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Capital: Jefferson City
State motto: Salus populi suprema lex esto
(Latin: The salvation of the people is the highest law. )
Official language : English
Surface: 180,533 km²
Residents: 5,988,927 (2010 census) (33 U / km²)
Member since: August 10, 1821
Time zone: Central: UTC − 6 / −5
The highest point: 540 m (Taum Sauk Mountain)
Average Height: 240 m
Deepest point: 70 m Saint Francis River
Governor : Mike Parson ( R )
Post  / Office /  ISO MO / MO / US-MO
Map of Missouri
Map of Missouri
Missouri Geographic Map
Missouri Geographic Map

The State Missouri (standard language [ mɨzɝi ] or [ məzɝə ]; also [ mɨzʊəɹi ] or [ məzʊəɹi ]) is a US state of Midwest of the United States . The capital is Jefferson City . The common abbreviation for the state is MO . Missouri was named after the Missouri River, which in turn takes its name from the Missouri Indian people . The word Missouri comes from their neighbors, the Illinois people , whom they call wi-mihs-oor-ita , which means "the one with the wooden canoes". The University of Missouri and Missouri State University state colleges are located in the cities of Columbia and Springfield . Both the Mississippi and the Missouri flow through the state.


The total area of ​​Missouri is 180,533 km², which makes it 21st of all US states.

Missouri has the most riparian states on par with Tennessee . In the north, Iowa , in the eastern Illinois (beyond the Mississippi), Kentucky and Tennessee , in southern Arkansas and western Oklahoma , Kansas and Nebraska (beyond the Missouri River ).

North of the Missouri are the northern plains that extend into Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas. The Ozark Plateau lies south of the river and extends into Arkansas and Oklahoma. Springfield, Missouri , is the third largest city on the plateau in the southwest of the state .

The two largest cities, Kansas City and St. Louis , are each centrally located on the western and eastern borders of the state and each form parts of the interstate metropolitan regions of Kansas City and Greater St. Louis .



The territory of Missouri was part of the area that was bought from France as Louisiana . Missouri, which got its name from its historic residents, the Missouri Indian people , became a state in 1821 as part of the Missouri Compromise . Missouri was also known as the "Gateway to the West" because it was a transit country for settlers on their way to the west.

At the beginning of the American Civil War , it had the sympathizers of the Northern states, which were composed here to a large extent of German immigrants, managed to expel the pro-south set governor and the majority of the members of the State Parliament and Missouri, further to the slavery known to keep in the camp of the Union states. The governor, who had fled, and some of the parliamentarians then announced the secession of Missouri from their exile. On November 28, 1861, Missouri officially became the 12th state in the confederation . Although the Union forces and their supporters, who made up about two-thirds of the population, controlled most of the state, they could not prevent Missouri from becoming the scene of a cruel war of pro-southern guerrillas, the Bushwhacker , against Union troops and the irregular combat units supporting them. In the years that followed, large areas of the state were transformed into a no-man's-land, where attacks from ambushes, arson and indiscriminate murders of real and supposed sympathizers of the opposing war camp dominated everyday life. Following the Lawrence Massacre , the Union Forces Commander in Missouri, General Thomas Ewing, Jr. , issued General Order No. 11 , with which the forced evacuation of four counties (they correspond to the German counties) along the border with Kansas was ordered. The forcible eviction of around 10,000 people aimed to withdraw potential supporters from the southern rebels, but at the same time large swaths of Missouri became wilderness again for years to come. It was not until January 1865 that a new state government was elected in Missouri. Until then, a pro-northern state convention had exercised power in the state.

Missouri is also popularly called the Show-Me State , although the origin of this phrase is not entirely clear. The phrase became famous through the speech given by Missouri's representative to the United States House of Representatives Willard Duncan Vandiver , who said at a banquet in Philadelphia : "I come from a state that raises corn and cotton and cockleburs and Democrats, and frothy eloquence neither convinces nor satisfies me. I am from Missouri. You have got to show me. " Today, the phrase mainly serves the cliché that the people from Missouri are steadfast, conservative and suspicious.


Presidential election results
year Democrats republican
2016 38.1% 1,071,068 56.8% 1,594,511
2012 44.3% 1,215,030 53.9% 1,478,959
2008 49.3% 1,441,911 49.4% 1,445,814
2004 46.1% 1,259,171 53.3% 1,455,713
2000 47.1% 1,111,138 50.4% 1,189,924
1996 47.5% 1,025,935 41.2% 890,016
1992 44.1% 1,053,873 33.9% 811,159
1988 47.9% 1,001,619 51.8% 1,084,953
1984 40.0% 848,583 60.0% 1,274,188
1980 44.4% 931,182 51.2% 1,074,181
1976 51.1% 998,387 47.5% 927,443
1972 37.7% 698,531 62.3% 1,154,058
1968 43.7% 791,444 44.9% 811,932
1964 64.1% 1,164,344 36.0% 653,535
1960 50.3% 972,201 49.7% 962,221

The capital of Missouri is Jefferson City . The current governor is Republican Mike Parson . Missouri has eight MPs in the House of Representatives .

