Ötzi , also called Mann vom Tisenjoch , Mann vom Hauslabjoch , The Ice Man , Mummy from Similaun and the like, is a glacier mummy from the late Neolithic or Copper Age that was found in 1991 in the Ötztal Alps ( South Tyrol ). Using the radiocarbon dating of the time of death of the man in 3258 ± 89 was v. Chr. Determined. This makes Ötzi the oldest known natural human mummy. A large number of insights into the life of the Stone Age people in Europe are due to their investigation.
The mummy was found on September 19, 1991 at the Ötztal Alps above the Niederjochferner . The Tisenjoch, a depression in the Schnals ridge between the Fineilspitze and the Similaun , connects the Schnalstal with the Ötztal . The man from Tisenjoch was discovered by the two German mountain hikers Erika and Helmut Simon from Nuremberg and is the only surviving corpse from the Copper Age (also known as the late or end Neolithic ) in Central Europe that has been preserved by natural freeze-drying .high Tisenjoch ( ) in the
The site is a hollow in the rock that was once covered by glacial ice. The ice could never move and exert shear forces in the hollow because of the insignificant incline and the proximity to the slope edge to the west (no ice supply). Rather, Ötzi was well protected at this point thanks to the immobile mass of ice above him. Only when the glacier retreated due to severe thawing in the unusually hot summer of 1991 were the objects uncovered.
Boundary course at the place of discovery
Since Ötzi was found in the border region between the Austrian state of Tyrol and the Italian province of South Tyrol , both states initially claimed the find. The cause is the glacier cover at the site of the discovery of the watershed agreed as a boundary in the 1919 Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye . The international border regulation committee, commissioned to define the terrain in 1920, assumed that in the case of glacier cover a straight line would draw the boundaries of the watershed beneath the glacier and decided to proceed accordingly. In 1922 he also established a corresponding boundary at the site of the find. Although the site is on the side of the watershed facing Austria, a survey in October 1991 showed that it was 93 meters from the border on Italian territory. Since September 2006, a new contract between the Republic of Austria and the Italian Republic on the maintenance of the boundary signs as well as the measurement and marking of the common national border has been in force, which defines the watershed in glaciers no longer as the watershed of the underlying terrain, but as that of the glacier surface and thus variably defined. Thus, depending on the condition of the glacier, the site is now on Italian or, if the glacier has completely thawed, on Austrian territory.
Recovery and find circumstances
The ice corpse was recovered on September 23, 1991 by the Institute for Forensic Medicine at the University of Innsbruck. Since the importance of the corpse was not immediately recognized, several mishaps occurred:
- The policeman who wanted to free the ice corpse from the ice on the day it was discovered damaged Ötzi's hip with a pimple and a jackhammer.
- Four days later, the police packed the body and the found objects in a plastic bag. Because the bow was too big for the sack, it was broken.
- The undertaker in Vent broke Ötzi's arm so that he could be put in a coffin and brought to the forensic medicine department in Innsbruck.
- The coroner was inclined to release the corpse for burial, since no murderer is alive or legally to be prosecuted with old corpses before the prehistorian Konrad Spindler was informed by the University of Innsbruck .
The first scientific investigation of the archaeological findings was carried out by Konrad Spindler. In addition, specialists from the fields of anthropology , forensics and pathology were included in the investigations from the start .
Anatomy and pathology
The approximately 1.54 m tall and 13 kg heavy, freeze-dried corpse is almost intact and complete. The probable age at death is given as 45–46 years, with a deviation of up to ± 5 years possible. Since the body shrinks when it freezes, it must have been taller, about 1.60 m. The torso shows deterioration of the lumbar spine and an injury caused by an arrow shot in the left shoulder. Furthermore, the skull shows a fracture of the cranial suture between the zygomatic bone and the frontal bone ( suture zygomaticofrontalis ) in the area of the right edge of the eye . A traumatic brain injury has now been proven.
The degree of wear and tear of the joints is classified as relatively low for the age, which suggests a prominent social position. High concentrations of metals were found in the hair ; therefore it was initially assumed that he came into contact at least temporarily with copper smelting. However, this assumption was recently contradicted.
The teeth are badly worn, which - as with many other Neolithic findings - can be attributed to the consumption of grain with the particles of millstones it contains . According to the mineral status of the teeth, it came from the Eisack valley . In 2011, various dental diseases such as tooth decay and mild periodontal disease were diagnosed. The diastema (the gap between the two upper central incisors) is also noticeable . Another study revealed, among other things, indications of an accidentally dead front tooth and advanced periodontitis, the latter also confirmed by DNA analyzes from the pelvic bone, which detect the periodontal pathogen Treponema denticola .
A connection between periodontitis and a previously found hardening of the arteries is discussed.
Numerous blue-black tattoo groups have been preserved on the mummy , in which coal dust was rubbed into small punctiform wounds. They are among the world's oldest verifiable tattoos and are made up of 61 individual tattoos. Particularly striking are the parallel lines in the lumbar area, stripes around his right ankle and a tattoo in the form of a cross behind his right knee. Due to some punctures on classic acupuncture points , there is speculation about a therapeutic function of the tattoos.
Three gallstones described in 2001 indicate an increased cholesterol level in the glacier man, which, in connection with the arteriosclerosis diagnosed years ago, leads to a new interpretation of his diet. While the heavy tooth wear was still taken as evidence of a predominantly vegetarian diet, meat is now accepted as an essential source of food. However, the DNA analysis also provided indications of a hereditary component of the arterial disease. In 2016, the Helicobacter pylori bacterium was found in the mummy's stomach, which, in connection with the birch pork being carried as medicine, indicates acute stomach problems.
The left humerus was broken during the rescue in the icy terrain. As only pathological examinations in 2011 showed, the right upper arm was also broken post-mortem , which is also probably due to the rescue. In 2012, atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were able to detect red blood cells in the arrow wound on the back.
In 2011, the first results of the investigation of the genome (from the cell nucleus DNA) became known. This is how the gene for brown eyes was identified. The iceman genome was sequenced from the pelvic bone and published in February 2012.
