|Full name||Liga BBVA Bancomer MX|
|First edition||October 17, 1943|
|master||Santos Laguna (5th title)|
|Record champions||Club América (13 wins)|
|Record player||Oswaldo Sánchez (725)|
|Record scorer||Evanivaldo Castro (312)|
CONCACAF Champions League
↓ Ascenso MX (II)
The Liga MX or Primera División de México , known as the Liga Mayor in the 1940s , is the top Mexican football league. It was founded in 1943 and currently consists of 18 teams; including three from Mexico City and two each from Guadalajara and Monterrey . The record champions are Club América with 13 titles (as of December 2018). Since 2013 the league has officially been named Liga BBVA Bancomer after the sponsor BBVA .
Unlike in Europe, two championships are held annually: The " Clausura " takes place in the first half of a calendar year and thus during the second half of a European season; the " Apertura " accordingly in the second half of a calendar year or during the first half of the season.
The 18 teams each play against each other once. After the 17 match days of the regular season , the eight best-placed teams qualify for the playoffs , the so-called "Liguilla". You play in the knockout system with a return leg for the championship title. The descent takes place once a year after the Clausura. To determine who has been relegated, the points average for the past three years is calculated; the team with the lowest value is relegated. The two champions of the second division play off the promoted team in a playoff.
The teams of the Liga MX can qualify for the CONCACAF Champions League of the North and Central American association CONCACAF as well as for the Copa Libertadores of the South American association CONMEBOL . Since the Mexican association is a member of CONCACAF, the Mexican teams can only qualify for the FIFA Club World Cup via the Champions League, but not via the Copa Libertadores .
In the 2020/21 season the following teams are represented in the Liga MX:
History of the Mexican professional league
The Mexican professional football league started in the 1943/44 season and replaced the Primera Fuerza football championship, which had previously been held on an amateur basis . Like this one, it operated as the Liga Mayor (German: Highest League) in the beginning .
The ten founding members of the professional league were América, Asturias, Atlante, España and Marte (all from Mexico City and previously represented in unison in the Primera Fuerza ), Atlas Guadalajara and Deportivo Guadalajara (from the old Liga de Occidente and in the Primera Fuerza indirectly through the Selección Jalisco ) and three associations from the state of Veracruz : CF Veracruz from the port city of the same name as well as ADO and Moctezuma, both of which were based in the industrially important city of Orizaba at the time . Moctezuma also came from the old Primera Fuerza, CF Veracruz, newly formed by members of the two clubs España and Sporting Veracruz, and the Asociación Deportiva Orizabeña, or ADO for short, from the old Liga Veracruzana .
A special note deserves the fact that the first champion of the newly installed professional league, Asturias, had finished last year in the Primera Fuerza in last place. Conversely, the last champion of the Primera Fuerza, Marte, ended up in last place at the end of the opening season of the professional league. This curiosity would repeat itself a decade later. Because even as champions of the 1953/54 season, Marte finished last in the following game year 1954/55. But at that time this also meant relegation from the football club, to which Marte could never return.
The first masters
The first championship in 1943/44 ended with two teams tied at the top of the table. Because the goal difference was not used to decide the championship, a playoff for the championship was necessary in the first year, in which the two Spanish arch-rivals Asturias and España faced each other. Asturias surprisingly retained the upper hand with 4: 1. For this España won the championship the following season. But this triumph also meant the end of the Spanish-dominated era . Because from now on no Spanish - or any other foreign - team should win the title. 1 The loss of the Spanish teams was both a blessing and a curse for the capitals. A blessing, because the Mexicans are just as hostile towards the Spaniards due to their history as the Americans and they also tried to free themselves from the supremacy of the Spaniards in football. But also a curse because Province 2 began to dominate the league and with CF Veracruz's title win in 1946 a 20-year-long dry spell began for the capital city, in which not a single championship title went to the metropolis. It was not until 1966 that America was able to end this negative series.
First entries and exits
In the second season of 1944/45 the professional league was increased to 13 players around the clubs León, Oro and Puebla and again a year later the league already consisted of 16 teams. Among them was the CF Monterrey as the first representative from Northern Mexico, who had to withdraw after only one season due to internal problems, whereby he also formed the first team to be eliminated from the professional league.
The first gigantic upheaval took place in 1950. At the end of the 1949/50 season, Asturias, España and Moctezuma had withdrawn as a result of federation disputes. A year earlier, the AD Orizaba had left due to internal quarrels, so that in the 1950/51 season four of the ten founding members no longer took part in the game. In the same season, a national second division, the Segunda División , was held for the first time, and the first division was given its new and still valid name, Primera División. Since then there has been a promoted and relegated team between the two leagues. The first to be relegated was San Sebastian, Zacatepec the first to be relegated.
