized colorful children's shoes : Visually very different, these models are all very similar in principle. In order to represent this, a high-quality contemporary leather men's low shoe is best suited for explanation, because this type of shoe has all the necessary shoe-relevant features both functionally and in terms of construction. Other models are then either built in the same way or in a simplified manner based on them. Only very few shoe models ( e.g. moccasins ) differ fundamentally from this.
When the text generally speaks of “shoe”, the characteristic basic model of a shoe is meant which, for reasons of cultural history, nowadays looks more like a men's shoe , but of course also includes women's and children's shoes . Further information (other models and construction methods) can be found under the further links shoe models and design .
A shoe consists of two main parts: the upper part is called the shaft, the lower part is called the bottom.
The upper is often made up of several layers and individual parts that are glued or sewn together: inner upper (lining), intermediate upper (intermediate lining ) and outer upper (upper leather). The outer shaft may also different trim parts have, for example, a patch heel cap around the heel to the foot to stabilize going on and to lead. The outer shaft is divided into different areas, in front the sheet with the tab (tongue) , in the back the side quarters .
The bottom consists of at least one model-dependent sole (example: moccasin ) or, as in a typical leather shoe, from an inner sole ( insole ) plus an attached outsole . Depending on the design also can choose between indoor and sole midsoles be present, such as the sports shoe . Or the insole is covered by an additional deck (brand) sole or a removable insole. If the outsole is not made of leather , it usually has a more or less deep profile . The heel area often shows an elevation of the shoe bottom, the heel , otherwise one speaks of a zero bottom.
In addition to its purely protective function and the fashion function that is also important for many wearers , the shoe has always had something to do with the social status or group membership of the wearer. In ancient Egypt , only pharaohs were allowed to wear sandals made of gold or silver sheet and only high officials and priests were allowed to wear sandals. The people went barefoot . With the ancient Greeks it was 700 BC. BC issued an ordinance regulating the use of jewels on sandals. In the Roman Empire there were also clear regulations as to who was allowed to wear which shoes and how decorated. In medieval times the length of said toe with the then modern pointed shoes something specific on the membership to a stand off. At the time of the Sun King, only the king and high nobles were allowed to wear red heels. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, supporters of the “back to nature” and peace movements liked to wear sandals. Since then, the high-quality men's shoes made of fine calfskin leather combined with upscale business clothing - always in a shiny condition - have symbolized that the wearer does not do any physical work, belongs to the establishment, is able to afford such shoes, sees them as a wise investment and the subtle things pays attention to life. In various youth cultures , certain shoes are an outward sign of group membership (for example Doc Martens , combat boots , Birkenstock shoes or branded sneakers ).
The “original shoe” did not exist. In colder regions, animal skins were likely wrapped around the feet and calves. Other peoples only put the skins around the feet to the so-called footmuff , from which the moccasin was later made. In climatically warmer regions, soles made of palm leaves tied under the feet served as protection against the hot ground (forerunner of the sandal).
During the last Ice Age , Neanderthals lived in Europe and West Asia, and they probably initially wrapped animal skins around their feet and calves. The boots developed from this most primitive form of protection against the cold over time . When the cutting and lacing of shoes and leather clothing began can only be determined with the appropriate tools. The discovery of a bone prick from Untertürkheim (approx. 120,000 years old, Eem warm period ) represents the oldest potential awl by a shoemaker from the Neanderthal period. In the late phase of the Neanderthals (40,000–30,000 years ago, Châtelperronia ), these bone pricks often appear in sites .
Based on comparative anatomical studies of Paleolithic foot and leg skeletons, there are indications that modern humans ( Homo sapiens ) may already have known shoes when they first appeared in northern Eurasia . The oldest evidence comes from the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic about 40,000 years ago ( Tianyuan fossil 1 from the Tianyuan cave near Beijing ). Since the foot is exposed to a different load in the shoe than barefoot, a difference is primarily noticeable in the bone development of the toes. The tendency can be demonstrated in addition to the individual Tianyuan 1 in other skeletons - for example in the grave Sungir 1 (Russia), which was dated to about 27,000 BP (corresponds to about 30,500 BC when calibrated ). In addition, in all three graves of Sungir, ivory pearls were found in a row in the area of the feet , which give a clear indication of the former decoration on shoes made of leather or raffia . Since the soft organic materials have completely disappeared in the soil, this can only be tapped from the woolly mammoth through the preserved ivory pearls .
In the cave of Niaux, which was painted during the Magdalenian era (dating around 14,500–13,500 BC), some footprints were found in the cave clay, which indicate the wearing of shoes. Most of these marks, however, are indented barefoot, with clearly recognizable toe prints.
According to the current state of affairs, the oldest direct finds of shoes come from North America: In Fort Rock , Oregon (USA), sandals were found by paleo-Indians in 1938 , which were made from the bast fiber of the sagebrush and , according to several 14 C dates , up to 8300 BC. Were dated. A somewhat younger shoe comes from the Arnold Research Cave in Missouri (USA).
The oldest remains of leather shoes found come from the Schnidejoch in the Bernese Alps , which was rebuilt in 2008 with other Neolithic remains to 4300 BC. Was dated. The objects found in 2003 were published in 2008.
The on 3630–3380 BC The oldest completely preserved leather shoe, dated to the 4th century BC, was excavated in the Areni I cave ( Vajoz Dzor province ) Armenia in 2008 in layers from the Copper Age . The shoe consisted of a single piece of cowhide and was stuffed with dry grass ( Poaceae ). The results were published in 2010.
The shoes of the Copper Age glacier mummy " Ötzi " reveal a functionally optimized structure. The shoe, which was specially built for requirements in high mountains, was closed with a “ shoelace ”. For the shaft, cowhide was used, the hair side of which pointed outwards to ward off moisture. The sole was made of better insulating bearskin with the hair side on the inside. On the underside of the sole, a cross-running and crossing leather strip was attached, which is the oldest known profile sole of a shoe. The upper leather and sole were held in place by a circumferential leather band, drawn in using the stitch technique. The inner shoe consisted of twisted and twisted cords of grass. This braid was firmly connected to the sole by the circumferential leather strap, but was open at the top towards the shaft. Hay was stuffed between the braid of the inner shoe and the upper leather, which served as a cushion and insulating layer.
Bronze and Iron Ages, Roman Provincial Period
Shoes from the Bronze and Iron Ages are preserved, among other things, from finds of bog bodies. In the settlement area of the Celts , opanks were common as footwear. From around 500 BC The Bundschuh appears. A number of shoes have been handed down from both the Roman Empire and Germanic tribes from the provincial Roman period .