From Ötzi's genetic material it was concluded that he was lactose intolerant . However, this fact does not yet justify the assumption - which is partly rumored in the press - of a general inadequacy to a rural economy, since lactose intolerance is still considered the more likely finding for late Neolithic populations. The comparison of mtDNA, which became known in November 2012, assumes Ötzi's genetic integration into a rural culture. The Iceman was a carrier of blood group 0. Borrelia ( Borrelia burgdorferi ) also suggest that it is the oldest documented case of tick- borne Lyme disease , even if this has been questioned in more recent studies.
Paternal Line (Y-DNA)
A partial sequence of the Y chromosome inherited from father to sons became known in February 2012. The youngest known Y haplogroup has been identified as G2a4-L91 . This haplogroup is very rare and can only be found today in significant percentages in the relatively isolated populations of Corsica and Sardinia . Similar to the comparison of the entire genome, it is assumed that this haplogroup represents a Neolithic population that, with a few exceptions, was strongly pushed back in the original distribution area from the Bronze Age.
As part of a historical-genetic study on the settlement of the Tyrolean Alpine region in 2013, Innsbruck researchers assigned 19 of 3713 Tyrolean participants to haplogroup G-L91, whose age they estimated to be 10,000 years. Recent calculations based on other ancient human remains and modern men estimate an age of around 12,000 years.
By comparing the published Y sequence with privately financed Y sequencing, Citizen Science was able to assign Ötzi's Y chromosome to younger haplogroups that are descendants of G-L91 and are defined by the following SNP markers: PF3239> L166> FGC5672. The haplogroup G-L166 is estimated to be 6800 years old and is so far in Ötzi and modern Y-sequences with origins in Sardinia , Thuringia , Košický kraj (Slovakia) , Casablanca (Morocco) , Mecca (Saudi Arabia) and Punjab ( Pakistan) .
Maternal line (mtDNA)
The first genetic data to Ötzi of this little inherited in the maternal line genetic section existed that him a subgroup of the mtDNA - haplogroup zuordneten K1 to the currently known no survivors. However, other subsets of K1 and the parent exist haplogroup K . In November 2012, the derivation was presented that the mitochondrial DNA of the iceman mainly corresponds to peasant populations of the late Neolithic , whose genetic makeup shows clear differences to more or less simultaneous hunter and gatherer populations . The complete mitochondrial genome of the 7,000-year-old epipalaeolithic skeleton Braña-1 (La Braña-Aritero, Province of León ), which, like various other mesolithic peoples, belongs to haplogroup U (U5), offers an informative comparison . The genetic material for the comparison also comes from a skeleton of the dimpled pottery culture from Gotland as well as from a southern Swedish farmer of the funnel beaker culture and from an Iron Age farmer from Bulgaria . From the comparison it was deduced that the peasant societies immigrated from the Middle East and Southern Europe and later only mixed with regionally resident hunter-gatherer peoples to a limited extent.
Last days of life and death
The last days in the life of the glacier man could be illuminated mainly by the examination of his intestinal contents by botanists from the University of Innsbruck . On the basis of pollen ingested with food, it can be demonstrated that Ötzi covered long stretches between different vegetation zones in the last few days before his death. Accordingly, he initially stayed in the area of the tree line , which was then about 2400 meters (today about 1800-2100 m). He then descended either into the Schnals or further into the Adige Valley and about six hours before his death up again in the direction of the Tisenjoch.
At least about 24 hours before the arrow attack, which led to the death, Ötzi was involved in close combat. Cuts on the left arm and hands as well as scratches on the entire body, especially on the back, are evidence of this. According to the research center Eurac Research , contrary to other interpretations, no traces of human blood were found on the arrowheads, the hatchet or the dagger blade. Only the slight traces of blood on the grass mantle could come from Ötzi himself, but possibly also from animals.
In the summer of 2011 it became known that Ötzi was taking a rest around an hour before his death and ate an extensive meal, which also included meat from Alpine ibex . The stomach was only identified in 2009 at an anatomically unusual location in the chest. Botanists from the University of Innsbruck also found numerous pollen from the hop beech in Ötzi's stomach, which suggests that Ötzi died in spring. Details on the stomach contents were published scientifically for the first time in 2011. With the finding of an extensive rest, the earlier scenario that the man was on a hasty escape from the valley is refuted.
In 2007 a conclusive scenario of Ötzi's death was published, which makes a murder by an arrow attack very likely. The arrowhead was only discovered in 2001 through new x-rays. It differs from the two surviving arrowheads from Ötzi's quiver in that it is more compact, so the arrow comes with a high degree of probability from a pursuer. The attacker shot the arrow diagonally below on the slope in the back of the glacier man when he was possibly still resting (after the meal mentioned above). The arrowhead punched a hole about two centimeters in the left shoulder blade as it penetrated the body . With the help of a “multislice computed tomography ” an injury to the back wall of the left shoulder- near subclavian artery ( subclavian artery ) could be detected. A large bruise can be seen in the surrounding tissues on the CT images . Eduard Egarter Vigl 's team of pathologists initially concluded that the arrow stuck in the body not only pierced the left shoulder blade but also the main artery , which would have led to death within a short time due to the high blood loss. In the evaluation of the circumstances of death published in 2007, the result was changed to the effect that Ötzi did not die from the direct consequences of the arrow wound, but from a subsequent severe head trauma . The authors leave open, however, whether the head trauma was caused by a backward fall as a result of the arrow shot or by a blow to the head, as popular media like to emphasize.
There is still no general consensus among experts on the cause of death. At the Second International Mummy Congress (October 2011 in Bolzano ) several possibilities were presented, none of which could be ruled out beyond doubt:
- Death could be the direct result of arterial hemorrhage from the left subclavian artery, which may have been injured by the bullet .
- Venous bleeding due to injury to the veins following the subclavian artery is also possible. Such an injury has not yet been proven, but is likely due to the location of the arrowhead.
- The now proven traumatic brain injury, the origin of which has not yet been fully clarified, could also have led directly to death.
- So far, it has not been possible to prove with certainty that the large vessels that run in front of the shoulder blade have been injured. These vessels may have remained intact. In this case, only the shoulder blade was perforated by the arrowhead and death could have occurred from slow bleeding to death, caused by damage to the arterial plexus ( rete scapulare ) in the shoulder blade , which was certainly injured.
However, the latest findings of fibrin in the arrow wound suggest direct death from the arrow shot.
