Heroica Puebla de Zaragoza
|Heroica Puebla de Zaragoza|
Heroica Puebla de Zaragoza on the map of Puebla
|- in the metropolitan area||3,049,326|
|surface||534 km 2|
|Population density||2,806 inhabitants / km 2|
|Time zone||UTC −6|
|City Presidency||Claudia Rivera Vivanco|
Heroica Puebla de Zaragoza (often short Puebla ) is the capital of the central Mexican state of Puebla of the same name and the municipality of Puebla with around 1.5 million inhabitants. The nickname refers to the victory of the Mexicans over the French-led intervention army in 1862. The city of Puebla is also known under the name of Puebla de los Ángeles , which it led in colonial times. The name Angelópolis (adjective: angelopolitano ) derived from it can still be found today, mostly in printed works . The metropolitan area of Puebla and Tlaxcala , the Zona Metropolitana de Puebla-Tlaxcala , ranks fourth in terms of population after the metropolitan areas of Mexico City , Guadalajara and Monterrey .
Puebla is a city famous for its beauty, where old and new Mexico meet: the workshops of Talavera ceramics and other handicrafts, the four centuries old colonial buildings and modern industry.
Puebla is located in a central Mexican valley at an altitude of 2175 m and is surrounded by volcanoes and mountains of the Sierra Nevada . In the west, the valley is bounded by the volcanoes Popocatépetl and Iztaccíhuatl , about 40 km from Puebla . In the north is the inactive volcano La Malinche and in the east of the valley the 5747 m high Pico de Orizaba rises up. Puebla is located in the irrigation area of the Atoyac River, which flows through northern, eastern and southern parts of the borough and is connected to Lake Valsequillo .
The brick houses with patio often have a turquoise or blue tile facade with floral ornaments and baroque elements. The city extends over a relatively large area, which can be explained by the lack of higher multi-storey houses.
The most important attraction of the city is the (former) Santo Domingo monastery with the baroque Capilla del Rosario , which is profusely decorated with stucco ornaments and gold. The cathedral of Puebla with magnificent choir stalls was consecrated in 1588 and is the tallest and second largest church in Mexico.
The city received the first university in Mexico when it was founded. The episcopal residence with the large library of Bishop Juan de Palafox is important.
The most important buildings of the colonial era include the churches of San Cristobal and San Felipe Neri and the Teatro Principal from the 18th century, which is considered to be the oldest in North America.
Old town picture gallery
Street in the center of Puebla during Independence Day ("Día de la Independencia")
Population development of the city
Population development in the metropolitan area
The city was founded in 1531 as Puebla de los Ángeles between Veracruz and Mexico City to control the trade route. It is located in the Cuetlaxcoapontal. Spaniards and Indian auxiliaries built colonial-style residential buildings according to a given basic plan .
After independence (1810), Puebla turned into a cultural center in which a group of exceptional scholars developed: among them Francisco Javier Clavijero, who later became the embodiment of the Mexican people's soul . Ramos Arizpe, the father of the state idea, resided in Puebla until his death. Ignacio Comonfort enforces the first reform laws.
The importance of the city is particularly evident during the second French intervention , when, on May 5, 1862, the Mexican forces, led by General Ignacio Zaragoza (on the hilly terrain of Loreto and Guadalupe), defeated the French army. For this reason, May 5th is a national holiday ( Cinco de Mayo ). The capture of the city by General Porfirio Díaz on April 2, 1867 marked the beginning of the end of Maximilian's reign.
During the Porfiriat, the city kept its reputation and turned into a center of recreation and education, but also an important center of economic development, as a flourishing textile industry emerged here.
At the same time, immigration from Europe increased, with mainly Spaniards, Italians, Germans, French and Lebanese settling in Puebla. The Spaniards represent the largest group among them, their influence is evident in the architecture and gastronomy. They come mainly from Castile , Aragon and Galicia , which can often be recognized by their pronunciation of Spanish.
The French influence is also clearly evident, for example in his monument, a gift from the French community, but also in the kitchen, especially the bread.
The Italians settled in nearby Chipilo at the end of the 19th century: More than 600 Venetos from northern Italy immigrated, which explains the special features of the architecture and the cuisine, which still includes polenta today. The Italian dialect of the place of origin can still be heard in the area around Chipilo. Likewise, the customs and traditions of Italy are still alive.
