History of Bavaria
After the collapse of Roman rule, the Bavarian tribe ( see Bavarians ) formed from the Germanic tribes who had invaded from the north and some Romanized Celts ( Boier ) who had already settled there . The Walish population assimilated in a centuries-old process; Names of places, fields and waters such as Walchensee still tell of the former Celto-Roman settlement.
The existence of a Bavarian tribal duchy has been documented since 555, which became part of the Franconian domain under the Merovingians . With the decline of the Merovingian kingship, the Bavarian dukes were able to rule autonomously in the 7th century, but at the beginning of the 8th century the Carolingians reasserted the Franconian claims. The victory of Charlemagne over Bavarian Duke Tassilo III. in the year 788 marked the end of the "older tribal duchy". The Carolingians ruled as kings or sub-kings of Bavaria. They sealed documents from this time as kings of Bavaria or sometimes appointed governors (prefects) to exercise their rule.
The decline of the Carolingians made it possible for the Bavarian dukes to revive their independence in the "younger tribal duchy". The quarrel with the Ottonians led to renewed dependence on German kingship : In 976, Duke Heinrich “the brawler” was deposed by his cousin, the Roman-German King and Emperor Otto II , after a failed uprising; Baiern lost - u. a. through the establishment of the official duchy of Carinthia with its Italian brands - almost half of its territory.
From 1070 it came under the Guelph to a brief resurgence of the power of the Bavarian dukes until the dispute between the Guelph Duke Henry the Lion and the German King Frederick Barbarossa from the sex of the Staufer ended in 1180 with the fall of Henry: Large parts of the former Marcha orientalis or Ostarrîchis - to a large extent what is now Austria - was separated from Bavaria, the Duchy of Styria was built, the rest of Bavaria received the previous Pfalzgraf Otto I. from the sex of the Wittelsbach awarded as the new Duke. This ended the history of the "younger tribal duchy".
From 1180 to 1918 Bavaria was ruled as a territorial duchy by the Wittelsbachers. During this time, Bavaria experienced a period of numerous divisions into individual duchies, which only came to an end with the Primogeniture Act of 1506. In the Counter Reformation Bavaria took a leading position and emerged from the Thirty Years War with territorial gains and in 1623 with the rise to the electorate . During the Spanish and Austrian Wars of Succession , the absolutist Bavarian rule was temporarily occupied by Austria.
At the time of Napoleon Bavaria was initially on the side of France and was able to achieve large territorial gains through secularization and mediatization . In 1806 it was elevated to a kingdom . By switching to Napoleon's opponents in good time, Bavaria was able to retain a large part of the territorial gains as a victorious power at the Congress of Vienna in 1814.
King Ludwig I developed Munich into an art and university city. In the course of the March riots he had to abdicate in 1848 because of an affair with the dancer Lola Montez . Ludwig II went down in history as a fairy tale king because of the construction of Neuschwanstein Castle and other castles. On the side of Austria, Bavaria suffered a defeat against Prussia in the Austro-Prussian War in 1866 . In 1871 Bavaria became part of the newly founded German Empire , but received so-called reservation rights (its own postal, railway and army services ).
In 1918 the Wittelsbach Monarchy collapsed in the November Revolution . On the night of November 7th to 8th, 1918, the " Free State of Bavaria" was proclaimed; Revolutionary socialist groups briefly gained influence and there were two phases of revolution. In the spring of 1919, the Munich Soviet Republic existed for a short time . During the Weimar Republic , Bavaria was the scene of the Hitler putsch in 1923 .
Between 1933 and 1945 Bavaria largely lost its importance as an administrative unit in the Nazi state , but took on a certain pioneering role in National Socialist measures (see: Munich "Capital of the Movement", Nuremberg "City of the Nazi Party Rallies"; Dachau concentration camp ). During the Second World War , Bavarian cities such as Würzburg , Munich and Nuremberg suffered severe damage.
The State of Bavaria in 1949, a country of the newly established Federal Republic of Germany . An economic upswing began and the development of Bavaria, which was still largely dominated by agriculture , into an industrial state through to a modern service society at the beginning of the 21st century.
Prehistory and early history
The prehistory of Bavaria covers the period of unscripted sources in the area of today's Free State, i.e. from the earliest evidence of human presence during the Middle Pleistocene to the late La Tène period (1st century BC).
From the 3rd century BC The Celtic tribes founded the first fortified, city-like settlements in the foothills of the Alps. In the oppidum of Manching , around 5,000 to 10,000 Celts lived within a city fortification.
At the time of Emperor Augustus , the Celtic area of Old Bavaria south of the Danube became part of the Roman Empire and its provinces of Raetia and Noricum . The Upper German-Raetian Limes ran through today's Free State for 160 kilometers .
- from remnants of the Celtic population ( Vindeliker , Boier )
- from native Romans
- from Alemannic , Franconian or Thuringian , Ostrogothic and Longobard folk splinters
- from Germanic mercenaries of the Roman border troops
It is assumed that the Bavarian tribes were formed in their own country, i.e. the country between the Danube and the Alps.
The Bavarian tribal duchy
The older Bavarian tribal duchy, Christianization
The Alpine foothills of Bavaria was called by the Romans still Rätien . After the conquest of Italy by the king of the Ostrogoths Theodoric , this province, the area between the Danube, Iller, Alps and Inn, which belongs to the diocese of Italia, also fell to the Goths. In the years 507 and 511 Theodoric installed a duke (dux) for Raetia. A year earlier, 506, the provinces north of the Alps were obliged to accept fleeing Alemanni in their area. At the same time, the Franks were warned not to pursue them. Archaeological evidence of a princely upper class for the first third of the 6th century has been found in Unterhaching and Straubing . In 536 King Witichis ceded the foothills of the Alps to the Franks in order to win them as an ally. The older Bavarian tribal duchy can be traced back by name to the year 551/555. In the Gothic history of the Jordanes it is said: "That area of the Swabians has the Bavarians in the east, the Franks in the west ..." From that time until the end of the first tribal duchy, the rulers all came from the originally Frankish family of the Agilolfinger . The first in this series was Duke Garibald I , who was installed by King Theudebald in 548 and who married the Lombard king's daughter Walderada in 555 . During this period the settlement area was expanded to the east as far as the Enns and south to today's South Tyrol .