Ancient and early Middle Ages
In ancient times , simple shoes became commonplace. On many wall and clay paintings, for example, there are references to various shoe models that were worn in the various regions. In particular, the Egyptian thong sandals with shaft straps running diagonally across the back of the foot and the Roman sandals, the strap fastenings of which, as so-called boot sandals, sometimes reached below the knee joint, are known.
High and late Middle Ages
Archaeological finds and contemporary images lead to the conclusion that in the Middle Ages (800 to around 1500 AD) in the urban settlements of northern and central Europe, leather shoes were mainly worn with reversible stitching . These reversible shoes, which were first sewn inside out and then turned inside out, show fashionable influences , especially in the High Middle Ages . The shaft heights and cuts of these reversible shoes became diverse from the beginning of the 12th century; Depending on the type of closure, there were lace-up, button-up, slip-on and strap shoes, and in the 13th century also boots. In the 11th and 12th centuries, tapered shoe tips and pointed heels dominated; in the next 150 years rather round shapes, which in turn were replaced by extravagant pointed shapes in the course of the 14th and 15th centuries. After the Crusades was at the upper class fine footwear for oriental model (?) Modern, the front bent and tapered so- toed shoes . The length of the point indicated that they belonged to a class and was strictly regulated in dress codes . This fashion found particular expression in the 14th century.
Parallel to these fads there were always wide shoes that were probably used for work and only became fashionable in the 16th century. With their emphatically wide and short toes, these horn, duck-billed, cow-mouth or bear-claw shoes demonstrated a clear departure from the previous shoe fashion. These shoes were also manufactured using a welted construction.
Little is known about the footwear of the poor and rural populations of the Middle Ages. The often held thesis that farmers worked barefoot or in simple wooden clogs, however, cannot be upheld. On the one hand, many pairs of simple shoes were found in the large shoe discovery complexes in Schleswig , London and York , which, due to their comparatively unfashionable design, can be referred to the category of simple work shoes. On the other hand, in sources from the late Middle Ages, we know of shoe allocations to farmhands and workers on farms, which included several pairs per year. The misunderstanding of being barefoot is probably based on the depiction of the social rank of people, which was sometimes common in medieval painting, using certain positive or negative symbols: the farmer was sometimes depicted barefoot, with a bulbous face and unfashionable clothes or underpants. The majority of the figures show the working population but with shoes. Reconstruction attempts using historical methods have shown that a simple reversible shoe can be made in a few hours, so a pair of shoes was definitely affordable. Also old shoes were not disposed of, but repaired by cobblers or dismantled by old makers and completely renewed.
Often found in the medieval scene are modern so-called waistband shoes, a piece of leather that is wrapped around the foot and tied at the tip. This shoe shape can be proven in a much more complex form in antiquity, but its use was unusual in the high and late Middle Ages. The Bundschuh , which was depicted on the flags of the rebellious farmers of the so-called Bundschuh movement from 1493 as a symbol of oppression and poverty , is, on the other hand, an over ankle- high work boot that is fastened with a tied strap.
Wooden finds (Trippen and clogs) are only very rare, the situation is different with leather finds. The conservation conditions of some sites (Haithabu, Konstanz, London, Lübeck and Schleswig) largely prevented the leather-destroying work of the microorganisms, so that the leather shoes (in Schleswig alone over 500 shoes and 600 soles) are preserved in the best possible way. According to this, goat and sheep were mainly used as shaft leather in the 11th and 12th centuries, cowhide mainly before the 11th and then again in the 13th and 14th centuries. For boots, strong cowhide was mainly used, which was also used for the soles. Additional insoles can also be found from the 12th century.
Tripping, high heels and the emergence of heels
The origin of the heel has not been finally clarified, see history of the heel shoe . One theory is that heels made stirrups easier to ride because the heel could hang there. According to another account, the paragraph developed out of the need to protect from the dirt of the street, since there were no sewers in the cities of the Middle Ages . The first (over) shoes with very high soles were created ( Trippen in the 13th century , Patten in the 17th century ). Mostly they were wooden sandals with a leather strap over the instep , similar to the Japanese Geta shoes or the oriental cape . To save weight, the high sole was either partially made of cork or, in the case of the wooden platform soles, was cut out at the height of the middle of the soles of the feet (comparable to the soles of Geta sandals). These are the shoes you normally put on with your thin-soled leather shoes when you went out on the street and took them off before entering the house.
In the 16th century, women's shoe fashion with plateau-like soles ( zoccoli ) spread from Spain , mainly to England , France and Italy . It reached an extravagant climax around the middle of the century in Venice with the up to 40 centimeter high chopins (pedestal shoes), which required servants or sticks to support the wearer.
Up to this point in time all shoes were without heels , but in the 17th century shoes with heels prevailed in Europe . The heels offered men the opportunity to appear taller and more warlike, while the heels gave women an emphasis on the cleavage and a more erotic gait due to the changed posture and pelvic position.
In the case of shoe models, increasing differentiation began in the 19th century; many models that are still in use today were added. The men turned more and more to the low shoe , the first fashion magazines and the dandies ensured the development of new models. Beau Brummell made the laced men's ankle boot socially acceptable. The rubber band was invented and first used in 1837 in slip-on ankle boots as a side elastic band insert ( Chelsea boot ). Towards the end of the century, the buttoned tub became fashionable among younger men.
At the beginning of the 19th century, women wore sandals and escarpins (heelless pumps made of satin with ankle straps), later heelless ankle boots (see illustration, bottom row, 2nd shoe from the right) and from around 1840/1850 ankle boots with heels, often with them Side closure, also with elastic band insert (see illustration, bottom row, 1st and 4th shoe) and with a shaft made of silk. Female shoe fashion was first discussed on a larger scale from around 1870, when the floor-length skirts were shortened. With the beginning of industrialization in the 19th century, shoes were increasingly manufactured in factories from the 1860s onwards , which meant that good footwear fell in price and became affordable for the general public.
The mirror-symmetrical shape of the two shoes of a pair of shoes, which is already given by the natural shape of the foot, was not always common. Although known to the Greeks and Romans in antiquity and just as natural in the Middle Ages, this form was lost in the course of the 17th century. The Dutch doctor Peter Camper first drew attention to the resulting foot damage in 1796, but it wasn't until around 60 years later that a pamphlet by the anatomist Georg Hermann von Meyer (1815-1892) brought about the return to the right-left distinction in shoe construction. G. H. von Meyer received the most important support for his reform from the war ministries and the up-and-coming American shoe manufacture, so that the northern states won with Meyer shoes, also because their soldiers could march faster and further. The classic American military boot has been a variant of the Meyer line until recently.