The Germans first settled in the Humboldt Colony, building houses in the style typical of Bavaria. The most impressive building of this time is the Lutheran Church. This includes the establishment of the German school Colegio Alemán Alexander von Humboldt , which served to maintain the German language and culture. It was reopened after the Second World War and is now an international encounter school with a high proportion of students of Mexican descent. Oktoberfest Pueblas, attended by more than 4,000 poblaners in 2005, is probably the largest after Mexico City. There are also clear German influences in the architecture of Nuevo Necaxa. The settlement of the Volkswagen factory in the north of the city further increased the influx of Germans.
The immigrants who have lived here for generations also include Lebanese and Jewish traders. The Arab tacos have become a specialty of the gastronomy.
The end of the Porfiriat is also unthinkable without Puebla. It was the Aquiles siblings , Carmen y Máximo Serdán , who were the first to take part in the conspiracy against the regime. They became the first martyrs of the revolution on November 18, 1910.
III. General Assembly of the Latin American Episcopate
At the beginning of 1979, the III. General Assembly of the Latin American Episcopate took place, at which the Roman Catholic Church of Latin America, contrary to other efforts , confirmed the ' Option for the Poor ' decided at the II General Conference in Medellín in 1968 . The Puebla Conference was the first major international gathering attended by the newly elected Pope John Paul II .
Economy and Infrastructure
Puebla is a center of agriculture, trade, industry and tourism in the central highlands of Mexico. The main products are textiles, glassware, ceramics, tiles, food and automobiles and vehicle parts.
The largest employer in the city is Volkswagen de México , where the VW Beetle was built until 2003 . The Jetta , Golf , Golf Variant , Beetle , Beetle Cabrio and, since spring 2017, the Tiguan with a long wheelbase are currently manufactured there. The Beetle is manufactured exclusively in Puebla for the entire group. Other German and French companies that manufacture auto parts or offer logistics services for the automotive industry are also located in the city.
The international airport of Puebla "Hermanos Serdán" is located 23 kilometers northwest of Puebla.
There are more than 20 universities in Puebla, which is only surpassed by Mexico City nationwide. These include the Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla (BUAP, founded in 1937), the Universidad de las Américas (UDLA, founded in 1940), the Universidad Iberoamericana (UIA), the Universidad Popular Autónoma del Estado de Puebla (UPAEP), the Instituto Tecnológico de Puebla (ITP), the Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (ITESM), the Universidad del Valle de México (UVM) and the Universidad Anáhuac de Puebla .
There is also a German school (Colegio Humboldt) in Puebla, as well as one of the largest private language centers for the German language on the American continent (Centro de Idiomas Volkswagen).
sons and daughters of the town
- Felipe Codallos (1790–1823), governor of Puebla
- Ignacio Comonfort (1812–1863), politician
- Antonio Vanegas Arroyo (1852-1917), publisher
- Aquiles Serdán (1877-1910), revolutionary
- Salvador R. Guzmán Esparza (1888–1962), diplomat
- Roberto E. Guzmán (1899–?), Actor and director
- Alfonso Espino y Silva (1904–1976), Archbishop of Monterrey
- Albert Baez (1912-2007), American physicist
- Alfonso Reyes Ramos (1913–1969), Bishop of Ciudad Valles
- Elena Garro (1916–1998), writer
- Chucho Martínez Gil (1917–1988), singer and composer
- Alfonso León de Garay Castro (1920–2002), radiation biologist and diplomat
- Joaquín Cordero (1922–2013), actor
- Enrique Sesma (* 1927), football player
- Octavio Rivero Serrano (* 1929), pulmonologist
- Sergio Pitol (1933–2018), literary scholar, writer and diplomat
- Ángeles Mastretta (* 1949), poet
- Oscar Roberto Domínguez Couttolenc (* 1956), Bishop of Ecatepec
- Rafael Chávez Carretero (* 1958), football coach
- José Luis Sánchez Solá (* 1959), Mexican-Spanish football coach
- Eugenio Andrés Lira Rugarcía (* 1965), Catholic clergyman, Bishop of Matamoros
- Alfredo Daza (* 1975), opera singer
- Eric Gálvez (* 1983), squash player
- Erick Osornio (* 1983), Taekwondoin
- Kurt Pahlen (1907–2003), Austrian conductor, composer and musicologist
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Puebla
Source: CONAGUA; wetterkontor.de
- Entry on the UNESCO World Heritage Center website ( English and French ).
- Official website of the city of Puebla
- The world heritage site - Puebla
- Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática (INEGI) : II Conteo de población y vivienda 2005 ( census )
- Mexico: States and Cities - Population Statistics in Maps and Tables. Retrieved July 26, 2018 .
- World Urbanization Prospects - Population Division - United Nations. Retrieved July 23, 2018 .