There were also changes in the east as a result of the withdrawal of the Lombards from Pannonia to northern Italy and the advancement of the Avars and later the Slavs to the area of today's Bohemia . In the 8th century, today's Carinthia came under Bavarian rule through the subjugation of the Slavic Carantania . The seat of the dukes, who ruled largely independently for a long time, was Regensburg .
St. Korbinian laid the foundations for the later diocese of Freising , and St. Kilian became a missionary to the Franconian area in the north. In 742 Boniface founded the diocese of Würzburg , which in the 7th century belonged to the Thuringian-Franconian duchy of Hedene . In the area west of the Lech, Augsburg became a bishopric. In Passau Boniface already found Bishop Vivilo . Saint Rupert of Salzburg founded the later Archdiocese of Salzburg in 696 . According to later sources, he had baptized the duke and his court in the capital Regensburg. Rupert was thereby stylized as the "Apostle of Bavaria". The contemporary sources speak only of an order of Bavarian Christianity, which was quite wild before Rupert, Korbinian and Emmeram . 798 created Pope Leo III. the Bavarian church province, to which the dioceses of Salzburg as a metropolitan seat, Regensburg, Passau, Freising and Säben (later Brixen) belonged. A Christian synodal activity since the founding of the diocese in 739 went hand in hand with Bavarian regional synods under Duke Tassilo in Aschheim , Dingolfing around 770 and Neuching (772) . Bishop Arn von Salzburg invited to a council that was held in Reisbach in 799. This was the first time and place handed down Bavarian Metropolitan Bishops Synod, for which bishops, abbots, priests, archpriests and deacons from all over Bavaria in today's Lower Bavaria gathered.
Under the Carolingians , the Frankish Empire grew stronger , which ended the extensive independence of the tribal duchies under the Merovingians . In 716 the Duchy of Hedene ended first. The area came under Carolingian rule, whereby the church with the diocese of Würzburg was given a dominant position. After the last uprising at Cannstatt was suppressed in 746, the Alemannic area was finally incorporated into the Franconian Empire. Through a military intervention during a power dispute within the ducal family in 725, Karl Martell installed Duke Hugbert in Baiern, in 743 the Franks attacked, now under the leadership of Karl's sons, Duke Odilo, and forced him to recognize the sovereignty of the Frankish Empire.
The Bavarian tribal duchy was finally smashed in 788. The Bavarian Duke Tassilo III. tried in vain to save independence through an alliance with the Longobards. The most precious monument of Duke Tassilo is the so-called Tassilo Goblet . The inscription reads: Tassilo dux fortis - Liutpirc virga regalis , in German: mighty Duke Tassilo - royal virgin Liutberga. The Tassilo chalice made in Salzburg with its ornaments is a Bavarian, not a Carolingian work. The conquest of the Longobard Empire by Charlemagne also brought about the fall of Tassilus III. and the end of the older Bavarian tribal duchy after itself.
Karl appointed his brother-in-law Gerold , who was a relative of Tassilo, as his representative in Bavaria . He no longer received the title of duke, but was called prefect. When Gerold died in 799, Audulf followed him as prefect until 818 .
The younger Bavarian tribal duchy
In 817 King Ludwig the Pious handed over the Bavarian tribal duchy of Tassilos III to his son Ludwig II the German (the nickname "the German" comes from the first half of the 18th century). as well as the Bavarian Ostland with semi-autonomous Slavic peoples and the Avarmark . In the first division of his father's empire, the so-called Ordinatio imperii of 817, he received Bavaria and the countries bordering it to the east as kingship. Under the East Franconian King Ludwig II , who officially became King of the Baiern from 825, Baiern moved into the center of power. After that, the descendants of Ludwig ruled. Under his grandson, Emperor Arnulf of Carinthia , Baiern and his Mark Carinthia became bases of power with Regensburg as the capital and seat of government.
Towards the end of the rule of the East Franconian Carolingians in 911, the independence of the individual areas increased again. This was supported by the external threat posed by the Hungarian invasions . Margrave Luitpold von Baiern fell in the Battle of Pressburg in 907 in a defeat against the Hungarians, but the date is seen as the beginning of the younger Bavarian tribal duchy due to the accession of his son Arnulf I as Duke of Baiern. The Pannonian Mark, however, was finally lost to the Hungarians.
Through the mediation of his brother Emperor Otto I of Ottone married Henry Arnulf's daughter Judith of Bavaria from the Duke dynasty Luitpoldinger and was 948 with the Duchy of Bavaria invested . In 955 he was followed by his son Heinrich the Quarrel . After the victory in the battle on the Lechfeld in 955, a second wave of Bavarian eastern settlements followed, gaining areas in what is now Lower Austria , in Istria and in Carniola . Although ruled by an Ottonian branch line, there were conflicts with the Saxon royal family of the Ottonians in the 10th century, which ended in 976 with the loss of Carinthia and a large part of the newly won territories, which were separated from Baiern as part of a newly created Duchy of Carinthia . In addition, the gender of the ruled Babenberger in the Marcha Orientalis ( Ostarrichi ) increasingly independent. It became the nucleus of what would later become Austria .
After the Ottonian Bavarian Duke became King of the Holy Roman Empire as Henry II in 1002 and temporarily ruled the Duchy in personal union until 1017, a period followed in which the Bavarian dukes were appointed from outside and were heavily dependent on the German kingship. which also persisted among the Salians . At times the emperor's son was even installed as a duke. During this time, the rise of noble families such as the Count von Bogen and the Count of Andechs , the Diepoldinger , Count von Sulzbach and the Wittelsbacher took place .
Only with the establishment of the Guelphs as dukes by Henry IV in 1070 did the Bavarian dukes gain strength again. This epoch is marked by the investiture dispute between the emperor and the pope . The Guelph ruler was able to consolidate his position by taking sides with the Pope.