The Meyersche line could not hold up in the end because it neglected the importance of the outer ray (ball of the little toe). The guideline of the modern shoe therefore goes from the middle of the heel through the base joint of the second toe.
Newer tanning processes with chromium salts expanded the design options compared to the vegetable-tanned upper leathers used up until then. Thinner chrome-tanned leathers were increasingly used for the uppers, offered new uppers good conditions and could be dyed in a variety of ways. Along with this, the shoe polishes in tin cans that are still common today were developed. In 1910 Rampichini developed the gluing process with celluloid putty for shoe production and thereby offered new possibilities in mass shoe production (so-called AGO shoes, from a nother g reat o pportunity).
In the Roaring Twenties , men's fashion awoke from the boot trauma of the First World War, as this report in the magazine Der Herrenfahrer shows:
“Every multi-colored shoe is gross, if not as a beach or morning shoe. The low shoe masters everything. Boots are rarely worn. The black box calf or Chevreaux shoe can have perforated patterns. The cap can even bear the monogram. Long, flat rounded tip. The best way to describe the shape is: when the shoes are in front of you, you cannot see which is the right shoe and which is the left shoe. The brown shoe is made of heavy leather in winter, if brown shoes have to be worn at all. The brown shoe with a rubber sole without a heel is already out of fashion. At most, it is still a leader as a golf shoe. A capless patent-leather shoe as a tuxedo and evening shoe, completely flat and without decoration. "
In summary, about the 1920s and early 1930s: "The two most important development trends were the introduction of the low shoe and the transition to fashionable use, especially among women and young people". The emerging world trade in shoes was shaped by the companies Bata and Bally , who switched to production using American machines.
The self-sufficiency policy of National Socialism ensured in Germany on the one hand that shoes designed by German shoe manufacturers were able to gain acceptance for the first time, and on the other hand that the focus of production switched from imported leather to the new fully synthetic plastics. In connection with the introduction of leather substitutes, shoe production became more scientifical, which was expressed, for example, through government research funding and military testing. The supply of shoes to the military was a priority under National Socialism, and the military organizations were able to ensure that their boots were still made of leather. "After the uniformed men came the male civilians, then the women and children, and those who stood outside the ' national community ' - this also included occupied Europe - suffered from extreme shortages and devastating quality." The scientification of shoe production meant that as in other sciences, unethical human experiments were carried out on concentration camp prisoners , especially on the so-called shoe test track in Sachsenhausen concentration camp . Despite the poor scientific quality of the test results, tests inspired by the KZ shoe test track were still considered to be superior to all mechanical shoe tests at the end of the 1960s.
In the middle of the century, the development of new thermoplastic rubbers and plastics led to the more cost-effective vulcanization and injection molding of the soles onto the upper (the direct soling process ). These and other cost-reducing manufacturing processes made shoes cheaper, which means that consumers could buy new shoes more often and shoe fashion was being renewed in ever shorter cycles. In particular, women's shoe fashion is strongly influenced by changing fashions. The production method in injection-molded design and the use of synthetic fiber fabrics as well as mass production in low-wage countries led to further product discounts.
The sports shoe began its triumphant advance in the 1960s, but above all in the 1980s. Today sneakers (sports shoes for everyday use) are worn by all age groups and large parts of the population in many countries. Their development was due to the increasing leisure time of some population groups at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. Century that made it possible for these people to play sports. The first sports shoe factories were established at this time in the USA and England, followed by the Dassler brothers sports shoe factory (today Adidas and Puma ) in Germany in the 1920s . In the fifties, thugs like James Dean popularized the sneaker for the youth, in the eighties with the fitness boom, broader customer groups were reached. Today it is impossible to imagine everyday life without sports shoes.
There is no uniform regulation according to which criteria shoes are to be categorized, since the purposes pursued differ in each case. A shoe manufacturer subdivides according to different criteria than a shoe retailer, which in turn differs from a shoe wearer.
For example, subdivisions according to are common
- Purpose of use: street shoe , sports shoe , dance shoe , slipper , ice skate , hiking shoe and so on
- Construction method, the so-called design : glued shoe, vulcanized shoe, stitched through shoe, California shoe, welted shoe and so on
- Shoe shape: low shoe , boots , shaft boots, long shaft boots, sandals , mules and slippers
- Shoe model: pumps , brogue , boots , sneakers , rubber boots and so on
- Shoe closure: Buckle shoe, zip shoe, monk strap , lace-up shoe, slip-on shoe / loafer
- Shaft cut: oxford, derby , cross sandal, goiter cut and so on
- Bottom or shaft material: wooden shoe , leather shoe, brocade shoe, rubber shoe, membrane shoe and so on
- "Special shoes": for example safety shoes (with toe cap and steel penetration protection)
- Function: summer shoe, winter shoe, evening shoe and so on
- Gender of the wearer: women's shoe, men's shoe and children 's shoe
The differences are evident
- in the range of models: for example pumps for women, brogues for men
- In the heel height : some women's shoes have considerably higher heels
- In the shaft decorations and shaft colors: there are more variants in women's shoes, children's shoes and women's shoes are often multi-colored
- in the material: women's shoes, for example, have increasingly had artificial leather uppers for several years
- In the shape of the last: Various men's, women's and children's lasts are adapted to the differently shaped feet of the respective target groups
- In the shoe size range and shoe fashion: intervals, scope, changes in details.
The most well-known common differentiation is that of sandals , low shoes and boots .
The term sandal alone says little: are the straps crossed or at an angle? Is it a largely closed baker's sandal or a thong sandal ( flip-flop )? And the term low shoe only means that the upper edge of the shaft ends in the crook of the foot at the front and below the ankle on the side. The following applies to the boot : every shoe with a shaft height of at least 80% of the sole length is by definition a boot. Various subdivisions and additional designations are used for finer differentiation, including: open or closed shapes, height of the shaft, closure (with laces , straps or zip), number of parts, seams of the shaft, type of decorations.
A distinction is also widespread from a cultural-historical point of view, with the basic shoe types sandals , moccasins (or opanke ), boots , slippers and low shoes .
In everyday use, a distinction is usually made according to the shoe model. Shoe models are primarily by the shaft section determined, that is, according to the shape and number of parts of which the shaft is assembled. Ornaments, such as the brogue or the type of closure, for example the monk strap, play a role in defining the model. In the respective shoe model, several of the above-mentioned distinguishing features flow together.
- An example of a men's shoe model is the Budapest , which is technically defined as follows through the closure, the shaft cut, the last shape, decorations, the shoe bottom and the construction: Open lacing in derby cut with wing cap and broguings (hole decorations) and attached galoshes (heel cap). Double bottom in a double-stitched design, overall a wide and straight shoe shape with a raised toe cap and a rather wide, rounded (rounded) toe. - Only one shoe that has all these characteristics in common is a Budapest shoe .