The place of death of the glacier man was a transverse channel, a place somewhat sheltered from the wind. It is still unclear whether this place was chosen as the last resting place or was also the crime scene where he was hit with the arrow. The arrow shaft was removed from the victim's back, probably by external influence. The valuable hatchet with a copper blade was found on the mummy, which makes a robbery unlikely. However, this theory cannot be ruled out, as it cannot be reconstructed which objects the man from Tisenjoch still carried with him that the persecutor might have taken with him.
An alternative theory is the funeral theory : In 2010, a working group from the University of Rome published the controversial thesis that Ötzi died at lower altitude and was only brought to the pass and buried there months later . The objects found would therefore be grave goods . The reason given was that the analysis of the intestinal contents points to a death in April, but the pollen at the site, however, to August or September. A spatial analysis of the find situation suggests that the body was ritually laid out on a platform made of stones together with the tools and other objects. The laying down on the platform was later torn apart by the slow flow of the glacier ice, so that the body was finally found in the channel about 80 cm deeper and about 5 m northeast of the remains of the platform.
The burial theory was rejected by scientists from the South Tyrol Museum of Archeology, the University of Innsbruck and the Institute for Mummies at the Eurac Research research center . No decomposition processes can be detected that would have been inevitable if the corpse had been stored in the valley beforehand. In addition, the uninterrupted flow of blood in the left arm, which was angled under the body of the dead, is evidence of the unchanged posture during the freeze-drying process and can only be explained by such. The surrounding pollen brought into the field comes from melted ice and thus from a secondary location, which is why this argument by Vanzetti's working group is not very valid either.
Clothing and equipment
In addition to the remains of clothing, numerous everyday objects and utensils from this era were found next to the corpse. Some of the items of equipment show stylistic features that allow the corpse to be assigned as a representative of the southern Alpine Remedello culture . This is especially the copper ax, for which there are only a few comparative finds from the Remedello culture and of which there are similar rock art in Valcamonica . Another, region- specific feature is the Lessinian flint from which the dagger and arrowheads were made. This fossil-bearing flint points to the quarrying in the Monti Lessini , a mountain region east of the upper Lake Garda (also "Small Dolomites"). It is particularly typical of stone tools from the Remedello culture.
A DNA analysis of the leather scraps made it possible to identify the animals from which the clothing was made.
Articles of clothing
Ötzi wore a jacket made of brown and white fur, which was striped lengthways and whose light and dark fur stripes were combined in a visually effective way on the outside of the fur. Contrary to an earlier determination as sheepskin 2016 published study is for the jacket of a combination of goat and sheep skin and the leg warmers of goatskin from. However, the comfort of the jacket cannot be compared with today's clothing. The leg warmers are similar to the leggings of North American Indians. They consist of many small pieces of fur that have been carefully sewn with animal tendons using the overlay technique . Why Ötzi's leg warmers are patchwork work is still unclear today. Around the hips Ötzi wearing a belt made of calfskin , on which the leather straps of the leg pieces were attached and the also to the knees reaching loincloth from sheepskin held.
Ötzi's shoes are made of different materials. For the shaft, cowhide (formerly used: deer) was used, the hair side of which pointed outwards to ward off moisture. The sole was made of better insulating bearskin with the hair side on the inside. On the underside of the sole, a cross-running and crossing leather strip was attached, which is the oldest known profile sole of a shoe. The upper leather and sole were held in place by a circumferential leather strap, drawn in using a stitch technique. The inner shoe consisted of twisted and twisted cords of grass. This mesh was firmly connected to the sole by the circumferential leather strap, but was open at the top towards the shaft. Between the mesh of the inner shoe and the shaft leather dry sweet grass (was Brachypodium pinnatum and bristle grass ) stuffed, which served as a cushioning and insulating. The shoe, which was specially built for requirements in the high mountains, was closed with a " shoelace " made of linden bast .
In addition, an approximately 25 cm² large scrap of plaited sweet grass (of the species Fieder-Zwenke ) was found. The initial interpretation as part of a cape or a mat is controversial, it could also be a rain head protection or the part of a missing container for back carrying (described below).
The copper hatchet that was carried has been preserved in its entirety. The blade is made of 99% copper, which, according to the latest analyzes, was extracted from ore in southern Tuscany. While copper ax blades from the 4th millennium BC AD are known. In some number, Ötzi's ax is the only one that scarfed is received. With this ax it was possible to cut trees. Ötzi could have been a respected man as copper was very valuable at the time. It is possible that the sensitive and valuable ax was not intended as a tool at all, but as a weapon.
Bow and arrows
The not yet completely finished bow made of yew wood was worked with the ax . He is 1.80 m long. CT images of the cross-section show that the arch has horizontal annual rings and the outside of the trunk forms the back of the arch, as is the rule for Neolithic yew arches . A question that has not yet been fully clarified is that of the sapwood on the back, as this is either completely absent or, due to secondary coloring, can no longer be distinguished from the darker heartwood . The bow does not have a smooth surface, but has a very regular structure of small carved notches on all sides, which were made either with a flat ax made of copper or with blades made of flint. The lack of tendon notches alone is no proof of the incompletion of the bow, because these can be made superfluous by two tightly knotted tendon ears and / or by wrapping the limb ends (straps as tendon stoppers). As experiments with replicated yew arches have shown, these have a deadly penetration force in hoofed game at 30–50 meters.
The 14 arrows were made of wood from the woolly snowball . Only two arrow shafts still are arrowheads from flint obtained with plant fibers and birch pitch have been attached and glued. The fletching of the arrows was also glued on with birch pitch and additionally wrapped with a cord. The nock notches were deeply cut (so-called "self nocks") so that the arrows could be nocked firmly into the string.
The dagger that is part of the equipment has a flint blade and an ash wood handle . This flint contains tiny fossils that are only known in this composition from a pit in the municipality of Sant'Anna d'Alfaedo in the Monti Lessini east of Lake Garda.
The retoucher, a pin made of linden wood, into which the fire-hardened chip of a deer antler was inserted, was used to process flint cuts. See retouching .