A conflict between Duke Heinrich the Proud and the Swabian ruling family of the Staufers in the election of the king led to the election of the Staufer Konrad III. to the king, however, that Baiern was given to the Babenbergs in 1139. With the rule of the Staufers, the Swabian area became largely a kingdom. Franconia also increasingly developed into the center of Hohenstaufen power. In Franconia, the dominant position of the Bishop of Würzburg was lost through the establishment of the Bamberg diocese in 1007 and new secular dominions.
The Staufer Friedrich I Barbarossa withdrew the Duchy of Bavaria from the Babenberg Heinrich "Jasomirgott" at the court day in Goslar in the summer of 1154 and gave the Bavarian region, reduced by the Marcha Orientalis , to the Guelph Heinrich the Lion . The Duchy of Merania, which was detached from Bavaria, came into being under the Wittelsbachers . In 1156 the Austrian march was separated from the Duchy of Baiern and raised to the Duchy of the Babenbergs themselves , making it imperial and giving it the Privilegium Minus .
Heinrich the Lion founded numerous cities, including Munich in 1158 . Due to his strong position as ruler of the two duchies of Saxony and Bavaria, however, he came into conflict with Friedrich I. Barbarossa. With the exile of Henry the Lion and the separation of Styria as a separate duchy, the "younger Bavarian tribal duchy" ended in 1180.
Bavaria as a territorial duchy
Bavaria's beginnings as a territorial state
From 1180 to 1918 the Wittelsbach rulers were the rulers of Bavaria, first as dukes and later as electors and kings. As Count Palatine Otto VI in 1180 . von Wittelsbach when Otto I became Duke of Bavaria, the Wittelsbachers had little ownership. An attempt to re-acquire Styria , which had been detached from Bavaria in 1180 , ultimately failed due to the unsuccessfulness of the uprising of the Styrian nobility in the Landsberger Bund against Duke Albrecht I , which was supported by Bavaria significantly expanded. 1214 to Otto's son was Ludwig I of Wittelsbach with the Rhine Palatinate invested . Newly acquired land was no longer given as a fief , but administered by its own servants. Mighty families of counts, such as the Counts of Andechs and von Bogen, also died during this period. When Otto von Meranien, the Counts of Andechs, died out in 1248 , the former south-western part of the country did not return to Bavaria, but fell to the Counts of Tyrol . The ducal suburb had shifted several times during this time, initially under the first two Wittelsbachers from Regensburg to Kelheim and then to Landshut until 1255 .
Divisions and empire
As with the Wittelsbachers, as with many ruling houses of that time, there was no preference for the first-born in terms of succession, in 1255 there was a division into Upper Bavaria with the Palatinate and the Nordgau (with headquarters in Munich and Heidelberg ) and Lower Bavaria (with the seats in Landshut and Burghausen ). The distinction between Upper and Lower Bavaria (see government districts ) goes back to this today . Duke Ludwig the Strict of Upper Bavaria benefited from the death of his nephew Konradin in 1268 , and for the first time areas of the Duchy of Swabia fell to the Wittelsbach family. With the recognition of the borders of the State of Salzburg in the area of today's Rupertiwinkel by Ludwig's brother Duke Heinrich XIII. began the final section of the separation of the Archdiocese of Salzburg from Bavaria: 1275 Salzburg western boundary was the Chiemgau by the Lower Bavarian Duke confirmed . When the Archbishop of Salzburg issued its own regional order in 1328, Salzburg had become a largely independent state within the Holy Roman Empire.
In 1340 the Lower Bavarian dukes died out and were inherited by the Upper Bavarian duke. Before several new state divisions from 1349, Bavaria reached a new peak of power with the Upper Bavarian Duke Ludwig IV. When he became German King in 1314 and was the first Wittelsbacher to receive the dignity of Emperor in 1328. The areas of Brandenburg (1323), Tyrol (1342), the Dutch provinces of Holland , Zeeland and Friesland as well as Hainaut (1345) were lost again under his successors. Tyrol fell to the Habsburgs with the Treaty of Schärding in 1369 , the Luxembourgers followed in Brandenburg in 1373, and the Dutch counties fell to Burgundy in 1436. In the house contract of Pavia of 1329, Emperor Ludwig divided the property into a Palatinate line with the Rhine Palatinate and the later so-called Upper Palatinate and an Old Baier line. With the Golden Bull of 1356, the electoral dignity for the old Bavarian line was also lost to the Palatinate until 1628. Bavaria and Palatinate were not reunited until 1777.
Bavaria's late medieval partial duchies
In the 14th and 15th centuries, Upper and Lower Bavaria were repeatedly divided. After the division in 1392 , four duchies existed: Lower Bavaria-Straubing , Lower Bavaria-Landshut , Upper Bavaria-Ingolstadt and Upper Bavaria-Munich , whose dukes often waged war against each other. 1429 was the Bratislava arbitration Lower Bavaria-Straubing between Louis VII. The Gebarteten of Bavaria-Ingolstadt , Heinrich the Rich of Bavaria-Landshut and Ernst and William III. divided by Bayern-Munich . After Ludwig VII's death in 1447, all of Upper Bavaria-Ingolstadt fell to the Landshut line. Duke Albrecht IV of Upper Bavaria-Munich then reunited old Bavaria in 1506 after the devastating War of Landshut Succession in 1504/05. He ended the divisions by a primogeniture law . However, in 1504 the originally Bavarian offices of Kufstein , Kitzbühel and Rattenberg were lost to Tyrol. In the three named judicial districts , however, the land law of Ludwig of Bavaria continued to apply until the 19th century, so that they had a special legal position within Tyrol. The Mondseeland was also lost to Habsburg at that time.
The Vitztumsämter were in 1507 as part of a major administrative reform after the Landshut War of Succession in Rent offices converted who were responsible in Bavaria in addition to the tax authorities then legal, administrative and military tasks.