Some names of different shoe models:
- Men's models: Oxford , Derby , Blucher , saddle shoe, Brogue (full- or Halfbrogue, longwing), loafer (penny loafer, tassel loafers ), Norwegians , monk shoe , Chelsea boot , jodhpur boot , George boat , Balmoral Boot u. a.
- Women's models : Mary Jane , over the knee boots, pumps , slingbacks , sandals , mules, D'Orsay, ballerina , mule u. a.
- Unisex models: moccasin , boat shoes, moon boots , espadrilles , slippers , barefoot shoes , penny loafer (College shoe), Clog , western boots, sandal u. a.
Made-to-measure and ready-to-wear shoes
In order to arrive at the three-dimensional hollow shape of a shoe, its individual parts are mounted on a mold (hence the term shoe construction for shoe production). This three-dimensional shape is called a last . It corresponds to an image of the foot in a normal posture with medium load and at the same time takes into account the shape characteristics of the planned shoe model. These manifest themselves primarily in the shape, size and length of the toe of the last as well as in the heel split (later heel height).
When it comes to the dimensions of the last, the shoe manufacturers fall back on empirical values, since the database on the actually existing foot dimensions of people is small and often out of date. This often leads to problems with the fit , because the shoe does not fit the individual foot shape, but rubs and pushes - according to surveys, the main problem with shoes for end consumers. In addition, people from different regions have different foot sizes and shapes. This is where bespoke shoemakers come in, who work out the so-called custom -made lasts from a block of wood (usually beech) or have the lasts made by the last builder according to the dimensions of the respective customer's foot and the desired shoe model . Industrial strips are also made of wood as prototypes; for series production, recyclable plastic is preferred as the strip material because of its lower sensitivity.
The made-to-measure shoe
A distinction must be made between an orthopedic custom-made shoe and a "normal" custom-made shoe. The orthopedic made-to-measure shoe is manufactured exclusively according to medical indications and is less elegant compared to the "normal" made-to-measure shoe. The classic made-to-measure shoe is a handmade shoe according to the individual customer requirements and his / her foot measurements, which is why it has the nimbus of the “better shoe” compared to the ready-to-wear shoe.
From a factual point of view, this view is unfounded in comparison with a high-quality ready-made shoe. High-quality, very good ready-to-wear men's ready-to-wear shoes for men have a retail price of around 300 euros (as of 2008) and are available in various widths and last shapes, so that a fit that is just as good as that of a bespoke shoe (from around 1200 euros) can be expected.
In the age of globalization, there are companies where custom-made shoes can be ordered online. The customer independently determines the dimensions of their own feet using a molding process. The resulting shape shows all the details of the feet and forms the basis for the production of the last. The shoes are then hand-sewn onto these individual lasts. In terms of price, these shoes are inexpensive for bespoke shoes from 350 euros.
In terms of quality, too, the components used in the top ready-to-wear shoe are the same as in the custom-made shoe. The quality of workmanship of a bespoke shoe is usually no better than that of a high-end ready-to-wear shoe, as, for example, a hand-made seam does not have to be better than a machine-made one. Well advised with a made-to-measure shoe is anyone who cannot find the right ready-made shoes or has very individual ideas about shoe design that only a made-to-measure shoemaker can realize.
Up to the middle of the 19th century there were almost exclusively made-to-measure shoes, because the shoes were usually made by the shoemaker for the customer according to his wishes. A new last was not necessarily made for this, but a well-fitting one was selected individually. This process is known today as made-to-measure clothing and is offered by a few manufacturers.
The ready-made shoe
In the USA , the first machines for industrial shoe production were developed from the middle of the 19th century due to the rapidly increasing demand : quilting machine, grading machine, sewing machine, double machine, piercing machine, lasting machine, etc. a. As a result, the artisanal production model (bespoke shoe) was largely replaced by industrial shoe production (= ready-made shoe) in a few decades; in Europe this development took place with a few years' delay. For the first time, customers were able to buy finished shoes and not have to wait for them to be manufactured . The selection grew, the shoes could be compared and tried on before buying, the prices fell and the quality of the machine-made shoes was equivalent to that of handmade shoes. Above all, it was also consistent, while the quality of the handmade shoes fluctuated depending on the shoemaker's daily condition . On the part of the craftsmen there was bitter resistance to this development ( strikes , destruction of new machines). Competitions were used to try to prove the superiority of hand-welted shoes, but industrial development continued unstoppably. The shoe had become an affordable commodity, whereas earlier it had been an expensive purchase or even a luxury item. People who previously could only afford wood-nailed shoes could now also buy sewn shoes.
A standardization of shoe sizes was a prerequisite for industrial mass production . Although the English shoe sizes (size) were already known since the 14th century, now new variables were added: Blanket stitch / continental size, half sizes and at times even quarter sizes. Despite all efforts to standardize and unify, there are still various systems of measurement for shoe lengths and widths, and the conversions are not always uniform.
The still relatively high proportion of manual work despite automation and the associated wage costs in industrial shoe production have led to an increasing relocation of production abroad in Germany since the 1960s. First to Italy , then to Spain and Portugal and later, after the opening of the Iron Curtain , to Eastern Europe ( Hungary , Romania ), but also to North Africa . Production is now being carried out in India and the Far East . German shoe production, with its original focus in and around Pirmasens , had largely disappeared towards the end of the 20th century.
New problems arose because the western manufacturers often no longer have one hundred percent control over the production process in the Far East (China, Vietnam, Indonesia) and the materials used. Social, health and labor law grievances (child labor, non-compliance with health and safety measures, exploitation of almost exclusively female workers) were and are the result of manufacturing that is mainly based on product prices. Failure to observe environmental protection measures leads, for example, to the contamination of soil and water. During inspections of imported shoes, pollutant-loaded materials are found again and again, for example due to inadequate tanning or the use of forbidden dyes: consequences of the tough price war between Western shoe manufacturers, who react to the price orientation of consumers. The fact that the product quality and wearing comfort have also decreased offers the industry the opportunity to place better products on the market.
The materials used to make most shoes today are mostly of artificial origin, both in terms of the shoe uppers and the soil. Thermoplastic are mostly designed for floors plastics used for the shafts fabrics of man-made fibers . Only when it comes to higher-priced shoes are natural materials increasingly used, above all leather as the ideal shoe material.
