Moritz of Orange
campaign of 1597 .
Cesare d'Este becomes
Duke of Modena and Reggio ,
but not of Ferrara .
Toyotomi Hideyoshi has numerous missionaries and Christians crucified in Nagasaki .
|1597 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1045/46 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1589/90 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1002/1003 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2140/41 (southern Buddhism); 2139/40 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||71st (72nd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||959/960 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3930/31 (October 2-3)|
|Islamic calendar||1005/06 (turn of the year 13/14 August)|
|Jewish calendar||5357/58 (September 12-13)|
|Coptic calendar||1313/14 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1907/08 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1908/09 (New Year October)
Politics and world events
Eighty Years War
- August 1st : Moritz von Oranien leaves The Hague with his troops and sets off on the campaign of 1597 to strengthen the state-Dutch position on the Lower Rhine and in the western Münsterland.
- August 9th to 19th : The siege of Rheinberg as part of Moritz von Orange's campaign of 1597 in the Eighty Years War ends with the surrender and the withdrawal of the Spanish garrison from Rheinberg .
- After the Spanish governor of Ober-Geldern, Hermann von dem Bergh , learned of the loss of Rheinberg, he reinforced the garrison of the nearby, heavily fortified city of Moers and withdrew with the majority of his troops across the Maas .
- August 29th : The siege of Moers by Moritz von Orange begins.
- September 3rd : The Spanish garrison in besieged Moers surrenders and evacuates the city in the Eighty Years' War to the Dutch troops under the command of Moritz of Orange .
- September 11th to 28th : The siege of Groenlos by the Dutch in the Eighty Years' War ends with the capitulation of the Spaniards to Prince Moritz of Orange and the withdrawal of the Spanish garrison.
- October 1st to 9th : The siege of Bredevoort ends with the capture and sacking of the city by the troops of Moritz of Orange. The surviving Spaniards retreat to the castle and leave the city to its fate. On October 11th, the Spanish troops under Lieutenant van Broekhuysen surrender and receive free withdrawal in return for payment of 1700 gold guilders. A payment of 6000 gold guilders was imposed on the citizens of Bredevoort. The capture of Bredevoort cost the state troops higher losses than all other armed conflicts of the campaign combined. Moritz quartered two companies as a crew in Bredevort and moved with the rest of the army against Enschede .
- 18 / October 19 : The ingestion of Enschede done without fighting by handing over the city to free passage. Following the occupation, Moritz had large parts of the city fortifications razed to make the city uninteresting for future occupiers.
- 19th bis 21st October : The town Ootmarsum is taken after three days of siege by the gangstaa-Nazi troops.
- 20th bis 23. October : Simultaneously with the siege of Ootmarsum which begins siege of Oldenzaal . The Spaniards finally evacuate Oldenzaal and move to Lingen .
- October 28 to November 12 : The siege of Lingen , the last station of the autumn campaign, also ends with an honorable handover of the city. This means that the last city on the right bank of the Rhine in Spanish hands falls into the hands of the Dutch.
- Appenzell land division : The canton of Appenzell is divided into the Catholic Inner Rhodes and the Reformed Outer Rhodes.
Alfonso II d'Este , Duke of Ferrara , Modena and Reggio , dies on October 27th . Since he has no offspring, he had appointed his cousin Cesare d'Este , Margrave of Montecchio, as heir years before . This is the eldest son of Alfonsos d'Este, an illegitimate son of their grandfather Alfonso I d'Este . When the inheritance regulation is to take effect on the death of Alfonso II, Pope Clement VIII does not recognize it because of the illegitimate birth of Alfonso von Montecchio, accepts Ferrara as a settled fiefdom and annexes it to the Papal States. In the imperial fiefs of Modena and Reggio, however, Cesare can take over his rule.
England / Scotland
- November 4 : At the Battle of Carrickfergus in the Nine Years' War , the troops of the Scottish clan of MacDonnell defeat the Royal English troops of Elizabeth I.
Other events in Europe
- October 17th bis 17th November : Siege of Timisoara .
- The cudgel war in Finland ends with a crushing defeat of the rebellious peasants.
- September 13 : The Juanillo rebellion of the Guale against the Spaniards in what is now Georgia begins.
Voyages of discovery
- 26 / August 27 : A Japanese fleet under Toyotomi Hideyoshi defeated a Korean fleet in the battle of chilcheollyang in the Imjin War .
- October 26 : At the naval battle of Myongnyang , a Japanese fleet of 133 combat ships and 200 supply ships from 13 Korean warships are devastated.
- The Gold Ochsen brewery in Ulm is founded.
- The first regular newspaper , the " Rorschacher monthly ", appears.
- The first quarto edition of William Shakespeare's tragedy Romeo and Juliet appears.
- The first collection of stories with Schildbürger - Schwänken appears under the name Das Lalenbuch. Wondrous, adventurous, unheard of and so far undescribed stories and deeds of the Lalen zu Laleburg .
- One year after the death of Anna Wecker , her daughter published her main work Ein Köstlich new cookbook . It is the first cookbook in German written by a woman to go to press. This is the first time that ice cream is mentioned.