The current Missouri Constitution, the fourth of the state, was passed in 1945 and embodies the separation of powers . The legislation is through a bicameral place: by a House of Representatives and a Senate. Together they form the Missouri General Assembly .

Since Missouri is located in the center of the country and, politically speaking, has north / south and west / east differences and both large cities and rural areas, the state was often considered a "Bellwether" (German: "Leithammel", "Indicator") for the overall mood of the United States (known as the Missouri Bellwether ). From 1904 to 2004, with the exception of 1956 , Missouri always voted for the presidential candidate that was victorious in the end, making it a classic swing state . Since 1996, however, the state has not won a democratic candidate, which is why Missouri is now a red state (stronghold of the Republicans); so was Mitt Romney 2012, the ten electoral votes by a margin of more than nine percentage points ahead of Barack Obama winning.

In its southeastern areas, Missouri is also characterized by the foothills of the Bible Belt . Missouri was initially strongly republican under the administration of George W. Bush . In the 2006 Senate elections, Democrat Claire McCaskill won a neck-and-neck race against Republican rival Jim Talent , but after the 2010 House of Representatives elections six of the nine MPs were members of the Republican Party. In the 113th Congress Missouri lost a mandate; this was at the expense of the Democrats, who now only have two MPs. In Electoral College , Missouri has had ten votes since 2012, compared to twelve in 1984.

State government


death penalty

In Missouri, both absolute and relative, the death penalty is often pronounced and carried out.

If the population of 2010 is compared with the executions by January 17, 2016, Missouri ranks fourth after Oklahoma (2.99), Texas (2.11) and Delaware ( with 1.44 executions per 100,000 inhabitants). 1.78). Governor Jay Nixon was a proponent of the death penalty. Twenty people were executed during his tenure as governor. (As of December 2015)

Number of executions per year:

year 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2005 2009 2011 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
number 1 4th 1 1 4th 6th 6th 6th 3 9 5 7th 6th 2 5 1 1 2 10 6th 1 1

With 88 executions - 20 of them in 2013-2017 - Missouri ranks fifth among the states with the highest number of executions in the United States, after Texas, Oklahoma, Virginia and Florida. The last one took place in 2017.


In June 2017, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People issued a travel warning to Missouri due to the numerous racial incidents, racial profiling by the police, and a new law in the state making racial discrimination more difficult . This was the first such travel warning for a US state. It says u. a .:

Individuals traveling in this state should do so with extreme caution. Crimes of race, gender, and color have a long history in Missouri. Missouri, the home of Lloyd Gaines and Dred Scott , the dubious honor of the Missouri Compromise , and one of the last states to become a history of slavery may not be safe ... SB 43 Bill legalizes individual discrimination and harassment in Missouri and would prevent people of Missouri from protecting themselves from discrimination, harassment, and revenge. In addition, overzealous punishment for minor highway code violations has resulted in African-Americans being stopped 75% more often than whites.

In May 2017, Tory Sanders, an African-American, died in a prison in southeast Missouri after guards treated him with pepper spray and tasers. Sanders had been arrested after getting lost and had not been charged with any crime. Law SB 43 is referred to by critics as the " Jim Crow Law ".


Population development
Census Residents ± in%
1810 19,783 -
1820 66,586 236.6%
1830 140,455 110.9%
1840 383.702 173.2%
1850 682.044 77.8%
1860 1,182,012 73.3%
1870 1,721,295 45.6%
1880 2,168,380 26%
1890 2,679,185 23.6%
1900 3,106,665 16%
1910 3,293,335 6%
1920 3,404,055 3.4%
1930 3,629,367 6.6%
1940 3,784,664 4.3%
1950 3,954,653 4.5%
1960 4,319,813 9.2%
1970 4,676,501 8.3%
1980 4,916,686 5.1%
1990 5,117,073 4.1%
2000 5,595,211 9.3%
2010 5,988,927 7%
Before 1900

1900–1990 2000 + 2010

Population density

According to the 2010 census , the population was 5,988,927. The biggest cities are St. Louis and Kansas City .

83.7% (5,058,971) are white, 11.7% (700,704) are black, 3.9% (233,568) are Hispanics , 1.8% (107,800) are Asian, 0.5% (29,944) are Native Americans or of Alaskan descent , 0.1% (5988) are Hawaiians or Polynesians and 2.0% (119,778) are of heterogeneous descent (mixed race).

6.2% of the population is younger than 5 years, 23.1% are under 18 years, 15.0% are 65 years or older. The female share of the population is 51.0%. (Stand 2013)

The five largest ancestry groups in Missouri are: German (27.4 percent), Irish (14.8 percent), English (10.2 percent), American (8.5 percent), and French (3.7 percent).