Bavaria from the Reformation to the Thirty Years War
Bavaria in the age of the Counter Reformation
In old Bavaria , the Bavarian dukes prevented the Reformation from spreading . Wilhelm IV allowed himself to be won over to the cause of Catholicism by the Pope as early as 1524 by assigning sovereign rights over the Bavarian bishops and the income of the church institutes and was one of the most ardent opponents of the Reformation, which he did not allow to arise in his country. He took on the part of Charles V in the War of Schmalkalden part.
However, individual territorial lords such as the Counts of Ortenburg , Neuburg and von Haag , the Duke of Pfalz-Neuburg and the Hohenwaldeck rule also introduced the Lutheran creed in Bavaria . In order to counteract the further spread in old Bavaria, the Bavarian Duke Albrecht V led a court case against the so-called Bavarian aristocratic conspiracy in 1564 . The Reformation spread rapidly in Franconia, and in eastern Swabia it found numerous followers, especially in cities such as Augsburg. The Reformation also spread in the Upper Palatinate, which was under the rule of the Protestant Electors of the Palatinate. In 1571 Duke Albrecht V expelled all Lutherans from the country. From 1542 the Jesuits turned the Ingolstadt State University, founded in 1472, into a center of the Counter Reformation alongside Dillingen . The bishops of Würzburg and Bamberg operated the Counter-Reformation with sometimes rigorous measures.
Wilhelm V successfully participated in the war against the Archbishop of Cologne, who had become Protestant, and since then Bavarian princes have been the elector of Cologne for almost two hundred years. From 1577 the estates that were responsible for approving taxes for the duke were no longer convened regularly. This led Bavaria to the brink of financial ruin and the duke's abdication .
Wilhelm's son Maximilian I disempowered the estates by replacing them with civil servants who took over administration and finances. At the same time, he introduced a church police regiment as part of the Counter Reformation .
Bavaria's rise to the electorate in the Thirty Years' War
In 1607 the Bavarian Duke occupied the free imperial city of Donauwörth after a Catholic procession was disturbed by Protestants and incorporated it into his duchy. This was the reason for the Protestant princes and cities to unite to form a union under the leadership of the Calvinist elector and Wittelsbacher Friedrich von der Pfalz . Accordingly, the joined 1,609 Catholic forces led by Bavarian Duke Maximilian I to league together.
In 1619, the Bavarian duke allied himself with Emperor Ferdinand II against the Protestant Bohemian estates and their chosen opposing king, the Palatinate Elector Friedrich V. In the Battle of the White Mountains near Prague , the troops of the league, led by the Bavarian general, defeated Tilly 1620 the Protestants . Then Tilly had the Palatinate occupied. As a thank you Maximilian I received the Palatinate electoral dignity in 1623 and the Upper Palatinate occupied by him in 1628 as war compensation. In the further course of the Thirty Years War , Bavaria was occupied and devastated by enemy troops in 1632/34 and 1648. East Swabia almost completely lost its previous political significance due to the destruction. Two thirds of the imperial county of Wiesensteig in Swabia fell through purchase to Bavaria in 1642 and one third to the princes of Fürstenberg, who also sold their share to Kurbayern in 1752.
In the Peace of Westphalia of 1648, the electoral dignity and territorial gains of Bavaria were confirmed.
Bavaria as an absolutist state
Bavaria between peace and great power politics
After the Thirty Years War, the Electorate of Bavaria , like other European countries, developed into an absolutist state. In 1669 the state parliament was convened for the last time. The Munich court, Elector Ferdinand Marias , was able to compete with other European courts in pomp. Trying to set up factories based on the French model was unsuccessful. Nevertheless, the state's indebtedness was kept within bounds, Ferdinand Maria resisted the French pressure and renounced the candidacy for the imperial crown in order to keep the peace.
In terms of foreign policy, Bavaria became an ally of France in 1670 . Due to the Imperial War Constitution of 1681, Bavaria was also obliged to provide troops for the Imperial Army . The establishment of a standing army , the then existing Bavarian Army , was therefore necessary, but the nationalization of the war system was also generally an element of absolutist power politics.
Elector Maximilian II. Emanuel initially won several victories against the Turks alongside Austria. In the War of the Spanish Succession , Bavaria again sided with France under Maximilian II Emanuel. The war ended after the defeat in the Battle of Höchstädt in 1704 with the occupation of Bavaria by the Habsburg Emperor.
The popular uprisings in 1705 near Sendling and 1706 near Aidenbach failed after the badly armed and badly managed Bavarians were massacred by the imperial troops on the Sendling Christmas Murder Christmas . It was not until 1714 that Bavaria was restored by the major European powers for reasons of balance of power.
In 1724, the Palatinate and the old Bavarian line of the Wittelsbachers decided on the so-called Wittelsbach House Union to secure the position of Bavaria. In the War of the Austrian Succession , Bavaria fought alongside France and Prussia against the Habsburg Maria Theresa . In 1742, the Wittelsbacher Karl Albrecht was elected Emperor Charles VII by the electors, who did not recognize Maria Theresa as Archduchess. Austria was able to assert itself in the course of the war and again occupied Bavaria. Karl Albrecht died three years later. His son and successor Maximilian III. Joseph had to give up the leadership role in favor of the Habsburgs and turned to internal reforms.
Electoral Palatinate Bavaria
In 1777 the Bavarian line of the Wittelsbach family died out with him, and Karl Theodor from the Palatinate line succeeded him. Thus, Kurbayern , which included Lower and Upper Bavaria as well as the Upper Palatinate, was united with the Electoral Palatinate and the possessions of Jülich and Berg to form Pfalzbaiern .
However, the Habsburg Emperor Joseph II did not recognize the succession and made a claim to Old Bavaria himself . In the following War of the Bavarian Succession in 1778/79, Prussia successfully campaigned for the preservation of Bavaria. In the Treaty of Teschen in 1779, Austria recognized the Palatinate succession. Bavaria, however, had to cede the Innviertel to Austria. From 1785 Count Rumford reformed the state.