Back carrier and embers container
Due to the ice movements a few meters away from the mummy, the remains of a back stretcher made of hazel wood ( Corylus avellana ) were found. This consisted of a 1.99 m long, curved hazel stick, at both ends of which there were two cut notches lying one above the other. Two larch split wood boards (40–38 cm long, 5–4.3 cm wide) with incised notches seem to correspond to the notches on the hazel stick and may have served as a support on the lower back while the hazel stick formed the frame. In the bend area of the hazel rod, traces of criss-cross windings can be seen that match the remains of linden bast cords, which, according to K. Spindler, were found directly under the carrying frame. In addition, a third, much shorter larch board measuring 16.5 cm in length was found during the subsequent excavations in 1992. The reconstruction of the carrying sack remains speculative so far, as no remains of a sack or its attachment to the wooden frame have been preserved. On the websites of the Bolzano Archeology Museum it is said at one point that remains of fur and tufts of hair indicate that a fur sack was attached to the stretcher. At another point it is speculated that the mesh made of sweet grass (traditionally interpreted as a “grass coat”) could also represent the missing container that was attached to the back stretcher.
Two cylindrical birch bark cans were also found. The diameter of the cans is 15-18 cm, the height about 20 cm. One of the bark vessels has a blackish charred inner wall and is therefore interpreted as a container for embers to transport glowing charcoal. It contained vegetable and charcoal fragments embedded in freshly picked Norway maple leaves . The charcoal consisted of the following types: spruce / larch, mountain pine , green alder , net willow , elm and probably also common rock pear .
Belt pouch with content
A belt pouch contained a blade scraper, drill, fragment of a blade, and a 7.1 cm awl . The scale and traces of pyrite it also contained are components of the lighter used at the time . Two birch porlings that were carried along served as a remedy. The fungus has a disinfecting effect and is also used as an infusion against worms and stomach problems (in the presence of seeds, for example ). The function of a bundle of twisted rawhide strips on which a perforated stone disc is threaded has not been clarified; it was recently suggested that it be interpreted as part of a so-called bird's gallows .
Kutschera (2002) summarizes the raw results of the laboratories in Zurich and Oxford to 4550 ± 19 BP, which with OxCal 4.4 result in a mean of 3258 ± 89 (1σ) calBC, and a median of 3223 calBC, in calendar years: 3368-3108 calBC ( 95.4%) and 3371-3101 calBC (99.7%).
The first scientific editor of the Funds, Konrad Spindler, initially assumed that the locality is nameless, and therefore called the mummy after further north and significantly higher between Fineilspitze and Hauslabkogel located Hauslabjoch ( Jungneolithische mummy from the glacier from Hauslabjoch, community Senales, Autonomous Province of Bolzano-South Tyrol, Italy ). Subsequently, however, it was pointed out that the crossing, in the immediate vicinity of which the mummy was found, bears the name Tisenjoch , from which the name Mann vom Tisenjoch developed.
The name “Ötzi” goes back to the article “Vom Ötzi und dem Arnold” in the evening edition of the Vienna daily Arbeiter-Zeitung on September 26, 1991, written by the journalist and educator Nikolaus Glattauer . The editor-in-chief at the time had asked for a catchy, catchy name. Following a telephone suggestion from Karl Wendl, the mummy was then named "Ötzi" in this article .
Spindler himself "resigned" to this language creation with humor:
“However, only one nickname has prevailed worldwide: Ötzi. Used without an article and always capitalized abroad, the formation of proper names is complete. The name is ready for the lexicon. "
The South Tyrolean Archeology Museum , where the mummy is kept today, uses the designation The Man from the Ice, Mummy from Similaun, Ötzi the Ice Man or Man from Similaun.
In German-speaking countries, the terms “The Man from the Ice”, “Man from Tisenjoch”, “Man from Hauslabjoch” and “Mummy from Similaun” and the like are in use. The name "Schnalsi" (after the Schnalstal) was launched, but could not prevail. In the Italian-speaking world, the mummy is called "Oetzi", "La Mummia del Similaun", "Uomo del Similaun" or "Uomo venuto dal ghiaccio" ("Man who comes out of the ice"). "Iceman" and "Frozen Fritz" are common in English-speaking countries.
- The original glacier mummy has been exhibited in the South Tyrolean Archaeological Museum in Bolzano since March 1998 . The coordination of the scientific processing was entrusted to the Bolzano pathologist Eduard Egarter Vigl . The mummy is stored in a cold store, which, at −6.5 ° C and 97–99% humidity, mimics the conditions inside the glacier and is thus supposed to maintain the degree of freeze-drying in the best possible way. Since the mummy still loses four to six grams of water every day, it is fed back to it every three months. For this purpose, warm water is sprayed as a fine mist in the cooling cell , which lays on the mummy, partially penetrates the skin and forms a thin layer of ice on it. A process is being planned in which the atmosphere in the cold store is to be replaced with pure nitrogen . This is supposed to prevent the growth of aerobic bacteria and also remove the radicals that could attack the mummy from the environment.
- In the open-air museums Ötzi-Dorf in Umhausen in North Tyrol and in the ArcheoParc in Schnals in South Tyrol, attempts are made to reconstruct the world of Ötzi and his time and to convey it to a broad audience.
- Since January 2003, a traveling exhibition with reproductions of the equipment and clothing of the Iceman has been touring the whole world. In view of the ongoing research, the content of the traveling exhibition is updated with every change of location. From March 23, 2016 to January 22, 2017, the exhibition was entitled Ötzi. The Ice Man ... and two from here in the Braunschweigisches Landesmuseum in Braunschweig .
- In autumn 2012, an exhibition on the subject of "The Return of Ötzi" was on view in the Eichstätt Jura Museum , which also offered a workshop.
- From February 7th to September 7th, 2014 the exhibition Ötzi 2.0 - News from the Ice Mummy with interactive modules and an educational accompanying program ran in the Archaeological State Collection in Munich . A live webcam was used to look into the cooling chamber in Bolzano.
- August 24, 2018 to January 6, 2019 - Exhibition at the Natural History Museum in Paderborn.