Defending champions, serial champions and "permanent members"
The first team to defend their title was León (1948/49). The Esmeraldas managed to defend their title again in the Clausura 2014. Toluca (1967/68), Necaxa (1994/95) and the UNAM Pumas (Apertura 2004) were also able to defend their title. Three clubs succeeded in defending their title twice: Cruz Azul (defending title 1979/80 and previous hat trick between 1972 and 1974) and America (defending title 1988/89 and previous hat trick between 1983/84 and PRODE) each managed to defend their title and hattrick 85) as well as Guadalajara, the only club that was able to win the championship four times in a row between 1959 and 1962 and which managed to defend its title again in 1964/65. If Guadalajara had not lost the last game of the 1962/63 season against their immediate rival Oro, Guadalajara would have been champions seven times in a row. With a total of eleven titles, Guadalajara was the record champions of the professional league for a long time, but has now been overtaken by its arch-rival América, who has already been successful twelve times. These two clubs are also the only ones that have always been represented in the professional league.
Up to and including the 1969/70 season, the champion was determined by an overall table. A playoff for the championship was only required if there was a tie, as the goal difference was not taken into account to determine the champion.
In the 1970/71 season, the championship was held in two groups, although all teams represented in the league played against each other (a procedure that has remained in principle to this day). The two group winners contested the final. The mode with two groups was retained in the following years, but the finals were expanded to include the top two in a group and a semi-final.
Since 1975/76 the championship has been held in four groups and after the season itself play-offs ( called Liguilla in Mexico ) are decided from the quarterfinals. Since 1996/97 two championships have been held each year. The first half of the season was initially considered to be the winter season ( Invierno ) and the second half of the season as the summer season ( Verano ), as it ended in the corresponding season. Since the 2002/03 season, the preliminary round is referred to as Apertura and the second half as Clausura .
1 Before the First World War, the Mexican football championship was played exclusively by teams that were founded by the British and which largely dominated the clubs. The most successful team of this era was the Reforma Athletic Club . Between the two world wars, Mexican club football was repeatedly dominated by Spanish clubs, of which Real Club España was by far the most successful. With the withdrawal of España and Asturias in the summer of 1950, the era of clubs dominated by foreigners ended. However, this was by no means true for the teams themselves. Many Mexican clubs bought en masse from foreign - especially South American and here primarily Argentine and Brazilian - players who immediately produced so-called legionnaires' troops. Only the Club Deportivo Guadalajara vehemently opposed this trend and only signed players born in Mexico. With this voluntary commitment, he also opposed the new habit of naturalizing foreign players after the Mexican Football Association had imposed a limit on foreign players.
2 In Mexico, a province is generally the entire country outside the capital district.
Overview of all previous teams in the highest Mexican professional league
|society||founding||Playing times||Best place 1|
|ADO||1898||1943 / 44-48 / 49||5th place (1947/48)|
|America||1916||since 1943/44||13 times champion|
|Ángeles de Puebla||1984||1984 / 85-87 / 88||13th place (1984/85)|
|Asturias||1918||1943 / 44-49 / 50||Master (1943/44)|
|Atlante||1918||1943 / 44-75 / 76, 77 / 78-89 / 90, 91 / 92-13 / 14||3 times champion|
|Atlas||1916||1943 / 44–53 / 54, 55 / 56–70 / 71, 72 / 73–77 / 78, since 79/80||Master (1950/51)|
|Atletas Campesinos||1977||1980 / 81-81 / 82||11th place (1981/82)|
|Atlético Celaya||1994||1995/96-Ape 02/03||Runner-up (Ape 1995)|
|Atlético Español 2||1971||1971 / 72-81 / 82||Runner-up (1973/74)|
|Atlético Potosino||1972||1974 / 75-88 / 89||5th place (1978/79)|