Shoes offered in the EU have been subject to the manufacturer's obligation to label materials since 1997. Appropriate symbols are used on a sticker (see illustration). The European Shoe Labeling Directive provides for a very limited amount of information: four different materials can be specified separately for the outer upper material, the lining and the outsole: leather, coated leather, textiles (without differentiating between synthetic or natural origin) and "other material". Intended as an education for the consumer, this minimal information allows little conclusions to be drawn about the quality of the specified materials or their composition.
The outsole is made either from a polymer material (plastic or rubber ) or from leather. There are serious quality differences between rubber soles (foamed, natural, synthetic or mixed rubber) as well as leather: in leather, for example, croupon leather or leather from less dense skin areas, mixed or pit-tanned or only quickly tanned . The midsoles also consist either of a foamed and thus cushioning plastic (e.g. polyurethane , EVA ) or of leather. The insole often consists of a fabric, impregnated cardboard or leather. Leather intended for the bottom of shoes is vegetable-tanned.
For centuries and to this day, leather has been by far the most suitable material for making comfortable shoes. Mainly for reasons of cost, other upper materials have been used in addition to leather for several decades, so that the uppers are no longer made of leather, but mainly of man-made fibers. Recently, recycled materials (for example from former PET bottles and from recycled car tires) have also been used.
Natural fibers, synthetic fibers, PVC and others
Fabrics made of natural fibers ( sailing shoes made of cotton ) are used, but mainly plastic in fabric form ( nylon for sports shoes) or plastics to be poured / injected ( PVC for rubber boots). This is much cheaper to manufacture, the quality remains constant and the manufacturing costs can be calculated precisely in the long term. Even many supposed leather shoes in the lower price range are now made with uppers made of synthetic leather ( polyethylene , PU). Wellington boots, which used to be vulcanized from natural rubber ( caoutchouc / rubber ) , are nowadays often injection-molded from a thermoplastic such as PVC or an elastomer.
What initially appears to be a cost advantage is often associated with a reduction in wearing comfort and functional properties. "Sweaty feet," "smelly shoes," and athlete's foot have become common problems. The reason for this can lie in the construction of shoes and stockings in connection with the unfavorable use of the shoes (see section on shoe care ).
Starting with linen rubber shoes (often: PVC) of the 1970s, shoes and sandals are also built for soaking wet wear on the beach, in the sea or lake, in the boat or on a surf boat. Shoes and socks made of neoprene are highly specialized in terms of thermal insulation, adhesion and abrasion protection. Even widespread lightweight casual shoes made predominantly of synthetic fibers and thermoplastic foam can be carefully washed in the private washing machine.
These problems are avoided by using leather as the upper material (and - especially important in terms of shoe climate - for the insole). Among other things, leather has the following advantages: water vapor permeable, water vapor storage, largely waterproof when cared for, stretchable and resilient, edge tear-resistant, insulating, robust and good-looking. Leather is available in many qualities, which are reflected very reliably in the price of shoes, but are not easily recognizable for the layman. Good leathers are highly breathable , extremely supple and at the same time extremely strong. When shoes are worn, the leather quality of the upper can be determined, among other things, by the creases: Provided that the shoes are suitable, minimal creases are evidence of high-quality leather; deep folds of inferior upper leather. Good leather becomes even more beautiful over the years. Cared for regularly, it develops an attractive patina . Cheap leather, on the other hand, will look increasingly worn over time, and even good care cannot prevent this process.
Leather is generally a “waste product” of the food industry , which is why shoes are mainly made from beef (or buffalo ), calf , pig or sheep leather . The uppers are mostly made of chrome-tanned leather, the coarser and thicker upper leather of hiking and work boots are vegetable-tanned . The following types of leather are known and widespread:
- Cattle box: sturdy shaft leather, mid-range shoes
- Box calf: fine calf leather, higher-priced shoes. An increasingly inflationary term that incorrectly includes cheaper mast box leather.
Suede : commonly erroneously "suede" called strong feuchtigkeitssaugend shoes of all price
- Suede : flesh side of the skin turned outwards, often cheap split leather, used for shoes of all price ranges
- Nubuck leather : the outer layer of skin, the so-called “scars”, points outwards and is slightly sanded, similar to the appearance of peach skin; higher priced shoes, as the leather must be flawless
- Chevreau: Goatskin (more precisely kidskins), very thin and tear-resistant, somewhat wrinkled-looking leather, used for high-quality men's shoes and for elegant women's shoes, also as shoe lining
- Patent leather: a high-gloss polyurethane varnish is applied to the leather, very scratch-sensitive and not breathable
In addition, so-called exotic leathers are used less often (less than 1 percent market share) : fish leather (from rays , sharks , eels ), reptile leather (crocodile, snake , lizard ), ostrich leather or emu leather , but also leather from the skin of elephants , frogs , anteaters and other animals. These leathers are mostly used for special luxury or evening shoes, but also for western boots . Since these shoes are expensive, they are only processed by well-known manufacturers who only use leather with CITES papers (Washington Convention on the Protection of Species). This means that the hides come almost exclusively from registered breeding companies and are generally approved for export from their home countries.
As described above, the shoes were made by shoemakers in the pre-industrial era . Nowadays, shoe production is mostly industrial, but the manual work share is still very high. The manufacturing process is divided into three main areas: development and design , upper production and the actual shoe construction.
Development and design
First, a shoe is created with all the external details as a drawing on paper, templates are made for the individual shaft parts and the last is made of wood.
The individual parts of the shoe upper are prepared in the stamping and quilting department. Depending on the material, this includes different work processes. In high-quality leather shoes, for example, the leather pieces are punched out, thinned out at the edges and marked ( shoe size ). The shaft is then glued or sewn together from the individual parts . Then the lining (the inner shaft) is manufactured in the same way and placed in the outer shaft (glued, sewn or both). The lower edge of the shaft (the lasting allowance ) is kept wider so that it can later be attached under the insole.
The "backbone" of almost every shoe is the insole, the insole . This is the bottom part on which the foot stands in the finished shoe, unless an additional cover or insole is placed over it. The rest of the shoe is grouped around the insole as a load-bearing element: the upper is attached at the top, the outsole at the bottom. In daily use, the insole is heavily stressed by friction, pressure, bending, and foot moisture. This is why it is made of robust (firm) vegetable-tanned leather for high-quality shoes; for shoes in the lower and middle price categories, it consists mainly of an impregnated and stiffened cardboard box, which is usually covered in the rear part of the shoe by a glued-on thin insole made of (artificial) leather .
The assembly of the shoe takes place on the shaping last. The upper is pulled (pinched) over it and the insole is temporarily attached under it. Then the upper and the bottom of the shoe are connected to one another. The edge of the shaft (lasting allowance) lies under the edge of the insole. The connection can be made in a variety of ways (so-called design ): In industrial production today, gluing (glue-tweaked) is common, more expensive shoes are also sewn ( flexibly sewn , sewn through or welted ).