Legal dispute over the fund premium
After several years of legal dispute since November 2003, the two German mountain hikers Erika and Helmut Simon from Nuremberg are considered to be the discoverers . The South Tyrolean provincial government appealed against this decision of the Bolzano regional court , as the Slovenian Magdalena Mohar and the Zurich native Sandra Nemeth had reported who wanted to have found the glacier man. The long legal dispute over the glacier mummy led to an agreement in June 2009 that the Simon family, with the approval of the provincial government in Bolzano, was awarded a reward of 150,000 euros for the discovery of the glacier mummy, whereby the litigation and legal costs were to be borne by the family. However, after this agreement broke at the last moment, there was another procedure that ended in June 2010, after which the South Tyrolean provincial government promised Erika Simon a finder's fee of 175,000 euros and finally paid it out in August 2010.
Both lay and specialist media dealt with the find with its conclusions and interpretations very quickly and persistently. There was even talk of the "curse of Ötzi" as a modern variant of the curse of the mummy of Tutankhamun . So far, seven people are said to have died who had anything to do with the corpse, including its discoverer Helmut Simon.
A conspiracy theory book called The Oetztal Fake. Anatomy of an archaeological grotesque briefly attracted attention in 1993.
With regard to the cultural dimension of remembrance of the permanent exhibition of the glacier corpse in the center of Bolzano, it was emphasized that a "symbolic reference to a new, almost timeless South Tyrolean identity" was created. his ideologically very charged Victory Monument from the time of Italian fascism.
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- Angelika Fleckinger: Ötzi, the ice man. Everything you need to know to look up and be amazed . Folio-Verlag, updated 9th edition 2018, ISBN 978-3-85256-779-2 (youth non-fiction book)
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- M. Samadelli, Research Institute for Mummies and the Iceman, Eurac Research (Ed.): Iceman photoscan. Pfeil, Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-89937-098-0 .
- F. Rollo, M. Ubaldi, L. Ermini, I. Marota: Ötzi's last meals: DNA analysis of the intestinal content of the Neolithic glacier mummy from the Alps. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences . Vol. 99, number 20, October 2002, pp. 12594-12599, doi: 10.1073 / pnas.192184599 , PMID 12244211 , PMC 130505 (free full text).
- Silvia Renhart: The Ice Man and His World. Athesia Touristik, Bozen 2000, ISBN 88-87272-08-5 ( online )
- Albert Zink: Ötzi. 100 pages (= Reclam 100 pages, vol. 20419) . Philipp Reclam Jun., Stuttgart 2016, ISBN 978-3-15-020419-1 .
- Gabriele Beyerlein: Gabriele Beyerlein tells about the glacier man . Pictures by Tilman Michalski. Oetinger, Hamburg 1993, ISBN 3-7891-7510-2 .
- Erich Ballinger: The Glacier Man. A stone age thriller . Ueberreuter, Vienna 2003, ISBN 3-8000-2075-0 .
- Adam Jankowski: Ötz - The Fall of the Similaun Glacier . Pro-Market, Wroclaw 2011, ISBN 978-83-932549-0-3 .
- Andreas Venzke: Ötzi. The chase in the Stone Age. A mystery thriller . Auditorium Maximum / Audiobook Publishing of the Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 2013 (CD in Digipak, 70 minutes running time), ISBN 978-3-654-60392-6 .
- Lenz Koppelstätter: The dead man on the glacier. A case for Commissario Grauner . Kiepenheuer & Witsch, Cologne 2015, ISBN 978-3-462-04728-8 .
- Bodo Hell (direction, voice), Martin Leitner (sound design); Tisenjoch. Or: Die Tödin and the Shepherd, 2016. First broadcast: ORF Radio Ö1, radio play gallery , December 17, 2016, 2 p.m. (60 min.) - 7 days freely audible.
- The Ötztalmann and his world - the year before he slept. Germany / Austria 1999
- The Ice Man ,2017film by Felix Randau
- Ötzi and the secret of time , original title Ötzi e il mistero del tempo , Italy 2018
- Gerd “Pirg” Pircher: Ötzl, the ice man . Printing and publishing house Thaur 2000. ISBN 3-85400-108-8
- Gerd “Pirg” Pircher: Ötzl and the missing village . Printing and publishing house Thaur 2010. Without ISBN
Documentation / media
- Tillmann Scholl: Ötzi - The Ice Man. MIRROR TV. Documentation about the research on the Eismann, 95 minutes, DVD (German, Italian)
- Extensive bibliography , University of Innsbruck
- Ötzi, the Ice Man - South Tyrol Museum of Archeology
- Institute for Mummies and the Iceman , Eurac Research - research institute that coordinates research on Ötzi
- The Ice Man - Research Project on Prehistory , University of Innsbruck
- Iceman photoscan - Complete photographic documentation of the mummy
- Ötzi's hunting equipment - Landscape Museum Obermain
- Elisabeth Rastbichler-Zissernig: The man from Hauslabjoch From discovery to recovery. (PDF, 3.28 MB) September 3, 2001, accessed on March 1, 2012 (detailed review of the history of the find).
- Entry on The Ice Man in the Austria Forum (in the collection of essays)
- '25 years ago in the Tyrolean Alps', Deutschlandfunk calendar sheet from September 19 , 2016 , by Michael Stang
- Autopsy 1 - Confessions of a Medical Examiner - HBO Documentary HBO Home Box Office, Time Warner 1994, producer Gaby Monet. youtube.com, uploaded: Alicia Bagley, May 9, 2015, accessed March 8, 2017. (English) Video 40: 42–42: 01/43: 40 min on the mountain. 2. At the examination table.
- The Ice Man: The Life of Ötzi. Short film about the life stages of Ötzi on www.planeterde.de
- The ice man: how did Ötzi die? Short film about the death of Ötzi on Bunteerde.planeterde.de
- www.iceman.it (PDF). Retrieved August 27, 2021.
- Konrad Spindler: The man in the ice. The Neolithic glacier mummy from Hauslabjoch in the Ötztal Alps . in: Nürnberger Blätter zur Archäologie 9, 1992/93, pp. 27–38.
- Lorelies Ortner: From the glacier corpse to our ancestor Ötzi. About naming practice in the press . In: Deutsche Sprache 2/1993, pp. 97–127.
- Note. In the date format 19.9.1991 a number palindrome . - Mentioned in Ö1, ORF radio program, on December 16, 2016, 7:58 a.m. in the commentary on a radio play.