|Atlético San Luis||2013||since 2019/20|
|BUAP Lobos||1939||2017 / 18–2018 / 19||10th place (Ape 2017)|
|Celaya FC||1954||1958 / 59-60 / 61||12th place (1959/60)|
|Chiapas FC||2002||2002 / 03-16 / 17||3rd place (2003/04)|
|Cobras Cd. Juarez||1987||1988 / 89-91 / 92||2 times 12th place|
|Cobras Querétaro||1985||1986/87||21st place|
|Colibríes||2002||Cla 2002/03||13th place|
|Coyotes Neza||1978||1978 / 79-87 / 88||6th place twice|
|Cruz Azul||1927||since 1964/65||8 times champion|
|Cuautla||1952||1955 / 56-58 / 59||8th place (1956/57)|
|Dorados||2003||2004/05–05/06, 2015/16||14th place (2004/05)|
|España||1912||1943 / 44-49 / 50||Master (1944/45)|
|Guadalajara||1906||since 1943/44||12 times champion|
|Indios Cd. Juarez||2005||2008 / 09-09 / 10||13th place (2008/09)|
|Irapuato||1911||1954 / 55–71 / 72, 85 / 86–90 / 91, 00/01 – Ape 01, 03/04||4th place (1963/64)|
|Jalisco 2||1970||1970 / 71-79 / 80||4th place (1971/72)|
|Laguna||1953||1968 / 69-77 / 78||9th place (1975/76)|
|La Piedad||1951||1952/53, 01/02||4th place (2001/02)|
|Leon||1944||1944 / 45–86 / 87, 90 / 91–01 / 02, since 12/13||7 times champion|
|CF Madero||1964||1965 / 66-66 / 67, 73 / 74-74 / 75||14th place (1965/66)|
|Marte||1928||1943 / 44-54 / 55||Master (1953/54)|
|Moctezuma||1932||1943 / 44-49 / 50||2 times 3rd place|
|Monterrey||1945||1945/46, 56/57, since 60/61||4 times champion|
|Morelia||1920||1957 / 58-67 / 68, 81 / 82-19 / 20||Master (Ape 2000)|
|Nacional||1917||1961 / 62-64 / 65||6th place (1962/63)|
|Necaxa 2||1923||1950 / 51–70 / 71, 82 / 83–08 / 09, 10/11, since 16/17||3 times champion|
|Nuevo León||1957||1966 / 67-68 / 69||6th place (1966/67)|
|Oaxtepec||1979||1982 / 83-83 / 84||15th place (1983/84)|
|Oro 2||1923||1944 / 45-69 / 70||Master (1962/63)|
|Pachuca||1900||1967 / 68–72 / 73, 92/93, 96/97, since 98/99||6 times champion|
|Puebla||1944||1944 / 45–55 / 56, 70 / 71–04 / 05, since 07/08||2 times champion|
|Querétaro FC||1950||1990 / 91–93 / 94, 02 / 03–03 / 04, 06/07, since 09/10||Vice champion (Cla 2015)|
|San Luis||1957||1971 / 72–73 / 74, 76/77, 02 / 03–03 / 04, 05 / 06–12 / 13||Vice champion (Cla 2006)|
|San Sebastian||1944||1945 / 46–50 / 51||6th place (1947/48)|
|Santos Laguna||1983||since 1988/89||6 times champion|
|CD Tampico||1945||1945 / 46-57 / 58, 59 / 60-62 / 63, 77 / 78-81 / 82||Master (1952/53)|
|Tampico-Madero||1982||1982 / 83-89 / 90, 94/95||2 times runner-up|
|Tecos||1971||1975 / 76-11 / 12||Master (1993/94)|
|Tijuana||2007||since 2011/12||Master (Ape 2012)|
|Toluca||1917||since 1953/54||10 times champion|
|Toros Neza||1993||1993 / 94-99 / 00||Vice champion (Cla 1996/97)|
|Torreón||1959||1969 / 70-73 / 74||13th place (1970/71)|
|UANL Tigres||1967||1974 / 75–95 / 96, since 97/98||7 times champion|
|UAT Correcaminos||1973||1987 / 88-94 / 95||7th place (1989/90)|
|UdeG||1970||1974 / 75–93 / 94, 2014/15||3 times runner-up|
|UNAM Pumas||1954||since 1962/63||7 times champion|
|Unión de Curtidores||1928||1974 / 75-80 / 81, 83/84||3rd place (1974/75)|
|Veracruz||1943||1943 / 44–51 / 52, 64 / 65–78 / 79, 89 / 90–97 / 98, Ver 02–07 / 08, 13/14 – Ape 19||2 times champion|
|Zacatepec||1948||1951 / 52-61 / 62, 63 / 64-65 / 66, 70 / 71-76 / 77, 78 / 79-82 / 83, 84/85||2 times champion|
|Zamora||1950||1955/56, 57 / 58-59 / 60||7th place (1957/58)|
Explanations 1 For the last time in the 1969/70 season, a full year table was valid in Mexico at the end of the season, for example in the Bundesliga . Since then, the championship has been held in different variants. If no championship or runner-up could be achieved and said team only achieved their best placement in the later epoch, the position given here was determined using an annual table as is customary in most countries.
2 Necaxa and Atlético Español are basically the same club, as is Oro and Jalisco. Their respective renaming was in connection with a transfer of ownership, which is why there were purely legally different clubs. Therefore they are listed separately in the table above. In contrast, pure name renaming, such as B. from Atlético Morelia in Club Atlético Monarcas Morelia (1999) or UAG Tecos or Tecos de la UAG in Estudiantes Tecos (2009), are not counted as two separate clubs and are therefore only listed once.