- glued / molded / vulcanized shoes
- In the case of glued shoes (technical jargon: AGO shoes , AGO was the name of the first adhesive), the lower surface of the insole and the upper edge to be glued are first connected to one another and then the outsole is coated with heat-activated adhesive and glued under the insole. In the case of sprayed-on floors (e.g. sports shoes), the upper that is glued or strobeled to the insole (fastened with a zigzag seam ) is first placed in a mold so that the floor can be sprayed on from below and, when it cools, with the insole and the connects the lower edge of the shaft. The profile is given to the outsole by the shape in which it cools.
- sewn shoes
- With sewn shoes , the upper and the bottom are sewn to the insole. Either by sewing the sole through the insole and the upper edge after removing the last - the principle of a sewn- through design . Or by previously under the insole an edge ( crack lip , Gemband was bonded), then to a further step in the shaft together with a circumferential leather band (the frame ) by means of Einstechnaht is attached - principle welted style . The hollow space that arises between the insole and the outsole in frame shoes , due to the lasting indentation of the shaft below the edge of the insole and the frame itself, is filled with a ball of cork , felt or, increasingly, plastic (Poron PUR foam ). This intermediate layer allows the foot to create its own footbed thanks to its flexibility. It also has a cushioning and temperature-insulating effect. Finally, the actual outsole is sewn onto the slightly protruding frame that runs around the shoe (double seam) . This method of welted shoe production is very complex and is only reserved for the best shoes. Their advantage is a separate connection between the outsole and the upper, which guarantees a long-term fit and stability and makes the shoes easier to repair.
- wood-nailed shoes
- In the wood-nailed design, these parts are connected to one another by numerous small wooden nails. This gives the shoe first-class stability, which has a positive effect on durability and dimensional stability.
Finally, the heel is attached, which is either made of plastic, wood or individual layers of leather (layered heel ) . The paragraph is either nailed on or glued on. There is no need to attach a heel if the outsole and the heel are made of one piece (mostly plastic or rubber, but also wood, but never with leather soles).
Finally, the shoes are optically trimmed. In the simplest case, this is limited to spraying with a type of self-shine spray, with the shoes being guided past the spray nozzles fully automatically, as if hanging in a painting line. In the case of high-quality shoes, it is painstakingly cleaned by hand, the shoe is colored with shoe polish , protected and made to shine on machine-operated round polishing brushes. The manufacturers use the same hard wax creams for this that the end consumer is offered in the store.
During the final inspection, the shoes are visually checked again and, if necessary, laces are pulled in. Finally, to avoid scratches, the shoes are wrapped in tissue paper and packed in cardboard boxes.
Price structures and market
Shoes that look very similar to one another can sometimes have significant price differences. In addition to the use of different materials and their qualities, there are mainly the following reasons for this:
- The design or construction method has a very large influence on the price of the end product, as it requires a different amount of work. If, for example, soles can be attached to the shafts by simply injecting thermoplastic material into a metal mold resting on the shaft, this costs much less than the comparatively laborious mechanical sewing of the sole and shaft together.
- Country of Manufacture
- In countries with different conditions in terms of wages, labor rights and environmental protection laws, the manufacturing costs are significantly lower.
- Brands, designers and trends
- A pair of flip-flops (thong sandals made of plastic) can be offered in Central Europe for € 2 but also for € 200. If the shoe type is trendy and the brand is a designer label, such price differences are possible.
Some retail price guide values (as of 2008) for men's low shoes:
- Shoes made of cheap materials (synthetic fiber fabric, soles made of PVC, polyethylene or synthetic rubber): approx. € 10–30
- Shoes made from more suitable materials (cheap leather, rubber soles): approx. € 40–80
- Shoes made of inexpensive leather (well-known shoe brands, with rubber or cheap leather soles): approx. 90–150 €
- Shoes made from good leather (leather or rubber sole, with "invisible" savings in processing): approx. 150–250 €
- Shoes made of high-quality leather, machine-sewn (leather sole, high-quality workmanship): from approx. 300 €
- Shoes in this price group differ in the way the shaft is connected to the ground. In this price category, the styles sewn through or welted dominate . Sewn shoes are generally cheaper (around 100 €) than comparable welted shoes, for which the stated guide price also applies.
- Shoes made of high-quality leather, hand-sewn (leather sole, high-quality workmanship): from approx. 500 €
- Shoes made of high-quality leather, hand-sewn and made to measure: from approx. 1200 €
- Shoes made of exotic leather (machine or hand-sewn, leather sole): depending on the leather, for example real crocodile from around 1500 €
Broken down into women's, men's, children's and slippers, the average store price of all shoes sold (Germany, early summer 2007) results in the following picture: women's shoes cost an average of € 61, men's shoes € 73, children's shoes € 47 and slippers around € 26. In 2007, Germans spent an average of € 87 per person on shoes.
Germany imports 537 million pairs of shoes every year. In Germany, 80 companies produced 26 million pairs. 80 percent of all German shoe imports come from Asia; their purchase price is on average 12 euros. The average household in Germany spends around 20 euros per month on shoes.
Like no other item of clothing, footwear is exposed to heavy loads (weathering, sweat, tension, pressure, friction and so on) which, with adequate leather care , it can endure for longer. Above all, the shoes remain comfortable (breathable, temperature-regulating, adaptable) and optically flawless.
The following factors are decisive for shoe care:
- Fit: If the last shape, width and length of the shoes do not fit the wearer's foot, the shaft, foot, comfort and durability of the shoes will all suffer.
- Wearing breaks: If shoes are worn on two consecutive days, the moisture absorbed by the feet cannot evaporate completely in the meantime. In order to avoid the resulting premature wear and tear and not to reduce wearing comfort (including hot feet in summer and cold feet in winter), you should expect at least a full day's break in wearing shoes.
- Shoe trees : Especially in leather shoes, they ensure that they retain their shape, relieve the bottom of the shoe and prevent deep creases from developing when the leather contracts again when the moisture from the feet evaporates. Therefore, the shape of the shoe tree should fit as optimally as possible, it should not lie in with too much tension and the heel end piece of the tensioner should fill the heel cap of the shoe as flat and wide as possible.
- When stepping on, shoehorns protect the heel cap, which gives the foot support, and help to maintain the fit by avoiding widening of the entry opening and thus an insufficient form fit. For the same reason, shoe fasteners (laces, straps and so on) are opened before taking off and shoes with opened fasteners are put on.
- Shoe polish: The care of smooth leather, hard-wearing leather and suede is different.