- South Tyrolean Office for Ground Monuments: The Discovery ( Memento from March 13, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Ötzi site: Photo of the excavations a year later with discoveries of further pieces of equipment. The mummy was found on the left on the white boulder, which can be seen a little above the rock with the upper longitudinal channel abraded by the glacier here on the lower right edge of the picture. The head was pointing north in the direction of the Ötztal.
- Report of the Foreign Policy Committee of the Austrian National Council of the XXI. Legislative period ( 874 of the supplements to the stenographic protocols ( memento of October 14, 2013 in the Internet Archive )) on the government bill "Treaty between the Republic of Austria and the Italian Republic on the maintenance of the boundary signs as well as the measurement and marking of the common national border including the final protocol, Exchange of notes and attachments "
- South Tyrol Museum of Archeology: Ötzi - the Ice Man: The Border Question ( Memento from January 8, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) - website
- Article 3 of the contract between the Republic of Austria and the Italian Republic of January 17, 1994 on the maintenance of the boundary signs and the surveying and marking of the common national border
- The man from the ice - research project on the Alpine prehistory - Alpine prehistory - University of Innsbruck
- Ötzi almost ended up in the cemetery Nürnberger Nachrichten, January 4, 2012, accessed on January 5, 2012
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- Ötzi: They got him cold - Nah - FAZ
- Angelika Fleckinger (ed.): Ötzi 2.0: A mummy between science, cult and myth. Theiss, 2011 ISBN 978-3-8062-2432-0
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- EUR.AC (European Academy of Bozen): Rested, eaten, died. October 2011 (Accessed October 25, 2011)
- International Mummy Congress with new findings on Ötzi . In: Archeology Online. 23rd September 2016
- Anatomical features ( Memento from March 1, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) (website of the South Tyrol Museum of Archeology)
- W. Muller: Origin and Migration of the Alpine Iceman . In: Science . 302, No. 5646, October 2003, doi : 10.1126 / science.1089837 . , pp. 862-866.
- Iceman had bad teeth. Discovery News (accessed June 18, 2011)
- Ötzi's dental problems confirmed . In: Archeology Online . ( archaeologie-online.de [accessed on October 23, 2018]).
- Roger Seiler et al .: Oral pathologies of the Neolithic Iceman, c.3,300 bc. In: European Journal of Oral Sciences. Advance online publication of April 9, 2013, doi: 10.1111 / eos.12037
- Spiegel online - Ötzi's 61 tattoos. Retrieved January 30, 2015 .
- Spektrum.de - Because of a typo: Ötzi has the oldest tattoos. Retrieved December 17, 2015 .
- The tattoos. In: Ötzi - the ice man (A mummy as a world sensation). South Tyrol Museum of Archeology, archived from the original on October 15, 2013 ; Retrieved November 8, 2013 .
- L. Dorfer, M. Moser, F. Bahr, K. Spindler, E. Egarter-Vigl, S. Giull'n, G. Dohr, T. Kenner: A medical report from the stone age? . In: The Lancet . 354, No. 9183, September 1999, pp. 1023-1025. doi : 10.1016 / S0140-6736 (98) 12242-0 . PMID 10501382 .
- Paul Gostner et al .: New radiological insights into the life and death of the Tyrolean Iceman. In: Journal of Archaeological Science. Vol. 38, No. 12, 2011, pp. 3425-3431, doi: 10.1016 / j.jas.2011.08.003
- Andreas Keller et al .: New insights into the Tyrolean Iceman's origin and phenotype as inferred by whole-genome sequencing. In: Nature Communications , Volume 3, Article No. 698, 2012, doi: 10.1038 / ncomms1701
- Ötzi predisposes to cardiovascular diseases - first genome analysis is available from IDW-Online (accessed on November 15, 2012)
Frank Maixner et al .: The 5300-year-old Helicobacter pylori genome of the Iceman. In: Science. Vol. 351, No. 6269, 2016, pp. 162-165, doi: 10.1126 / science.aad2545
Pathogens found in Otzi's stomach. On: eurekalert.org of January 7, 2016
- New Ötzi surprise: Researchers find 5300 year old blood , Der Spiegel , May 2, 2012, accessed on May 2, 2012.
- Interview with Dr. Eduard Egarter-Vigl , from: "Ötzi, an archaeological thriller" by Christine Sprachmann; First broadcast 3sat , August 10, 2011
- Ötzi's last meal: Capricorn; Section: Genes indicate brown eyes Die Presse (accessed June 25, 2011)
- Keller, A. et al .: New insights into the Tyrolean Iceman's origin and phenotype as inferred by whole-genome sequencing. Nature Communications 3 (2), 2012, p. 698 doi: 10.1038 / ncomms1701
- Oetzi the Iceman's nuclear genome gives new insights BBC-News, February 28, 2012 (accessed November 13, 2012)
- Ötzi’s nephews? ( Memento of July 3, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) In: EURAC News. Retrieved September 17, 2014. September 2013.
- Iceman was Central Europe native, new research finds NBC-News, November 9, 2012 (accessed November 13, 2012)
- SK Ames, DA Hysom, SN Gardner, GS Lloyd, MB Gokhale, and JE Allen: Scalable metagenomic taxonomy classification using a reference genome database. In: Bioinformatics , vol. 29, no. 18, pp. 2253–2260, Jul. 2013.
- Ancient DNA reveals genetic relationship between today's Sardinians and Neolithic Europeans - Hudson Alpha Institute for Biotechnology . November 19, 2015. Archived from the original on October 8, 2016. Retrieved on August 30, 2016.
- Andreas Keller, Angela Graefen, Markus Ball, Mark Matzas, Valesca Boisguerin, Frank Maixner, Petra Leidinger, Christina Backes, Rabab Khairat, Michael Forster, Björn Stade, Andre Franke, Jens Mayer, Jessica Spangler, Stephen McLaughlin, Minita Shah, Clarence Lee, Timothy T. Harkins, Alexander Sartori, Andres Moreno-Estrada, Brenna Henn, Martin Sikora, Ornella Semino, Jacques Chiaroni, Siiri Rootsi, Natalie M. Myres, Vicente M. Cabrera, Peter A. Underhill, Carlos D. Bustamante, Eduard Egarter Vigl: New insights into the Tyrolean Iceman's origin and phenotype as inferred by whole-genome sequencing . In: Nature Communications . 3, 2012, p. 698. doi : 10.1038 / ncomms1701 . PMID 22426219 .
