Mehmed III. becomes Sultan of
the Ottoman Empire .
|Alvaro de Mendaña de Neyra discovers the Marquesas Islands.|
The first siege of Groenlo by Moritz of Orange
in the Eighty Years' War ends without success.
|1595 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1043/44 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1587/88 (turn of the year 11/12 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1000/1001 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2138/39 (southern Buddhism); 2137/38 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||71st (72nd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||957/958 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3928/29 (2-3 October)|
|Islamic calendar||1003/04 (New Year 5th / 6th September)|
|Jewish calendar||5355/56 (September 3-4)|
|Coptic calendar||1311/12 (September 11-12)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1905/06 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1906/07 (New Year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1651/52 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- March 18 : With the dismissal of the city council appointed by Count Edzard II of East Friesland , the Emden revolution begins , at the end of which Emden becomes a quasi-autonomous city republic with the Treaty of Delfzijl on July 15 . Edzard has to move his residence to Aurich .
- April 2 : Pasquale Cicogna , 88th Doge of Venice , dies. The election of his successor takes 71 ballots and lasts 24 days. On April 26th, 62-year-old Marino Grimani was elected Doge . He is introduced to his office with the usual ceremonies and wins followers through generous gifts.
- May 18 : The Teusina peace between Sweden and Russia ends a 25-year state of war. Swedish-Finland will gain access to the Arctic Ocean by moving the border to the east. Russia recognizes the Swedish possession of Estonia and Narwas, but with Jam , Koporje and Ivangorod is regaining important positions on the Gulf of Finland, as well as on the Karelian Isthmus ( Kexholm ).
- May 27 : In the Battle of Clontibret , during the Nine Years' War , the royal English troops of Elizabeth I succumb to the Irish rebels under Hugh O'Neill , 2nd Earl of Tyrone for the first time .
- June 14th to 24th : The siege of Groenlo by Dutch troops under the command of Moritz of Orange during the Eighty Years' War ends with the arrival of a Spanish relief army under Cristóbal de Mondragón .
- Reute or Reütti is first mentioned in a document.
- January 16 : After the death of Murad III. follows Mehmed III. as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire . In order to avoid disputes over the throne, he had his 19 younger brothers murdered according to Ottoman tradition.
Voyages of discovery
- March 22 : Sir Walter Raleigh discovered on Trinidad the Pitch Lake .
- July 21 : Alvaro de Mendaña de Neyra discovers the Marquesas Islands in the Pacific.
- The first Fleute , a merchant ship with a particularly large cargo space, is launched in the Netherlands in the city of Hoorn . The appearance of the flute type of ship triggers a revolution in shipping and shipbuilding and has lasting economic consequences throughout Europe.
science and technology
- A fleet of four ships under the command of Cornelis de Houtman sails via Madagascar to East Asia, the first Dutch East India expedition . Pieter Dirkszoon Keyser is the navigator on one of these ships. He was commissioned by the cartographer Petrus Plancius to make observations of the deep southern sky, as the Europeans do not yet have any reliable data on the stars in these regions. Of the 249 participants, only 87 returned alive by 1597 .
- The Ratsgymnasium Osnabrück is inaugurated.
- The architect Anton van Obberghen built the Old Town Hall in the old town of Gdansk .
- around 1595: The Nordertor in Flensburg is built.
- around 1594/1595 : Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio paints one of his early masterpieces: Rest on the Flight into Egypt .
Anton Praetorius , pastor in the village of Dittelsheim and later fighter against witch trials and torture , who last year made a trip to Heidelberg to the stronghold of the Reformed faith, wrote a precise description of the dimensions of the large barrel of Heidelberg Castle and praised it in his Reformed one Vas Heidelbergense is a poem dedicated to Elector Friedrich IV as visible evidence of the superiority of the Calvinist faith.
- Abraham ben Mattatijah asked Sheva publishes the Koie book in Verona , an old Yiddish collection of fables , which is an important work of Yiddish literature .
- Edmund Spenser writes the first Epithalamion in English, which he wrote as a present to his wife for his own wedding. His poem follows the sequence of the hours of his wedding day and night in an elaborate arrangement of stanzas and verses, combining pagan mythology, Christian dogma and the local Irish environment.
- The magnificent Naqsch-e Dschahān , commissioned by the Persian Shah Abbas I, southwest of his future capital, Isfahan , will be completed after five years of construction.
- Severe floods in many German cities
Historical maps and views
First half of the year
- January 7 : Elisabeth Beling , German founder († 1679 )
- January 26 : Antonio Maria Abbatini , Italian composer († 1679 )
- February 18 : Johann Böhme , German sculptor († 1667 )
- March 1 : Menno Hanneken , German Lutheran theologian († 1671 )
- April 14th : Hempo von dem Knesebeck , member of the "Fruit Bringing Society" († 1656 )
- April 30 : Henri II. De Montmorency , French military leader, grand admiral, marshal, viceroy and governor († 1632 )
- May 27 : Benedikt Carpzov , criminalist and witch theorist († 1666 )
- June 9 : Władysław IV. Wasa , King of Poland, de facto Tsar of Russia († 1648 )
Second half of the year
- October 18 : Lucas van Uden , Flemish painter and etcher († 1672 )
- November 13 : Georg Wilhelm , Elector of Brandenburg († 1640 )
- November 25 : Johann Praetorius , German composer and organist († 1660 )
- November 25th : Johann Konrad Varnbuler , Württemberg diplomat († 1657 )
- November 30 : Friedrich Buchmann , Swiss Mayor († 1670 )
- December 4 : Jean Chapelain , French writer († 1674 )
- December 11th : Kaspar Ebel , German educator, logician and metaphysician († 1664 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- John Felton , English Puritan († 1628 )
- William Blaxton , early European settler in New England († 1675 )
Date of death secured
- January 16 : Murad III. , Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (* 1546 )
- January 24 : Ferdinand II , Prince Count of Tyrol (* 1529 )
- March 15 : Vincenzo Gaggini , Sicilian sculptor (* 1527 )
- May 9 : Johann Friedrich II. The Middle , Duke of Saxony (* 1529 )
- May 25 : Valens Acidalius , German humanist (* 1567 )
- May 26 : Philipp Neri , Roman saint, founder of the oratory (* 1515 )
- June 20 : Magnus Gustavsson Wasa , Swedish prince and Duke of Östergötland (* 1542 )
- June 25 : William Aubrey , Welsh lawyer ( b.1529 )
- June 26 : Hermann Hamelmann , Lutheran theologian and historian (* 1526 )
- July 26 : Augustin Cranach , German painter (* 1554 )
- July 31 : Hartwig Schmidenstet , German rhetorician (* 1539 )
- August 26th : António von Crato , Portuguese nobleman who proclaimed himself King of Portugal in 1580 (* 1531 )
- September 1st : Elisabeth Magdalene , Margravine of Brandenburg and Duchess of Braunschweig-Lüneburg (* 1537 )
- September 3 : Philipp von Nassau , Dutch military (* 1566 )
- October 18 : Alvaro de Mendaña de Neyra , Spanish explorer and navigator (* 1541 )
- October 23 : Luigi Gonzaga , Duke of Nevers and Duke of Rethel (* 1539 )
- November 12th : John Hawkins , English navigator (* 1532 )
- November 23 : Clara von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel , Abbess of the Imperial Free Secular Imperial Monastery of Gandersheim and Duchess of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen (* 1532 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Simone Gatto , Italian conductor and composer (* 1545 )
- Jeremias II , Patriarch of Constantinople (* 1536 )