- Shoe dryer , when wet
Smooth leather care
- Cleaning: To prevent surface dirt from being preserved by the cream and mechanically attacking the leather, shoes are cleaned before the cream is applied; dusty shoes by simply brushing them off or wiping them with a cloth dampened with water.
- Nourishing / impregnating / protecting: Optimal care is achieved by applying a very thin layer of hard wax cream ( shoe cream in flat tin cans). The hard wax cream optimally fulfills all three requirements, also has a cleaning effect (which also prevents the accumulation of several layers of cream) and saves the purchase of additional special products.
- Shine brushing / polishing: After the cream application has dried, the surface is polished with a horsehair brush or with a soft cloth, which makes new soiling more difficult and creates a shine. Shoe lovers know various means of giving upper leathers cared for with hard wax cream to a particularly strong high gloss (polishing with nylon stockings, water polishing , use of soft goat hair brushes and so on)
Hard wearing leather care
Hard-wearing leather (mostly fat leather , often processed on the meat side) is used for rough, heavily used shoes (work boots, hiking boots). For cleaning, dirt brushes with vegetable fibers can be used, which have the advantage of being suitable for wet brushing with clear water. Leather fats or fat waxes are suitable as care products . Apply very thinly, let it soak in for one night and then buff it off with your bare hand. Over-greasing worsens the breathability and makes the leather limp over time. For the best possible care, even rough suede shoes can be treated in this way, which, however, results in a greasy appearance.
Suede shoes should often be brushed out thoroughly with a brush (brass brush for velor, crepe brush for nubuck), as the open-pored leather easily absorbs dust and dirt, which in the long term mechanically destroys the leather from the inside and slowly turns gray. Impregnation provides better protection against new soiling and, at the same time, hydrophobization . Normal shoe polish is unsuitable as it will cause the suede to lose its typical appearance. Exception: fat care (hard wearing leather, hunting leather, fat leather).
Selection of suitable shoes
For growing children, it is economically expedient to choose shoes with sufficient space on the front of the toes for the expected length growth of the feet. Shoes, especially those made of leather, adapt to the shape of the foot through wearing. Feet swell with increasing blood circulation due to warmth, and also during the course of a day, especially when the legs are little moved and a lot of standing. With increasing age, the arch of the foot sinks a little, making feet longer and a little wider.
It is helpful to feel the tip of your toes yourself, to use trial socks, to feel the position of the tips of your toes with your fingertips or thumb through the shoe cap.
As a health-damaging curiosity there were fluoroscopic apparatus based on X-rays , so-called pedoscopes, around 1950/1960 . A waist-high wooden box with a step and opening for inserting both front parts of the shoe stood in some shoe stores. Under the step, an X-ray tube was activated by electrical switch-on, radiation absorption through the shoe and bones and fluorescence in a screen just above the shoes in the darkening box generated a live image with the moving toes, through typically 3 oval viewing tubes of the test person, shoe seller and shoe buying partner could be viewed - typically only for a few seconds. By Adrian X-Ray Shoe Fitter , a fluoroscope , made at least from 1938 in Milwaukee and others were about 10,000 copies first, delivered to orthopedic later at shoe stores throughout the US and the US military, where they were used up to the 1970th The devices were only slightly shielded against the escape of X-rays. Their use was increasingly criticized from 1950, and regulated and finally banned in more and more states of the USA. Essentially the equipment was destroyed, and the Oak Ridge Associated Universities have a museum piece. In a shoe shop in Wels , only one shoe shop of this type (or similar) was in economical use for a few years after 1960.
The quality, richness and variety of the exhibitions in the museums mentioned vary widely. It ranges from two simple rooms with a few shoes from a few eras to several exhibition halls with shoes from many cultures and centuries, historical shoe repair workshops and production facilities, leather and tanning technology and the multi-volume, information-rich museum catalogs that accompany the exhibits.
Well-known international collections are:
- German Shoe Museum, Hauenstein , Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany
- Weissenfels Shoe Museum , Germany
- Bally Shoe Museum in Schönenwerd , Switzerland
- Bata Shoe Museum Toronto, Canada
- Musée International de la Chaussure in Romans-sur-Isère , France
- Northampton Museum and Art Gallery , Northampton , England
- Museu Nacional do Calçado (MNC), Novo Hamburgo
- Museo del Calzado in Elda , Spain
Shoes are also flippantly referred to as slippers or botts .
- Links to individual shoe models can be found in the article shoe model .
- Design , information on different manufacturing techniques
- Gaiters , a complement to the shoe
- Shoe fetishism , a sexual aspect
- In the Arab world, the shoe is occasionally used as a symbol of contempt .
- Shoes (imperial regalia) , part of the imperial coronation regalia
- Shoes on the Danube Bank , a memorial in Budapest
- First shoes in customs
- Main entry: shoe and boots
- Marie-Josèphe Bossan: The Art of Shoes. Parkstone Press, New York 2004, ISBN 1-85995-771-4 .
- Lars Goral: The shoe guide . Make shoes yourself. Wrapping paper, Osnabrück 1987, ISBN 3-931504-18-2 .
- Olaf Goubitz: Stepping through time: Archaeological footwear from prehistoric times until 1800. Stichting Promotie Archeologie, Zwolle 2001, ISBN 90-801044-6-9 .
- Peter Knötzle : Roman shoes. Luxury on your feet (= writings from the Limes Museum Aalen 59). Theiss, Stuttgart 2007, ISBN 3-8062-2172-3 .
- Ingrid Loschek : shoe icons. From high heels to Birkenstocks. In: Schuhtick. About cold feet and hot soles. Philipp von Zabern, Mainz 2008, ISBN 978-3-8053-3938-4 , pp. 89-96.
- Colin McDowell: Shoes - Beauty, Fashion, Imagination. Heyne, Munich 1989, ISBN 3-453-03606-9 .
- Jan Plath: Computer-aided construction of bespoke shoes , Shaker, Aachen 2004, ISBN 3-8322-2765-2 (Dissertation Uni Bremen 2004, 2003 pages).
- Christiane Schnack: The medieval shoes from Schleswig. Excavation shield 1971–1975 (= excavations in Schleswig / Reports and Studies , Volume 10). Wachholtz, Neumünster 1992, ISBN 3-529-0146-05 , (Dissertation Uni Kiel , 193 pages).
- Anne Sudrow: The Shoe in National Socialism. A product story in a German-British-American comparison . Wallstein, Göttingen 2010, ISBN 978-3-8353-0793-3 . (Dissertation Technical University of Munich 2009, 854 pages)
- Helge Sternke: Everything about men's shoes. Nicolai, Berlin 2006, ISBN 3-89479-252-3 .