Bavaria's neutrality policy under Karl Theodor towards revolutionary France ended disastrously with the occupation of the Palatinate on the left bank of the Rhine by French troops. After Karl Theodor died without any legitimate offspring, Maximilian IV Joseph from the Pfalz-Zweibrücken line took over the inheritance in 1799. Pfalz-Zweibrücken formally came to Bavaria, but was occupied by the French. Raised in France and colonel of a French military regiment, Maximilian Joseph led Bavaria into an alliance with Napoleon . Bavaria's ambitious foreign policy at the time led to high levels of government debt.
Kingdom of Bavaria
In the Treaty of Lunéville in 1801, Kurpfalzbayern, like other German states, had to renounce its areas on the left bank of the Rhine. With that it lost the parts of the Electoral Palatinate on the left bank of the Rhine and the Duchy of Jülich . As compensation, however, Bavaria was able to expand its national territory considerably through the mediatization and secularization decreed in the 1803 Reichsdeputationshauptschluss . However, in 1803 it lost the remaining part of the Electoral Palatinate on the right bank of the Rhine to Baden . In 1805 Bavaria was bound by the Bogenhausen Treaty to Napoleonic France. The defeat of Austria in the Battle of the Three Emperors of Austerlitz was followed by the Peace of Pressburg , which u. a. included the assignment of Tyrol and Vorarlberg to Bavaria. In 1806 Bavaria was proclaimed a kingdom as a thank you from Napoleon, with Maximilian expressly emphasizing the reference to the medieval kingdom of Bavaria in order to legitimize the same. Bavaria then joined the Confederation of the Rhine under pressure from Napoleon , whereupon Franz II resigned the German imperial dignity and declared the empire to be extinct.
In March 1806 Bavaria ceded the Duchy of Berg on the right bank of the Rhine to Napoleon in exchange for the Principality of Ansbach . During this time Bavaria was decisively shaped by the Minister Montgelas . Together with King Maximilian I, he is considered to be the creator of the modern Bavarian state. Montgelas created an efficient state administration for the enlarged Bavaria. He divided the country into eight administrative districts and administered it through a newly created civil service. He introduced compulsory schooling and created a uniform economic area through the standardization of measurements, weights and currency as well as the abolition of internal tariffs and compulsory guilds. In 1808 he passed the first Bavarian constitution, known as the Constitution . In it, among other things, serfdom, which at that time hardly occurred in Bavaria, was officially abolished and the legislation was standardized.
The forced drafting of recruits for the Bavarian army led to the uprising of the Tyroleans under Andreas Hofer , which began on April 9, 1809 in the Tyrolean capital Innsbruck and ended on November 1, 1809 with the defeat of the Tyroleans on Bergisel . The Paris Treaty of February 28, 1810 between France and Bavaria led to regional consolidation. Bavaria received the Markgraftum Bayreuth , the Principality of Regensburg , the Innviertel , half of the Hausruckviertel and areas around Salzburg and Berchtesgaden as territory. In return, southern Tyrol and some Swabian areas had to be surrendered.
During Napoleon's Russian campaign , the Bavarian army suffered terrible losses. Of the 33,000 or so men who marched out (including reinforcements sent on) in 1812, only about 4,000 returned. Through the Treaty of Ried , Bavaria switched to Napoleon's opponents' camp on October 8, 1813, shortly before the Battle of Leipzig against the assurance that it would be allowed to keep its annexed territories. The attempt of the Bavarian field marshal Wrede to stop the march of the Grande Armée in the Battle of Hanau in 1813 ended in defeat for the Bavarian-Austrian corps he commanded. In the French campaign of 1814 he then won the battle of Arcis-sur-Aube and the battle of Bar-sur-Aube . As a result of the Congress of Vienna in 1814/15, Bavaria had to give up most of its Austrian gains, but got back parts of the Palatinate and Franconian areas around Würzburg and Aschaffenburg to compensate .
The New Bavarian areas in the north and west in Franconia and Swabia , which were added between 1803 and 1815 , differ in their prehistory and the language and mentality of the inhabitants of old Bavaria. Some of these areas are still predominantly Protestant.
Overall, the territory of Bavaria had expanded to include the following areas by 1815:
- The Free Imperial Cities of Nuremberg (ev., With extensive territory), Augsburg (parity), Regensburg (ev.), Kempten (Allgäu) (ev.), Kaufbeuren (ev.), Lindau , Memmingen (ev.), Dinkelsbühl (parity ), Nördlingen (ev.), Rothenburg ob der Tauber (ev, with extensive territory), Schweinfurt
- Spiritual territory such as the princedoms of Passau , Eichstätt , Freising , Bamberg and Würzburg , the prince monastery Kempten and important parts of Kurmainz ( principality Aschaffenburg )
- The Upper Austrian County of Burgau and the Imperial Counties of Ortenburg and Ortenburg-Tambach .
- The Salzburg areas west of Saalach and Salzach ( Rupertigau ) and the former prince-provost of Berchtesgaden
- By handing over the previously Prussian principality of Ansbach, which was occupied by France, and through a purchase of over 15 million francs, the former Prussian principality of Bayreuth, which Napoleon owned
In the Treaty of Munich (1816) the final borders of post-Napoleonic Bavaria were determined. The Baden-Bavarian border dispute over the Palatinate on the right bank of the Rhine was only decided in favor of Baden in 1818 at the Aachen Congress .
Bavaria in the German Confederation
The Kingdom of Bavaria has been a member of this confederation since the German Confederation was founded in 1815. In 1817 Montgela was dismissed, who was not prepared to make any further liberal concessions to the citizens. In 1818 Maximilian I Joseph issued the constitution of 1818 , which, in contrast to the constitution of 1808, also regulated the question of popular representation. It provided for a division into two chambers. In the first chamber sat representatives of the clergy and the nobility, as well as other persons appointed by the king. The second chamber was filled by indirect census voting. With it, Bavaria became a constitutional monarchy . For a real parliamentarianism, there was a lack of universal and direct suffrage, a full separation of powers and freedom of the press.