- Berger et al. Reprint of: High resolution mapping of Y haplogroup G in Tyrol (Austria) In: Forensic Science International Genetics . Online publication from September 2013. doi: 10.1016 / j.fsigen.2013.05.013
- Study on the historical-genetic background of the settlement of the Tyrolean Alpine region . Retrieved on September 17, 2014. See also project page ( Memento from October 22, 2007 in the Internet Archive ).
- Urasim, Tagankin, Sychev, et al .: YTree v9.03.00. YFull, 2021, accessed August 21, 2021 .
- Ray Banks: New genetic findings regarding the 5300-year-old Iceman mummy, Oetzi . ISOGG Facebook group. Published online December 14, 2013. See also Magoon et al. Preprint 2013 Y-phylogeny doi: 10.1101 / 000802 , ISOGG Haplogroup G and MolGen forum contribution ( Memento from March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive ).
- Urasim, Tagankin, Sychev, et al .: YFull YTree v6.07.17. Accessed November 21, 2018 .
- Urasim, Tagankin, Sychev, et al .: G-L166 (age: 6817 ybp) Samples. In: YTree v9.03.00. YFull, 2021, accessed August 21, 2021 .
- haplogroup K. Biology Center of the Upper Austrian State Museums, Linz, archived from the original on 20 December 2007 ; Retrieved April 28, 2009 .
- Phillip Endicott et al .: Genotyping human ancient mtDNA control and coding region polymorphisms with a multiplexed Single-Base-Extension assay: the singular maternal history of the Tyrolean Iceman , June 19, 2009
- FAZ.de: cousin from ancient times. 2008, accessed February 17, 2010 .
- F. Rollo et al .: Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of the Tyrolean Iceman. In: Current Biology Volume 18, Issue 21, 2008, pp. 1687-1693. doi : 10.1016 / j.cub.2008.09.028 PMID 18976917
- Federico Sánchez-Quinto et al .: Genomic Affinities of Two 7,000-Year-Old Iberian Hunter-Gatherers. In: Current Biology , Volume 22, Issue 16, pp. 1494-1499 doi: 10.1016 / j.cub.2012.06.005
- Cavemen Bones Yield Oldest Modern Human DNA LiveScience, June 28, 2012 (accessed November 13, 2012)
- P. Skoglund, H. Malmström, M. Raghavan, J. Storå, P. Hall, E. Willerslev, MTP Gilbert, A. Götherström, M. Jakobsson: Origins and genetic legacy of Neolithic farmers and hunter-gatherers in Europe. In: Science , Vol. 336, 2012, pp. 466-469 DOI: 10.1126 / science.1216304
- More North Iberian Epipaleolithic mtDNA (and first Epipaleolithic nuclear DNA) Blog forwhattheywereweare (accessed November 15, 2012)
- ORF, August 11, 2003 ( Memento from December 17, 2004 in the Internet Archive )
- Tidying up the "Ötzi" myths . At: derstandard.at , No human blood on the dagger - Interview PM History, August 2008.
- Iceman's Stomach Sampled — Filled With Goat Meat National Geographic News, June 23, 2011 (accessed June 25, 2011).
- Focus news magazine, edition 23/2007 of June 4, 2007, p. 90: "Ötzi's last hours: Was he on the run?"
- E. Egarter Vigl, P. Gostner: Insight: Report of Radiological-Forensic Findings on the Iceman. In: Journal of Archaeological Science. Volume 29, Issue 3, 2002, pp. 323-326 doi: 10.1006 / jasc.2002.0824
- Researcher from the University of Zurich proves the cause of death of Ötzi ( Memento from December 8, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
- Ötzi died within a few minutes ( memento from September 29, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Neue Zürcher Zeitung , September 14, 2006 (accessed June 25, 2011)
- SPIEGEL online , August 28, 2007
- Online presence Die Presse , report, Eduard Egarter-Vigl, pathologist in Bozen, August 28, 2007.
- Alessandro Vanzetti et al .: The iceman as a burial . In: Antiquity , Vol. 84, 2010, pp. 681–692 ( abstract )
- Jürgen Langenbach: Archeology: Ötzi did not die on the mountain. Die Presse , August 26, 2010, accessed September 2, 2010 .
- Ötzi not buried on the glacier. ( Memento of November 26, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Statement by the South Tyrol Museum of Archeology on the “funeral theory” of the ice man by A. Vanzetti, M. Vidale, M. Gallinaro, DW Frayer and L. Bondioli, published in the specialist journal “Antiquity "84/2010. (PDF; 92 kB) ( Memento from November 28, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
- Mysterious Dead - The Ice Man ( Memento from December 20, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Original title: Mummies Alive: Otzi - Stone Age Warrior? , UK 2015; German version: ZDF / ZDF Enterprises, 2015 (ZDF media library, accessed on December 6, 2015)
- Landschaftsmuseum.de: illustrations of clothing and equipment. Retrieved January 5, 2010
- Niall J. O'Sullivan, Matthew D. Teasdale, Valeria Mattiangeli, Frank Maixner, Ron Pinhasi, Daniel G. Bradley, Albert Zink: A whole mitochondria analysis of the Tyrolean Iceman's leather provides insights into the animal sources of Copper Age clothing. In: Scientific Reports 6, Article number: 31279, 2016. [doi: 10.1038 / srep31279]
- Der Fellmantel , website of the South Tyrol Museum of Archeology, as of 2008
- Lorenz Bomhard: Ötzi wore goat skin leggings , Nürnberger Nachrichten of August 19, 2016, p. 14.
- Klaus Hollemeyer et al .: Species identification of Oetzi's clothing with matrix-assisted laser desorption / ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry based on peptide pattern similarities of hair digests. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, Volume 22, Issue 18, 2008, pp. 2751-2767 doi : 10.1002 / rcm.3679
- scinexx: Ötzi wore the clothes of a shepherd: New analysis identifies material from the ice cream man's jacket, pants and shoes , August 21, 2008
- Comfort in the Stone Age - How does Ötzi's clothing compare to modern functional clothing? Rose-Marie Riedl, IDW, May 25, 2007
- Goedecker-Ciolek, R .: Chapter on the production technology of clothing and equipment. In: Markus Egg, Konrad Spindler: The glacier mummy from the end of the Stone Age from the Ötztal Alps. In: Yearbook of the Roman-Germanic Central Museum 39/2, 1992, pp. 101-106
- Website of the South Tyrol Museum of Archeology: Ötzi's shoes (accessed on June 12, 2010).