- Frédérique Veysset, Isabelle Thomas, Caroline Levesque: Shoes: the ultimate style guide , Prestel, Munich 2015 (original title So Shoes ! , translated from the French by Dorothee Domingos). ISBN 978-3-7913-8136-7 .
- Jonathan Walford: The seductive shoe . Shoe fashion from four centuries (original title: The Seductive Shoe. Translated by Sabine Bayerl) Edition Braus, Heidelberg 2007, ISBN 978-3-89904-261-0 .
- Paul Weber: Shoes. Three millennia in pictures. AT , Aarau 1994, ISBN 3-85502-159-7 .
- Kinz Wieland: children's feet-children's shoes. Everything you need to know about little feet and shoes. Self-published, Salzburg 2005, ISBN 3-00-005879-6 .
- Shoes from 1434 to today on marquise.de
- Lexicon of women's shoes on damenschuhlexikon.de
- Video: shoe manufacturing
- S. Wenzel: Neanderthal presence and behavior in Central and Northwestern Europe during MIS 5e. In: Developments in Quaternary Sciences. Vol. 7, 2007, Elsevier, pp. 173-193.
- Erik Trinkaus , Hong Shang: Anatomical evidence for the antiquity of human footwear: Tianyuan and Sunghir. In: Journal of Archaeological Science. 35 (2008), pp. 1928-1933. doi: 10.1016 / j.jas.2007.12.002
- NO Bader: Upper Palaeolithic Site Sungir (Graves and Environment) . Scientific World, Moscow 1998.
- Jean Clottes : Les Cavernes de Niaux: art préhistorique en Ariege. Seuil, Paris 1995.
- Thomas J. Connolly, William J. Cannon: Comments on "America's Oldest Basketry". In: Radiocarbon. 41 (3), 1999, pp. 309-313.
- The World's Oldest Shoes (website for the Fort Rocks sandals, with illustration)
- JT Kuttruff, SG DeHart, MJ O'Brien: 7500 Years of Prehistoric Footwear from Arnold Research Cave, Missouri . In: Science. 281, 1998, pp. 72-75. doi: 10.1126 / science.281.5373.72
- New finds in the ice - older than Ötzi. In: Tages-Anzeiger . August 21, 2008.
- University of Bern, Communication Department: Ice finds from Schnidejoch - 1000 years older than Ötzi ( Memento from August 19, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
- Oeschger Center, Ötzi Conference , Schnidi and the Reindeer Hunters: Ice Patch Archeology and Holocene Climate Change from 21./22. August 2008 ( Memento of August 27, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) (English)
- Ice finds from Schnidejoch 1000 years older than Ötzi. ( Memento from September 23, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) on: Archeology online. August 22, 2008.
- Discovered the oldest leather shoe in the world. (Spectrum direct, accessed on June 10, 2010)
- Ron Pinhasi u. a .: First Direct Evidence of Chalcolithic Footwear from the Near Eastern Highlands. In: PLoS ONE. 5 (6), p. E10984. doi: 10.1371 / journal.pone.0010984
- R. Goedecker-Ciolek: For the production technique of clothing and equipment. In: Markus Egg , Konrad Spindler : The glacier mummy from the end of the Stone Age from the Ötztal Alps. In: Yearbook of the Roman-Germanic Central Museum. 39/2, 1992, pp. 101-106.
- Klaus Hollemeyer u. a .: Species identification of Oetzi's clothing with matrix-assisted laser desorption / ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry based on peptide pattern similarities of hair digests. In: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry. Volume 22, Issue 18, 2008, pp. 2751-2767 doi: 10.1002 / rcm.3679
- Ötzi's shoes on the website of the South Tyrol Museum of Archeology. (Accessed June 12, 2010)
- H. Hahne: Moor corpses from Lower Saxony. Ancient finds from Lower Saxony, Part B. Hildesheim, 1915.
- M. Hald: Primitive Shoes. An archaeological-ethnological study based upon shoe finds from the Jutland peninsula. National Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen 1972, OCLC 789377160 .
- Peter Knötzele: Roman shoes. Luxury on your feet. Theiss, 2007.
- The leather finds of the Pre-Roman Iron Age and Roman Empire from Northwest Germany. ( Memento from November 30, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
- C. van Driel-Murray: The east fort of Welzheim, Rems-Murr-Kreis. The Roman leather finds. Stuttgart 1998.
- Wolfgang Marquardt: The theoretical basics of orthopedic shoemaking . Verlag Carl Maurer, Geislingen 1965, pp. 75–76.
- Meyer, Georg Hermann von. In: J. Pagel: Biographical lexicon of outstanding doctors of the nineteenth century. Berlin / Vienna 1901. (online at zeno.org )
- Der Herrenfahrer , Heft 1, 1924, p. 51.
- Christof Dipper : Review of Sudrow, Anne: The shoe in National Socialism. A product story in a German-British-American comparison. Göttingen 2010 . In: H-Soz-u-Kult , May 4, 2011, accessed online January 26, 2013.
- How does it work? Made-to-measure shoes online. Retrieved December 27, 2012.
- , accessed December 4, 2012
- Joachim Hofer, Silke Kersting: Custom-made shoes . In: Handelsblatt . No. 99 , May 27, 2013, ISSN 0017-7296 , p. 22 .
- Shoe-Fitting Fluoroscope (approx. 1930–1940) orau.org, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Museum, updated April 20, 2010 ("Oak Ridge Associated Universities"), accessed October 13, 2017. - Scientific treatment. Adrian shoe fitter used a 50 kV X-ray tube with 3–8 mA anode current and a typical timer setting of 20 s. - Sources: instruction manual, 8 articles from 1949 to 2000.
- X-ray Shoe Fit Check 1920s youtube.com, video / silent film 0:55, from the 1920s, markdcatlin, December 16, 2008, accessed on October 13, 2017. - Commercial (English)
- Shoe Store Fluoroscope youtube.com, Eugene Fournier, 22 March 2012, accessed October 13, 2017. Video 4:21. Critical, popular review.
- The shoe-fitting fluoroscope: a little known application of the X-ray healio.com, HemOnc Today, May 10, 2008, accessed on October 13, 2017. - With further references.
- Compare also in general Paul Sartori: The shoe in popular belief. (Part I) In: Zeitschrift des Verein für Volkskunde 4, 1894, pp. 41–54.
- The shoe as a symbol
- Cf. Christof Dipper: Review of Sudrow, Anne: The shoe in National Socialism. A product story in a German-British-American comparison. Göttingen 2010 . In: H-Soz-u-Kult , May 4, 2011, accessed online January 26, 2013.