Art flourished in Bavaria under King Ludwig I. In Munich in particular, numerous classicist buildings were built during this period . In 1826, the state university was relocated from Landshut to Munich (details here ). The initially liberal style of government of Ludwig I assumed increasingly authoritarian features. After the July Revolution in Paris in 1830 and the spread of the revolutionary movement to large parts of Europe, Ludwig's policy showed increasingly reactionary tendencies. He reintroduced censorship and eliminated freedom of the press. The Hambach Festival in 1832 in the Palatinate at Hambach Castle near Neustadt an der Haardt (today Neustadt an der Weinstrasse) had its roots in the dissatisfaction of the Palatinate population with the Bavarian administration. His second son Otto became King of Greece as Otto I in 1832 , which resulted in high costs for Bavaria. In 1834 Ludwig joined the German Customs Union . In 1848 the king had to resign because of a love affair with the singer Lola Montez (1821–1861) and unrest in Munich.
Among other things, censorship was abolished under his son Maximilian II . The constitution of 1849 was rejected, however, as most of the German princes from him, and also the political parties were banned in the same year. These events sparked the Palatinate uprising . The king called in the Prussian military, and on June 10, 1849, a Bavarian army corps marched into the Palatinate, which put down the uprising. Together with his minister Ludwig von der Pfordten , Maximilian pursued the concept of triad politics in the years that followed. This envisaged developing the German medium-sized states under the leadership of Bavaria into a third force alongside the two great powers Prussia and Austria.
Bavaria lost the war of 1866 under Ludwig II on the side of Austria and most of the German states against Prussia and had to pay high war compensation payments. In addition, the Gersfeld district office in the Rhön, the Orb district office and the Kaulsdorf exclave in Thuringia had to cede it to the Kingdom of Prussia . In 1870 Bavaria participated as an ally of Prussia in the Franco-Prussian War and joined the North German Confederation .
Bavaria's economy 1848
The population in Bavaria grew more slowly than in other parts of the empire. The marriage age was relatively high; the law of inheritance (real division, firstborn) may have contributed to this. Bavaria's industrialization was slower than in other regions and countries. Historians call this “delayed industrialization”.
However, Bavaria had visibly poor conditions for industrialization:
- Raw material poverty (see list of closed mines in Germany # Bavaria )
- Outskirts (apart from the Rhine Palatinate, Bavaria is not on the river system of the Rhine , but on that of the Danube )
- weak infrastructure
- little supply of cheap labor
- agrarian and artisanal society
- slow population growth
In the field of agricultural production, Bavaria's trade balance was negative in 1848. The export of raw materials and goods ensured an overall positive trade balance; it was far above the importation of products and other makes. The industry still had to be expanded.
Bavaria and the German Empire
In 1871 Bavaria became a federal state of the newly founded German Empire by treaty . In the Versailles negotiations and the contract of November 23, 1870 between the North German Confederation and the Kingdom of Bavaria, Bavaria retained numerous other reservation rights in addition to cultural and tax sovereignty , for example its own army , its own diplomacy, its own postal system and the Royal Bavarian State Railways .
The Bavarian state parliament accepted this treaty in January 1871 after great opposition, especially from the Bavarian patriots . Because Ludwig II completely withdrew from state affairs and the administration and officials were more pro-Prussian, Bismarck's influence on politics in Bavaria was great. Ludwig II refused to establish an empire under the rule of Prussia. He demonstratively stayed away from the imperial proclamation of January 18, 1871 in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles .
Domestically, the Catholic-Conservative Patriotic Party, founded in 1868, developed into the leading party in the state parliament. In 1887 it was renamed the Bavarian Center . In 1893, SPD members moved into the state parliament for the first time (see here ). In 1906 the right to vote was liberalized.
After Ludwig II was incapacitated in 1886, Prince Regent Luitpold took over the rule in place of the mentally ill Prince Otto . To some extent, he is still considered a popular representative of the “good old days” in Bavaria, although his reign was rather characterized by political stagnation.
First World War and the end of the monarchy
Due to the supply bottlenecks and the losses in the First World War, the support that the monarchy had had among the people dwindled more and more. The militant appearance of Ludwig III did the rest, advocating an enlargement of Bavaria through annexations after a victorious war ended. His attitude was perceived as too friendly to the Prussians. The growing rejection of the Reich and Prussia turned more and more against the Bavarian monarchy. In 1917 an application by the SPD to parliamentarise Bavaria was rejected by the government. As in the rest of Germany, the January strikes in Bavaria in 1918 were a clear indication that the patience of the population was nearing its end. Around 165,000 Bavarian soldiers were killed in the war.
An agreement in early November of the same year came too late. On November 7, 1918, revolutionary forces overthrew the monarchy as part of the November Revolution under the leadership of Kurt Eisner of the USPD . Bavaria was declared a free state.
Bavaria between the world wars
Munich Räterepublik - Räterepublik Bayern
Kurt Eisner relied on councils that were formed across the country. There were several thousand councils in Bavaria, workers' and citizens' councils in the cities and soldiers' councils in the garrisons. But this type of participation in the form of farmers' councils also met with broad approval in rural areas. For example, 158 council representatives from 54 municipalities met on March 6, 1919 in the conservative Chiemgau. In Munich, in addition to the 400-strong Munich Workers' Council, central councils for peasants, soldiers and workers were established. In addition, there were also councils of intellectual workers, university and student councils, etc.
In the elections to the state parliament in January 1919 , Eisner's USPD suffered a heavy defeat. The bourgeois-conservative Bavarian People's Party , the successor party to the Bavarian Center, was the strongest force . On February 21, 1919, Eisner was murdered by the right-wing extremist Anton Graf von Arco auf Valley on the way to the opening of the newly elected state parliament, where he wanted to offer the resignation of his cabinet .
