Fluoroscopy or fluoroscopy is a term used in medicine and especially the radiology and diagnostic radiology. This means the continuous observation of processes in the human or animal body using X-rays . X-ray screen photography was formerly known as fluorography .
The fluoroscopy enables dynamic X-ray image display on a monitor using X-ray image intensifier technology or, with newer devices, using a digital flat panel detector .
- Representation or viewing of broken bones
- For the visualization of fractures or dislocations and for control during the operative set-up, small fluoroscopy devices on castors are used by the surgeons and the operating staff. For this purpose, a sterile surgical panel must be attached to the devices.
- Representations of vessels, bile ducts and gastrointestinal sections with appropriate contrast media
- Placement of probes in the body under X-ray guidance
- for better localization of pathological processes in the body by turning or changing the patient's position (e.g. pulmonary nodules)
- Observation of dynamic processes, e.g. B. to rule out vesicoureterorenal reflux
- Heart movement
- Valve calcifications
- Swallowing movement ( esophageal representation )
- Exclusion of leaks ( fistula ) after surgical interventions
An examination method in which the X-ray camera is connected to a monitor so that the doctor can view the organ to be examined directly on the screen is called fluoroscopy. In contrast to x-rays, fluoroscopy is usually done by a doctor. Depending on the question, the doctor must carefully consider whether X-rays or fluoroscopy are more useful, because X-rays are ionizing radiation and can damage cells that are hit by them.
The recording of fluoroscopic images is basically also suitable for generating a three-dimensional image of the affected body section with views recorded from different viewing angles. Similar to computed tomography , fluoroscopic images recorded during an arcuate movement can be used to generate a tomographic data set. Because of the cone-shaped recording geometry, what is known as cone beam CT or cone beam tomography is also used. This is particularly suitable for determining the spatial position and location of organs or certain tissues relative to the fluoroscopic apparatus [Selby et al. 2010].
A fluoroscopy naturally takes much longer than a single x-ray, e.g. B. on the tripod. However, this does not in any way mean that the radiation exposure would be correspondingly higher. The reason is the completely different recording technology, in which image intensifiers with digital image storage and the display of the last image - "last image hold" - ensure a considerable reduction in the required dose compared to the outdated techniques of the 80s with series film exposure or 35mm cameras. Using the technique of pulsed fluoroscopy, the dose can be reduced to such an extent that simple position controls, e.g. B. When looking for foreign bodies , a brief fluoroscopy may be preferable to an overview image.
- ^ Günter Thiele (Ed.): Handlexikon der Medizin , Urban & Schwarzenberg , Volume 2 (F – K), Munich, Vienna, Baltimore without year, p. 791.
- ↑ Archive link ( Memento of the original from January 7, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Optimization of a pulsed fluoroscopy
- ↑ Archive link ( Memento of the original dated December 8, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Overview of radiation doses
- Selby, Boris Peter; et al .: Full Automatic X-Ray based Patient Positioning and Setup Verification in Practice: Accomplishments and Limitations. In: Proceedings of the 49th Conference of the Particle Therapy Co-Operative Group (PTCOG). Gunma, Japan, 2010, Vol. 49: 36-37.
- W. Schuster, D. Färber (Ed.): Children's radiology. Imaging diagnostics. Springer 1996, ISBN 3-540-60224-0 .
- http://www.bundesaerztekammer.de/page.asp?his=188.8.131.522.5974 Guideline of the German Medical Association