6.1% of Missouri residents speak a language other than English at home.

3.9% of Missouri residents were born overseas. 87.2% of those over 25 have a high school diploma, 25.8% of this age group have a university degree ( Bachelor ).


The religious communities with the largest number of members in 2000 were the Catholic Church with 856,964, the Southern Baptist Convention with 797,732 and the United Methodist Church with 226,578. About 20% of the population are of the Roman Catholic denomination; especially in the Kansas City and St. Louis areas. Baptists , Methodists and Lutherans - among which the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod plays a significant role - are among the Protestant denominations. Independence near Kansas City is considered by the Mormons as the future New Jerusalem , especially supporters of the smaller Mormon churches are concentrated there.

Biggest cities

Chesterfield (Missouri) Joplin (Missouri) Florissant Blue Springs (Missouri) Saint Peters (Missouri) Saint Charles (Missouri) Saint Joseph (Missouri) O’Fallon (Missouri) Lee’s Summit Columbia (Missouri) Independence (Missouri) Springfield (Missouri) St. Louis Kansas City (Missouri)

Economy and Infrastructure

Counties of Missouri

The gross domestic product per capita GDP was USD 49,383 in 2016 (national average of the 50 US states: 57,118; national ranking: 36). The unemployment rate was 3.4% in November 2017 (national average: 4.1%).

The most important branches of industry are aviation technology, logistics, agriculture and the food industry, chemistry, printing industry, electronics.

The agricultural production is focused on beef , beans , pork , hay, corn , poultry and eggs .

In southeast Missouri in the fertile plains of the Mississippi, cotton and rice are grown.

Missouri has large reserves of limestone . Other natural resources are lead and coal . The construction industry is supplied with cement and gravel from here .

Tourism and services are other important industries.


The main state universities are the University of Missouri , headquartered in Columbia , Missouri State University , Missouri Western State University, and Southeast Missouri State University . The best known private universities are Washington University in St. Louis and Saint Louis University . Other colleges can be found on the Missouri List of Universities .

See also

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Density Using Land Area
  2. Michael McCafferty: Correction: Etymology of Missouri . In: American Speech , Vol 79, Issue 1, Spring 2004, page 32
  3. See: James M. McPherson: Die for Freedom. The history of the American Civil War . 6th edition. List, Munich 1996, pp. 277-280 and 771-776, ISBN 3-471-78178-1 .
  4. "I come from a state that produces corn and cotton and pointed burdock and democrats, and foaming eloquence neither convinces nor satisfies me. I come from Missouri. You have to prove it to me." See http://www.sos.mo.gov/archives/history/slogan.asp
  5. ^ David Leip: Dave Leip's Atlas of US Presidential Elections. Retrieved November 28, 2018 .
  6. www.270towin.com
  7. https://deathpenaltyinfo.org/executions/executions-overview/number-of-executions-by-state-and-region-since-1976?scid=8&did=186
  8. ^ Ian Cummings: NAACP issues first-ever travel advisory for a state - and it's Missouri Kansas City Star , August 1, 2017; Shivani Vora: NAACP to Missouri: You're No Safe Space (Still) New York Times , August 31, 2017; Erik Ortiz: Missouri Law That Prompted NAACP's Travel Advisory Sponsored by Legislator Who Faces Suit NBC , August 2, 2017; Emma Talkoff: Here's Why the NAACP Issued Its First-Ever Travel Advisory for a US State Time Magazine , August 3, 2017; Camila Domonoske: NAACP Warns Black Travelers To Use 'Extreme Caution' When Visiting Missouri NPR , August 3, 2017; Ray Hartmann: Discriminating taste? How Missouri's legislature disgraced the state with Senate Bill 43 St. Louis , August 10, 2017; Missouri inmate who died asked to see counselor AP , May 12, 2017; Travel Advisory for the State of Missouri NAACP, August 2, 2017;
  9. Vanessa Williams: St. Louis NAACP chapter gets behind warning to African Americans visiting Mon. In: Washington Post , August 10, 2017. Retrieved December 15, 2018 (in English).
  10. ^ US Census Bureau _ Census of Population and Housing . Retrieved August 20, 2014
  11. Extract from Census.gov . Retrieved February 28, 2011
  12. Extract from census.gov (2000 + 2010). Accessed April 4, 2012
  13. ^ The Association of Religion Data Archives | Maps & Reports
  14. ^ Unemployment Rates for States. Retrieved January 8, 2018 .

Web links

Commons : Missouri  - collection of pictures, videos, and audio files
Wikivoyage: Missouri  Travel Guide
Wiktionary: Missouri  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Coordinates: 38 ° 25 ′  N , 92 ° 26 ′  W