The social democrat Johannes Hoffmann became the new Prime Minister . His reign was overshadowed by the dispute between moderate parliamentary forces and radical workers 'and soldiers' councils. The government even had to move to Bamberg because of the troubled situation in the capital . At the same time, on April 7, 1919, a group led by the writer Ernst Toller and the two anarchists Erich Mühsam and Gustav Landauer proclaimed the " Bavarian Council Republic ". After the failure of this first phase of the revolution, the communists came to power shortly afterwards . Eugen Leviné took over the leadership of the Soviet Republic. The Prussian and Wuerttemberg troops called for help by Prime Minister Hoffmann after concessions, as well as members of the developing Freikorps , recaptured the capital on May 1, 1919. The subsequent "purges" by these white troops claimed numerous lives.
Bavaria during the Weimar Republic
On August 14, 1919, the Bamberg Constitution, named after its place of origin, came into force.
With the entry into force of the Versailles Treaty on January 10, 1920, the westernmost part of the Bavarian Palatinate was added to the newly founded Saar area and placed under the League of Nations government for 15 years . After the Saar referendum on January 13, 1935 and the reintegration of the area into the German Reich on March 1, 1935, the former Bavarian territory was not reassigned to Bavaria, but, together with the former Prussian area, was subordinated to a Reich Commissioner under the name Saarland .
Johannes Hoffmann , the second Prime Minister of Bavaria, resigned after the Kapp Putsch in March 1920. He was succeeded by the monarchist Gustav Ritter von Kahr , who sought to separate Bavaria from the Reich. From November 1922 to June 1924 Eugen Ritter von Knilling was Prime Minister. Bavaria became a " regulatory cell ". The politics of preferring the right created a favorable climate for the emergence of right-wing extremist groups. Among other things, Hermann Ehrhardt , the leader of the Ehrhardt Brigade , went into hiding after the Kapp Putsch in Bavaria.
In autumn 1923, the end of the passive resistance to the occupation of the Ruhr served as a pretext for the state government to declare a state of emergency and to appoint von Kahr as general state commissioner with dictatorial powers under Article 48 paragraph 4 of the Weimar Constitution . In response to this attempt to establish a right-wing dictatorship, President Friedrich Ebert declared a state of emergency. General Hans von Seeckt , the chief of the army command, sympathized with von Kahr; there was no execution of the Reich .
In Bavaria, a triumvirate formed from von Kahr, the Bavarian military district commander Otto von Lossow and the head of the Bavarian state police, Hans Ritter von Seißer . Among other things, they had hundreds of Jewish families deported, banned left-wing newspapers and repealed the Republic Protection Act.
On November 8, 1923, the Hitler putsch broke out in Munich . Hitler had the Bürgerbräukeller rearranged when Gustav Ritter von Kahr gave a speech there to get him on his side. Hitler declared the Reich government deposed; however, he could not convince von Kahr. The Bavarian police ended the coup attempt the following day at the Munich Feldherrnhalle . In February 1924 von Kahr resigned; he was deported to the Dachau concentration camp in June 1934 during the Röhm putsch and murdered there by an SS man.
Heinrich Held ( Bavarian People's Party ) was Prime Minister from June 1924 to March 1933 . Held's policy was aimed at greater political independence for Bavaria in the empire. He long underestimated the danger from the right. From 1930 onwards, Held did not have a parliamentary majority for his government. Tolerance by the SPD enabled him to continue running the business, which did not prevent him from banning the social democratic children's organization “ Die Kinderfreunde ” (The Falcons). On March 9, 1933, Held was abducted and interned by an SA commando; on March 15, 1933 he resigned from office.
National Socialism and World War II
In January 1933, Adolf Hitler became Chancellor of the Reich (see takeover of power , chronology of the National Socialist seizure of power ); in March and April 1933, the operational Nazi regime , the DC circuit of the countries. With two harmonization laws ( March 31, 1933 and April 7, 1933 ) the countries were deprived of their relative sovereignty.
On March 9, Franz von Epp was appointed Reich Commissioner in Bavaria by the Reich Minister of the Interior Wilhelm Frick (with reference to Article 2 of the “ Reichstag Fire Ordinance ”, February 28, 1933) . Among other things, he appointed Heinrich Himmler as head of the Munich Police Department and, at the beginning of April, as "Political Advisor at the State Ministry of the Interior ". The entire Political Police in Bavaria was subordinate to him. On March 16, Epp took over all government affairs and formed a provisional Council of Ministers. On April 10, Epp was finally appointed Reich Governor in Bavaria. Since he was not allowed to be a member of the state government in this function, Ludwig Siebert was formally appointed Prime Minister on April 12 ; Adolf Wagner became Minister of the Interior. Bavaria lost its statehood through the law on the rebuilding of the Reich of January 30, 1934. After Siebert's death in November 1942, no official successor was appointed; the executive Gauleiter of Munich-Upper Bavaria, Paul Giesler, was also executive minister-president until the end of the war.
Months before the Reichspogromnacht in 1938, Nazi activists destroyed the Nuremberg synagogue and the Munich synagogue . The first concentration camp was set up in Dachau in 1933 . Munich was declared the “ capital of the movement ”, and Nuremberg was the permanent seat of the Nazi party rallies . In 1935 the Nuremberg Race Laws were passed in Nuremberg . In 1937 the first exhibition " Degenerate Art " took place in Munich .
In 1939 the administrative district of Niederbayern-Oberpfalz was expanded to include areas that belonged to Czechoslovakia until the Munich Agreement in 1938 , the districts of Bergreichenstein , Markt Eisenstein and Prachatitz , which were separated again in 1945.
In 1939 Georg Elser's attempt to assassinate Hitler in Munich's Bürgerbräukeller failed . The Munich White Rose is the best known of the Bavarian resistance groups . Key figures in the Münchner Neuesten Nachrichten who had opposed Hitler until May 1933 also played an important role. B. Erwein von Aretin and Karl Ludwig Freiherr von und zu Guttenberg . In the last days of the war, Rupprecht Gerngross' " freedom campaign in Bavaria " failed .
During the air raids by the Western Allies , Bavarian cities such as Munich, Nuremberg and Würzburg were considerably destroyed from 1943 onwards. After the Second World War, at least 250,000 fallen and 230,000 missing soldiers and around 28,000 civilian war deaths were determined for Bavaria (excluding the Palatinate). In the summer of 1947 there were 212,494 prisoners of war in Bavaria, 73.4% of them from the local population.
