1597

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Heads of State · Nekrolog

1597
Moritz of Orange
Moritz of Orange
undertakes the
campaign of 1597 .
Cesare d'Este
Cesare d'Este becomes
Duke of Modena and Reggio ,
but not of Ferrara .
The crucifixion of Nagasaki
Toyotomi Hideyoshi has numerous missionaries and Christians crucified in Nagasaki .
1597 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 1045/46 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1589/90 (turn of the year 10/11 September)
Bengali solar calendar 1002/1003 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)
Buddhist calendar 2140/41 (southern Buddhism); 2139/40 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 71st (72nd) cycle

Year of the Fire Rooster丁酉 ( at the beginning of the year Fire Monkey 丙申)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 959/960 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 3930/31 (October 2-3)
Iranian calendar 975/976
Islamic calendar 1005/06 (turn of the year 13/14 August)
Jewish calendar 5357/58 (September 12-13)
Coptic calendar 1313/14 (September 10-11)
Malayalam calendar 772/773
Seleucid era Babylon: 1907/08 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 1908/09 (New Year October)

Events

1597

Politics and world events

Eighty Years War

The Netherlands 1596–1598
Siege of Rheinberg 1597
Siege of Moers
Map of the Siege of Groenlo by Joan Blaeu
Siege of Bredevoort 1597
  • October 1st to 9th : The siege of Bredevoort ends with the capture and sacking of the city by the troops of Moritz of Orange. The surviving Spaniards retreat to the castle and leave the city to its fate. On October 11th, the Spanish troops under Lieutenant van Broekhuysen surrender and receive free withdrawal in return for payment of 1700 gold guilders. A payment of 6000 gold guilders was imposed on the citizens of Bredevoort. The capture of Bredevoort cost the state troops higher losses than all other armed conflicts of the campaign combined. Moritz quartered two companies as a crew in Bredevort and moved with the rest of the army against Enschede .
  • 18 / October 19 : The ingestion of Enschede done without fighting by handing over the city to free passage. Following the occupation, Moritz had large parts of the city fortifications razed to make the city uninteresting for future occupiers.
  • 19th bis 21st October : The town Ootmarsum is taken after three days of siege by the gangstaa-Nazi troops.
  • 20th bis 23. October : Simultaneously with the siege of Ootmarsum which begins siege of Oldenzaal . The Spaniards finally evacuate Oldenzaal and move to Lingen .
  • October 28 to November 12 : The siege of Lingen , the last station of the autumn campaign, also ends with an honorable handover of the city. This means that the last city on the right bank of the Rhine in Spanish hands falls into the hands of the Dutch.

Bavaria

Maximilian I as ruler (depiction by Wenceslas Hollar around 1649)

confederation

Italy

Alfonso II d'Este , Duke of Ferrara , Modena and Reggio , dies on October 27th . Since he has no offspring, he had appointed his cousin Cesare d'Este , Margrave of Montecchio, as heir years before . This is the eldest son of Alfonsos d'Este, an illegitimate son of their grandfather Alfonso I d'Este . When the inheritance regulation is to take effect on the death of Alfonso II, Pope Clement VIII does not recognize it because of the illegitimate birth of Alfonso von Montecchio, accepts Ferrara as a settled fiefdom and annexes it to the Papal States. In the imperial fiefs of Modena and Reggio, however, Cesare can take over his rule.

England / Scotland

Other events in Europe

America

Voyages of discovery

East asia

economy

Culture

literature

Romeo and Juliet , 1st quarto

Music and theater

society

Birstein witch trial 1597 (excerpt)

In Birstein near Frankfurt / Main there is a witch trial against four women from Rinderbügen . Court chaplain Anton Praetorius is appointed to the court of witches by Count Palatine Friedrich IV . Encouraged by the teacher Johannes Cisnerus, Praetorius revolted and did everything to ensure that the process ended and the women were released. As the local pastor, he railed against the torture so fiercely that it actually happened. The last survivor of the trial is released. This is the only recorded case of a clergyman asking for an end to the inhuman torture during a witch trial and being successful. However, Praetorius is relieved of his office as court preacher due to his commitment.

religion

Historical maps and views

Born

Date of birth saved

Martin Opitz

Exact date of birth unknown

  • Lucius Gabriel , Swiss Protestant Reformed pastor and Bible translator into the Romansh written language of the Surselvian idiom († 1663 )
  • John Theyer , English lawyer, writer and antiquarian († 1673 )

Born around 1597

Died

First half of the year

Second half of the year

Web links

Commons : 1597  - Collection of Images, Videos, and Audio Files