Number of championships won in the professional league
|America||13||1966, 1971, 1976, 1984, 1985, Prode 85, 1988, 1989, Ver 02, Cla 05, Cla 13, Ape 14, Ape 18|
|CD Guadalajara||12||1957, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1964, 1965, 1970, 1987, Ver 97, Ape 06, Cla 17|
|Dep. Toluca||10||1967, 1968, 1975, Ver 98, Ver 99, Ver 00, Ape 02, Ape 05, Ape 08, Bic 10|
|Cruz Azul||8th||1969, Mex 70, 1972-1974, 1979, 1980, Inv 97|
|UNAM Pumas||7th||1977, 1981, 1991, Cla 04, Ape 04, Cla 09, Cla 11|
|Club León||7th||1948, 1949, 1952, 1956, 1992, Ape 13, Cla 14|
|UANL Tigres||7th||1978, 1982, Ape 11, Ape 15, Ape 16, Ape 17, Cla 19|
|CF Pachuca||6th||Inv 99, Inv 01, Ape 03, Cla 06, Cla 07, Cla 16|
|Santos Laguna||6th||Inv 96, Ver 01, Cla 08, Cla 12, Cla 15, Cla 18|
|CF Monterrey||5||Mex 86, Cla 03, Ape 09, Ape 10, Ape 19|
|Atlante||3||1947, 1993, Ape 07|
|Necaxa||3||1995, 1996, Inv 98|
|CD Veracruz||2||1946, 1950|
|CD Zacatepec||2||1955, 1958|
|Puebla FC||2||1983, 1990|
Status: including Apertura 2019 (won by CF Monterrey)
The promoted and relegated
The following overview contains the respective direct promoters from the second division and the direct relegated from the first division.
References and comments
The promoters and relegators can be found in the RSSSF database. The names of the trainers not listed there can be found under the following web links:
- The climbers and their trainers ( Memento from February 17, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
- The relegated and their coaches
1 The CD Veracruz escapes relegation because the Lobos BUAP sell their first division license to FC Juárez, which replaces them in the top division. Because Atlético San Luis is also aware of its athletic promotion, the league will be expanded by a team in the 2019/20 season.
2 As a non-certified team, the Cafetaleros were not allowed to take advantage of the promotion, and with a payment of 6 million US dollars, the Lobos BUAP, who had been relegated to sport, bought their continued membership in the first division. (See season report 2017/18 at RSSSF)
3 La Piedad did not notice the promotion, but sold his license to the CD Veracruz.
4 Querétaro escaped relegation by acquiring a license and in the end San Luis FC left the league.
5 Unión de Curtidores has not seen its climb as his license has been sold. After the 1998/99 season, the first division license of its city rivals Club León was sold to the actual relegated Puebla FC, who was thus able to keep in the league, and the players of Club León transferred to Unión de Curtidores. This decision led to massive fan protests on the part of Club León. In order to calm the situation down, the decision was made by those responsible for sport to let Club León continue to play in the first division and to withdraw Unión de Curtidores from the same. (See season report 1998/99 at RSSSF)
6 Potros Neza did not notice the promotion, but sold his license to the CD Veracruz.
In Apertura 2018, the average number of spectators per game was 22,896, making the Liga MX one of the most popular football leagues in the world. UANL Tigres (40,995) and CD Cruz Azul (35,999) had the highest average viewership.
|Clausura 2016 playoffs||37,216||14th||521.022|
|Apertura 2016 playoffs||37,971||14th||531.597|
|Clausura 2017 playoffs||36,161||14th||506.248|
|Apertura 2017 playoffs||35,640||14th||498,956|
|Clausura 2018 playoffs||31,277||14th||437,877|
|Apertura 2018 playoffs||41,226||14th||577.166|
- List of all previous first division stadiums in Mexico
- List of the highest national soccer divisions
- Official website of the Liga MX
- The Mexican League at RSSSF
- List of goalscorers at MedioTiempo.com ( Memento from December 16, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- Aldo Bonanni, Macario Reyes Padilla, Erik Francisco Lugo, José de Jesus Mora Rivera, Martín Toscano, Hans Schöggl: México - List of Final Tables ( English ) rsssf.com. June 27, 2019. Retrieved July 15, 2019.
- Erik Francisco Lugo: Mexico 2017/18 ( English ) rsssf.com. January 31, 2019. Accessed July 15, 2019.
- José de Jesus Mora Rivera, Erik Francisco Lugo, Roberto Lahsen: Mexico 1998/99 ( English ) rsssf.com. January 29, 2009. Retrieved July 15, 2019.
- Primera División 2018/2019 Apertura - spectators. Retrieved January 14, 2019 .