Free State of Bavaria after 1945
After the unconditional surrender on May 8, 1945, Bavaria became part of the American occupation zone, with the exception of the Palatinate and the city of Lindau , which came under French control , in accordance with the Potsdam Agreement .
On May 28, 1945 Fritz Schäffer was appointed Prime Minister of the Bavarian People's Party by the American military government , but was dismissed by it on September 28. She chose the Social Democrat Wilhelm Hoegner as her successor .
General Eisenhower officially restored Bavaria as a state with proclamation number 2 of September 28, 1945. Under the head of the military government, General Lucius D. Clay , Bavaria was reestablished as a state and the parties and democracy were revived from below.
1945 so far has been Thuringian enclave Ostheim assigned Bayern and 1946, the Palatinate in the newly created state of Rhineland-Palatinate outsourced. Lindau was only reintegrated in 1955. Bavaria now consisted of the seven administrative districts of Upper Bavaria , Lower Bavaria , Upper Palatinate , Upper Franconia , Middle Franconia , Lower Franconia and Swabia . On January 31, 1956, the Hoegner government presented a “Palatinate Manifesto” to the Bavarian State Parliament, which made extensive commitments to the Palatinate (region) in the event of their return to Bavaria, but the corresponding referendum of April 1956 did not achieve the necessary quorum.
In addition to the reconstruction of the state, Bavaria took in most of the German states and refugees from all federal states, who at the end of the Second World War came from the formerly German eastern regions as well as eastern and south-eastern Europe (i.e. from the Sudetenland , Bohemia , Moravia , Hungary as well as Danube Swabians and Transylvanian Saxony ) mainly flocked to Bavaria, as this was only conquered by the American troops at the end of the war. Refugee camps were set up all over the country, some of them, such as in Piding, were open until the 1960s, but many had been disbanded again after a few years or converted into villages and towns. About two million displaced persons remained in Bavaria; They contributed to the population growth and, through the knowledge and traditions they had brought with them, to the cultural and economic boom (see also under displacement ).
On June 30, 1946, a constituent assembly was elected in Bavaria , in which the CSU , the successor to the Bavarian People's Party, received 58.3% of the vote. The federal draft constitution was approved by the US military government , but an article was deleted that would have granted Bavaria the right not to join a future German state. The constitution of the Free State of Bavaria was adopted by a large majority in a referendum on December 1, 1946 . In the first election to the state parliament that took place at the same time , the CSU again received an absolute majority; to date (2020) it is the strongest party. Hans Ehard from the CSU, who ruled alternately alone and in coalition with the SPD , became Prime Minister . In preparing the deliberations on the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany, Ehard advocated extensive federalism and ultimately saw many of his ideas implemented in it. Since, in his opinion, the Basic Law was still not sufficiently federalist, for example equal rights for the Federal Council in legislation was required, the Bavarian State Parliament rejected the Basic Law at the request of the state government. Nevertheless, it was decided (on condition that two thirds of the federal states adopt the Basic Law) that it should be binding for Bavaria. The CSU and CDU formed a parliamentary group in the Bundestag that continues to exist today (2020).
In the 1950s there was still rivalry between the CSU and the Bavarian Party , which was more radical than the CSU with regard to Bavarian independence. The casino affair is seen in this context today . The Bavarian Party and the SPD, together with the BHE and the FDP, formed the state government in the Free State from 1954 to 1957 , a coalition of four under Prime Minister Hoegner.
After the break of the coalition government in 1957, a three-party coalition of the CSU, BHE and FDP was formed under Prime Minister Hanns Seidel of the CSU. After Seidel's resignation for health reasons, Ehard took over the office of Prime Minister again for two years. The Bavarian party then sank more and more into political insignificance.
The successor governments under Alfons Goppel from 1962 to 1978, Franz Josef Strauss from 1978 to 1988, Max Streibl from 1988 to 1993, Edmund Stoiber from 1993 to 2007 and Günther Beckstein from 2007 to 2008 were pure CSU governments with an absolute majority; from 2003 to 2008 the CSU even had a two-thirds majority in the state parliament. With the 16th state election in 2008, however, the CSU lost its absolute majority and was the first time in decades forced under Horst Seehofer a coalition to respond with the FDP, by 2013, the absolute majority of CSU again won was. In 2018 it was lost again when six parties moved into the state parliament. The CSU then formed a new government coalition with the Bavarian Free Voters Association .
Economically after 1945 Bavaria coped with the structural change from a predominantly agricultural region to an industrial country. When full employment was achieved in the rest of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1954/55 , many companies with modern plants settled in Bavaria. In addition, the country benefited from the fact that, as part of the rearmament, many locations of the newly established Bundeswehr were relocated to the structurally weak regions of northern and eastern Bavaria for strategic reasons. They often followed up with infrastructure measures in the previously poorly developed areas. The arms industry also settled disproportionately in Bavaria.
In 1972 the regional reform was largely completed, 71 instead of 143 rural districts were formed, whereby the boundaries of the administrative districts were partially shifted. At the same time, 18 planning regions were created . The number of independent cities fell from 48 to 25.
Under the government of Franz Joseph Strauss, there were projects accompanied by strong protests from the population, such as the construction of the Wackersdorf nuclear reprocessing plant or the expansion of the Main-Danube Canal, which was opposed by environmentalists . Protests also broke out on July 6, 1992 at the opening of the 18th World Economic Summit in Munich when 500 demonstrators were arrested after a police cauldron. In the same year the new Munich Airport went into operation and Bavaria increasingly developed into an international high-tech location. In 1987 Bavaria switched from the recipient country to the donor country for the first time in the financial equalization scheme and has been the largest donor country without interruption since 2008.
- Family table of the Wittelsbach family
- List of rulers of Bavaria
- History of the Bavarian State Coat of Arms
- Political system of Bavaria
- Bavarian constitutional history
- List of the Bavarian Prime Ministers
- List of the state election results in Bavaria
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