Music and theater
In Birstein near Frankfurt / Main there is a witch trial against four women from Rinderbügen . Court chaplain Anton Praetorius is appointed to the court of witches by Count Palatine Friedrich IV . Encouraged by the teacher Johannes Cisnerus, Praetorius revolted and did everything to ensure that the process ended and the women were released. As the local pastor, he railed against the torture so fiercely that it actually happened. The last survivor of the trial is released. This is the only recorded case of a clergyman asking for an end to the inhuman torture during a witch trial and being successful. However, Praetorius is relieved of his office as court preacher due to his commitment.
- February 5 : Toyotomi Hideyoshi has three Portuguese Jesuits , six Spanish Franciscans and 17 Japanese Christians executed on the cross in Nagasaki . The proselytizing in the Azuchi Momoyama period triggers conflicts with the authorities in Japan.
Historical maps and views
The Tower of London 1597
Date of birth saved
- January 12 : François Duquesnoy , Flemish sculptor († 1643 )
- January 15 : Wolfgang Bachmeyer , German cartographer, geodesist, astronomer, mathematician and theologian († 1685 )
- January 25 : Johann Philipp , Duke of Saxe-Altenburg († 1639 )
- February 28 : Albrecht Friedrich von Barby and Mühlingen , member of the Fruit-Bringing Society († 1641 )
- April 14 : Georg Lilien , German Lutheran theologian († 1666 )
- May 22 : Kanō Sadanobu , Japanese painter († 1623 )
- June 9 : Pieter Saenredam , Dutch painter († 1665 )
- August 10 : Charlotte Louise von Hanau-Münzenberg , German noblewoman († 1649 )
- August 10 : Abraham Heidanus , German Reformed theologian († 1678 )
- September 1 : Johannes Micraelius , German poet and philosopher († 1658 )
- November 13 : Johann Georg Dorsche , German Lutheran theologian († 1659 )
- November 17 : Henry Gellibrand , English astronomer († 1637 )
- November 19 : Elisabeth Charlotte von der Pfalz , Electress of Brandenburg († 1660 )
- November 20 : Theodor Zwinger , pastor and professor of theology († 1654 )
- November 24th : Friedrich Leibnütz , German notary, philosopher and ethicist († 1652 )
- December 23 : Martin Opitz , German poet († 1639 )
- December 24th : Honoré II , Prince of Monaco († 1662 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Lucius Gabriel , Swiss Protestant Reformed pastor and Bible translator into the Romansh written language of the Surselvian idiom († 1663 )
- John Theyer , English lawyer, writer and antiquarian († 1673 )
Born around 1597
First half of the year
- January 10 : Anna Landmann , victim of the witch persecution in Hornburg
- January 29 : Elias Nikolaus Ammerbach , German organist and arranger (* 1530 )
- February 2 : Lucas van Valckenborch , Flemish painter (* around 1535 )
- February 4 : Joachim von Beust , German lawyer (* 1522 )
- February 5 : Paul Miki , Christian martyr in Japan (* around 1565 )
- March 24th : Giovanni Bernardino Bonifacio , Italian count, humanist, book collector, librarian and founder of the city library of Danzig (* 1517 )
- March 27 : Stanislaus Bornbach , Polish chronicler (* 1530 )
- April 16 : Caspar Cruciger the Younger , German Lutheran theologian (* 1525 )
- May 10 : Ulrico Aostalli , Swiss builder
- June 2 : Dietrich Sonoy , Dutch warlord (* 1529 )
- June 6th : Katharina Bernburg , victim of the witch trials in Wernigerode (* around 1550 )
- June 9th : José de Anchieta , Spanish missionary, Jesuit and linguist (* 1554 )
- June 20 : Willem Barents , Dutch navigator (* around 1500 )
- June 24th : Johannes Posthius , German doctor and poet (* 1537 )
- June: Aron Tiranul , ruler of the Principality of Moldova
Second half of the year
- July 3 : John Norreys , English military leader (* 1547 )
- July 8 : Luís Fróis , Portuguese missionary of the Society of Jesus (* 1532 )
- July 19 : Gunilla Bielke , Queen of Sweden (* 1568 )
- September 3 : Jakobe von Baden-Baden , Duchess of Jülich-Kleve-Berg (* 1558 )
- September 16 : Hans Irmisch , land builder from the Electoral Saxony (* 1526 )
- October 4th : Sarsa Dengel , Emperor of Ethiopia (* 1550 )
- October 19 : Ashikaga Yoshiaki , Japanese Shogun (* 1537 )
- October 27 : Alfonso II. D'Este , Duke of Ferrara, Modena and Reggio (* 1533 )
- November 6th : Katharina Michaela of Spain , Duchess of Savoy (* 1567 )
- December 17th : Friedrich , Count Palatine and Duke of Pfalz-Parkstein (* 1557 )
- December 18 : Barbara Blomberg , lover of Charles V (* 1527 )
- December 20 : Wolfgang von Ysenburg-Ronneburg , regent of the Langen district (* 1533 )
- December 21 : Petrus Canisius , doctor of the church, counter-reformer (* 1521 )