Calendar overview 1531
|Francisco Pizarro sets out to conquer Peru .|
|Ulrich Zwingli , among others, fell in the Second Battle of Kappel .|
|1531 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||979/980 (turn of the year July)|
|Aztec calendar||12. Rabbit - Matlactli omome Tochtli (until the end of January / beginning of February: 11th house - Matlactli ozce Calli )|
|Buddhist calendar||2074/75 (southern Buddhism); 2073/74 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||70th (71st) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||893/894 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3864/65 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||937/938 (turn of the year 14/15 August)|
|Jewish calendar||5291/92 (September 11-12)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1841/42 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1842/43 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1587/88 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Spanish colonial empire
- December: Spanish conquest of Peru : Francisco Pizarro conquers the island of Puná on the northern edge of the Inca Empire in today's Ecuador .
- The Huexotzinco Code is created. The Amatl document is being prepared for a successful trial that Hernán Cortés is conducting against the officials of the so-called Primera Audiencia , which concerns income from the province of Huexotzinco .
- The Spanish found the city of Santiago de Querétaro in Mexico .
- The city of Puebla de los Ángeles is founded in Mexico .
- February: The gallows war between Solothurn and Basel in the Old Confederation breaks out from a conflict over jurisdiction in a murder case. On July 27, an arbitration ruling found Solothurn right.
- October 9 : The five Catholic inner cities of Lucerne , Schwyz , Unterwalden , Uri and Zug declare war on Zurich. The religiously motivated Second Kappel War begins.
- October 11th : The people of Zurich suffer their first defeat in the Battle of Kappel . The reformer Ulrich Zwingli is killed in this battle near Kappel am Albis . On October 24th, the Catholic towns won the decisive victory in the Battle of the Gubel .
- November 20 : The Second Kappeler Landfriede ends the Second Kappel War and reorganizes the religious relationships in the Old Confederation . The further spread of the Reformation in Switzerland is prevented.
Other events in the empire
- January 5th : The Habsburg Ferdinand I , brother of Emperor Charles V, is elected Roman-German King in Cologne. Elector Johann the Steadfast of Saxony protests against the election. The anointing and coronation are carried out by the Archbishop of Cologne, Hermann V. von Wied in Aachen.
- February 27 : Protestant princes and cities under the leadership of Elector Johann von Sachsen and Landgrave Philipp I von Hessen establish the Schmalkalden League at the convention in Schmalkalden that was convened the previous year . Duke Philip I of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen , Duke Ernst I of Braunschweig-Lüneburg , Prince Wolfgang von Anhalt-Koethen , the Count of Erbach and three Lower and eight Upper German imperial cities also sign the defense alliance against the religious policy of Emperor Charles V , the is rapidly becoming a power factor in the Holy Roman Empire .
Science and culture
- March: Katharineum to Lübeck is a Latin school as part of the Reformation reorganization of church, school and social welfare by the by Johannes Bugenhagen wrote church order established. The first rector is Hermann Bonnus . The school is initially financed partly from the monastery assets, but also from the donation funds from the choir of the Marienkirche . For this, the student choir has to take over the liturgical chant in the main churches.
- The high school near St. Anna in Augsburg is founded.
- February 11th : The English bishops recognize Henry VIII as head of the Church of England . The Pope thus loses all authority in the Kingdom of England and a state church emerges.
- The apology of the Confessio Augustana , written by Philipp Melanchthon in May of the previous year under the noticeable influence of Martin Luther , will be published for the first time at the end of April as a double edition with the Confessio Augustana by Georg Rhau .
- December 9th : According to legend, the Virgin Mary appears to the Indio Juan Diego on Mount Tepeyac . Since then, the patroness of Our Lady of Guadalupe has been venerated here.
- December 17th : The Inquisition is introduced by Pope Clement VII in Lisbon .
- The city of Ulm converts to the Protestant faith .