- Klaus Oeggl : The significance of the Tyrolean Iceman for the archaeobotany of Central Europe. In: Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, Volume 18, 2009, pp. 1–11 DOI: 10.1007 / s00334-008-0186-2
- 20 years after the Ötzi discovery: A beautiful corpse. Sueddeutsche.de (accessed on September 19, 2011)
- New findings on Ötzi's clothing accessed on November 8, 2011.
- Josef Winiger: The clothing of the ice cream man and newer knowledge about the beginning of the weaving north of the Alps . In: The man in the ice: New finds and results Konrad Spindler, Frank Höpfel, Werner Platzer (eds.), Springer, 1995, p. 119 ff. ISBN 3-211-82626-2 .
- See Steven A. LeBlanc: Constant Battles. Why we fight. First edition. St. Martin's Press, 2013 (ebook), Chapter 1: Warfare and Ecology: Myth and Reality. P. 11–31, here p. 13 f.
- Andreas Tillmann: Favors from the south? On the question of a south-north connection between southern Bavaria and northern Italy in the late Neolithic. In: Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt 23 (4), 1993, pp. 453-460.
- Roland H. Knauer: Sharp knives from the pit. In: Science Online. Die Zeit, p. 1.15 , accessed on July 12, 2017 (edition 7/2002).
- Alexander Binsteiner : A one-sided relationship - flints of the Monti Lessini in Neolithic Silex inventories of the northern Alpine foothills. In: archaeologie-online.de , May 3, 2014, accessed on November 10, 2020.
- The retoucher. South Tyrol Museum of Archeology, archived from the original on March 13, 2009 ; Retrieved April 7, 2009 .
- The back carrier ( memento of November 8, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) South Tyrol Museum of Archeology, accessed on November 20, 2012
- grass cover, mat or carrying frame? ( Memento from November 5, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) South Tyrol Museum of Archeology, accessed on November 20, 2012
- The birch bark vessels. South Tyrol Museum of Archeology, archived from the original on March 13, 2009 ; Retrieved April 7, 2009 .
- The belt pouch. South Tyrol Museum of Archeology, archived from the original on June 30, 2016 ; Retrieved April 7, 2009 .
- Thomas Reitmeier: Form follows function - a new interpretation of the so-called stone disc with tassel by the South Tyrolean ice cream man. In: Archaeological correspondence sheet. Volume 44, 2014, pp. 29-40 ( online ).
- Walter Kutschera (2002) 4.4 Radiocarbon dating of the Iceman Ötzi with accelerator mass spectrometry.
- Bronk Ramsey, C., van der Plicht, J., & Weninger, B. (2001). 'Wiggle matching' radiocarbon dates. Radiocarbon, 43 (2A), 381-389
- Spindler, Man in the Ice , p. 94.
- Hanspaul Menara : The most beautiful 3000m in South Tyrol. Picture book with 70 full tours . Athesia, Bozen 2007, ISBN 978-88-8266-391-9 , pp. 104-107
- Evening edition of the Arbeiterzeitung, dated September 26, 1991 (published September 25)
- Spindler, Man in the Ice , p. 99.
- Why Ötzi should actually be called Schnalsi
- sueddeutsche.de: The curse of "Frozen Fritz"
- Christian Satorius: The Ötzi case - a stone age thriller. In: Berner Zeitung , September 19, 2016, p. 22.
- Kai Michel: His greatest case. Die Zeit , September 8, 2007, accessed October 7, 2011 .
- Ötzi is supposed to conserve pure nitrogen in the future Der Standard, February 19, 2011 (accessed October 24, 2011)
- Ötzi Infopage ( Memento from September 5, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Südtirol.com (accessed October 24, 2011)
- Archeoparc Schnals
- Review of the traveling exhibition ( Memento from April 28, 2016 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on April 29, 2016
- Announcement on the exhibition , accessed on April 29, 2016
- Announcement on the exhibition , accessed on August 2, 2014
- Special exhibition: ÖTZI: August 24, 2018 - January 6, 2019. Retrieved October 23, 2020 .
- dpa -Meldung: reward for Ötzi . In: Südkurier , June 16, 2009
- There is a finder's reward of 175,000 euros for “Ötzi” ( memento from June 30, 2010 in the Internet Archive ), June 28, 2009
- Years of dispute with Ötzi finders ended on ORF on August 30, 2010, accessed on August 30, 2010
- Michael Heim , Werner Nosko: The Ötztal forgery. Anatomy of an archaeological grotesque. Hamburg: Rowohlt 1993. ISBN 3-498-02918-5
- Hans Heiss , Hannes Obermair : cultures of remembrance in conflict. The example of the city of Bozen / Bolzano 2000–2010. In: Patrick Ostermann, Claudia Müller, Karl-Siegbert Rehberg (eds.): The border area as a place of remembrance. On the change to a post-national culture of remembrance in Europe (Histoire 34). Bielefeld: transcript 2012, pp. 63–79, here: p. 71.
- oe1.orf.at > 7 days> SAT December 17, 2016. Can be heard freely until December 24, 2016. (Can be listened to for Ö1 Club members until December 31, 2016.)
- Preliminary discussion, making of, background: Jakob Fessler: Leporello: The broadcast from the ice. Ötzi as a radio play star. December 16, 2016, 7.52 a.m. (8 min.) - 7 days freely audible .
- Radio play gallery: Tisenjoch, ascent to the place of discovery. An acoustic recap in Dolby Digital 5.1 Surround Sound, not downloadable. - Program entry.
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Man from Tisenjoch; Man from Hauslabjoch; The Ice Man; Mummy of Similaun|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Glacier mummy|
|BIRTH DATE||between 34th century BC BC and 32nd century BC Chr.|
|DATE OF DEATH||between 34th century BC BC and 32nd century BC Chr.|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Ötztal Alps|