Date of birth saved
- February 5 : Johann Aurpach , German poet and lawyer († 1582 )
- February 5 or 6 : Paul Crell , German Lutheran theologian († 1579 )
- February 14 : Burkhard Leemann , Swiss Protestant clergyman and Antistes from Zurich († 1613 )
- March 20 : Johann Sagittarius , German Protestant theologian († 1584 )
- May 1 : Catalina Thomás , island saint of Mallorca († 1574 )
- May 15 : Maria of Austria , Duchess of Jülich, Kleve and Berg († 1581 )
- July 22nd : Leonhard Thurneysser , Basel goldsmith, metallurgist, metallurgical engineer and scholar († 1596 )
- September 14 : Philipp Apian , German mathematician, doctor, cartographer and heraldist († 1589 )
- October 7th : Scipione Ammirato , Italian historian († 1601 )
- October 25 : Matthias Wesenbeck , Flemish lawyer († 1586 )
- November 16 : Anna d'Este , Italian nobleman with considerable influence at the court of France († 1607 )
- November 29 : Johannes Letzner , Protestant pastor and chronicler from Lower Saxony († 1613 )
- December 6 : Vespasiano Gonzaga , Italian nobleman, Spanish viceroy of Navarre and Valencia († 1591 )
- December 15 : Bernardo Buontalenti , Italian painter, architect and theater machinist († 1608 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Bonaventure Corneille Bertram , French Protestant theologian and university professor († 1594 )
- António von Crato , Portuguese nobleman and self-proclaimed King of Portugal († 1595 )
- Orazio Farnese , Duke of Castro († 1553 )
- Heinrich Paxmann , German ethnologist, rector and physician († 1580 )
- James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray , Scottish peer († 1570 )
Born around 1531
- Hans Burkhard von Anweil , German nobleman († 1593 )
- Achatius Cureus , German author and neo-Latin poet († 1594 )
Date of death secured
- February 16 : Johannes Stöffler , German mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, pastor and professor at the University of Tübingen (* 1452 )
- March 6 : Pedro Arias Dávila , Spanish conquistador, governor of Panama and Nicaragua (* around 1440 )
- 9 / May 10 : George I , Duke of Pomerania (* 1493 )
- May 17th : Konrad Wimpina , theologian from Frankfurt / Oder (* around 1460 )
- May 19 : Jan Łaski , Polish nobleman, politician and archbishop (* 1456 )
- May 28 : Balthasar Merklin , Vice Chancellor of the Holy Roman Empire (* around 1479 )
- May 29th : Georg Truchsess von Waldburg-Zeil (notorious as "Bauernjörg"), German military leader (* 1488 )
- June 25 : Adam I , Supreme Chancellor of Bohemia (* 1494 )
- July 3 : Hans Thomas von Absberg , Franconian robber baron (* 1477 )
- July 7th : Tilman Riemenschneider , German carver and sculptor (* around 1460 )
- July 17 : Hosokawa Takakuni , Japanese military commander (* 1484 )
- July 23 : Louis de Brézé , French nobleman, Count of Maulévrier
- September 22nd : Luise of Savoy , Duchess of Angoulême and mother of the French King Francis I (* 1476 )
- October 11 : Ulrich Zwingli , Swiss reformer (* 1484 )
- November 24th : Johannes Oekolampad , Swiss reformer (* 1482 )
- November 28 : Hedwig von Münsterberg-Oels , Duchess of Brandenburg-Ansbach (* 1508 )
- December 30th : Christian Studer , Swiss businessman and mayor (* 1458 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Petreius Aperbacchus , German humanist and lawyer (* around 1480 )
- Hans Burgkmair the Elder , German painter and draftsman (* 1473 )
- Henrique , first native bishop of Black Africa
- Margaret of Bavaria , abbess from the House of Wittelsbach (* 1480 )
- Giovanni Antonio Pilacorte , Italian Renaissance sculptor (* 1455 )