Saar area

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Territoire du Bassin de la Sarre
Flag of the Saarland # 1919–1935
State coat of arms of Saarland # 1919–1935
flag coat of arms
Official language German
Capital Saarbrücken
Form of government Mandate area of ​​the League of Nations
Head of government President of the government commission of the Saar region
surface 1,910.49 km²
population 1933: 812,000
currency French Franc
founding January 10, 1920
resolution March 1, 1935
Time zone CET
License Plate SAAR
Location German Reich - Saargebiet.png

Saar area ( French Territoire du Bassin de la Sarre , literally translated as "Saar basin area") refers to the industrial area on the central Saar, which was separated from the German Empire from 1920 to 1935 . With an area of ​​1912 km² and 770,030 inhabitants (1927) it comprised the southern part of the Trier administrative district of the Prussian Rhine Province and the western part of the Bavarian Palatinate . It was a quarter smaller in area than today's Saarland . In Articles 45 to 50 of the Versailles Treaty , the Saar Basin was assigned to the League of Nations as a mandate area for 15 years and subject to foreign administration. Then a referendum was to be held about his state affiliation. Until then, it remained part of the German Empire under international law . As a contribution to the economic reparation for its war damage, France received ownership of the coal mines and the right to their sole exploitation .

In 1935 the planned referendum ( Saar vote ) took place in which more than ninety percent of the Saar population declared their support for Germany. As a result, the Saar area came back completely to the German Reich , where it was not re- annexed to Prussia and Bavaria , but as Saarland was subordinated to a Reich Commissioner .


The terms Bassin de la Sarre and Territoire du Bassin de la Sarre of the French text of the treaty were reproduced in the German diplomatic translation in the Reichsgesetzblatt as “Saar basin” and “Saar basin area”. The French term bassin with the meaning "basin, river area, coal area" has a different scope than the German word. The government commission used different names next to each other in the official gazette of 1920, in addition to “Saar basin” also “Saar area” (as the heavy industrial area on the Saar was mostly called since the 1890s) and “Saarland”. The short forms used in French were la Sarre and in German “die Saar”, as adjectives sarrois or “Saarland”, as there was no adjective for “Saar” or “Saargebiet”. Finding a name remained politically controversial for a long time.


Marking stone of the former Saar / Germany border near Theley (2011)

The boundaries of the Saar were determined by Article 48 of the Versailles Treaty. The demarcation included the places of residence of the miners who worked in the coal mines of the Saar district . The area comprised the district-free city of Saarbrücken , the districts Saarbrücken , Ottweiler and Saarlouis as well as parts of the districts Merzig and St. Wendel in Prussian areas , the district office St. Ingbert and parts of the district offices Homburg and Zweibrücken in Bavarian areas . While the border of the Saar area against France and Prussia was determined by administrative borders, the demarcation against Oldenburg and Bavaria was based on topographical conditions, so that a definition of the border line in the area was necessary. This work was entrusted to a committee of five members (one appointed by France, one by Germany and three by the Council of the League of Nations). The committee laid down its results on December 20, 1920 in Paris, binding for all concerned. The boundary line was published in 1921 in the form of two atlases with maps on a scale of 1: 2,500.

The new Saar area border separated grown family, administrative and economic relationships, cut off the cities of St. Wendel , Homburg and Zweibrücken from parts of their surrounding area and was unpopular with the population. After the establishment of the customs border, the customs controls and customs formalities contributed to this . The desire to abolish the unpopular Saar area border was one of the motives that influenced the voting behavior of the Saarlanders in 1935.


Map of the Saar area 1920–1935

With the entry into force of the Versailles Treaty on January 10, 1920, the Saar area was subordinated to the government of the League of Nations for 15 years. On February 27, 1920, the government commission of the Saar region appointed by the League of Nations ( Commission de gouvernement du Bassin de la Sarre ) replaced the previous French military administration. The five-person government commission consisted of a French, a non-French from the Saar region and three members of other nations who were not allowed to be either German or French. The League of Nations government relied only on the French military; the population was not behind her. By ordinance of the government commission of March 24, 1922, a regional council was set up to represent the interests of the population and to have an advisory function.

President of the Government Commission
Surname From To nationality
Victor Rault February 26, 1920 March 18, 1926 France
George Washington Stephens March 18, 1926 0June 8, 1927 Canada
Ernest Wilton 0June 8, 1927 0April 1, 1932 United Kingdom
Geoffrey Knox 0April 1, 1932 0March 1, 1935 United Kingdom

For the organization of courts in the Saar area see there.



In what is now Saarland, the monarchy ended with the proclamation of the republican form of government on November 7, 1918 for the Bavarian part of the country, on November 9, 1918 for the Prussian part of the country, and on November 11, 1918 with the abdication of the throne of Grand Duke Friedrich August for the Oldenburg region Part of the country after soldiers, citizens, the local government and members of the state parliament in Oldenburg had seized state power on November 7, 1918 . In the larger towns on the Saar, workers 'and soldiers' councils took power and organized vigilante groups . With the Anifer Declaration of November 13, 1918, the Bavarian King Ludwig III gave birth . also all officials and soldiers of the Bavarian part of today's Saarland of their oath of loyalty . The release of the Prussian officials and soldiers on the Saar from their oath of allegiance to the Prussian King and German Emperor Wilhelm II did not take place until November 28, 1918 in Amerongen . On November 22nd, the French occupation troops marched into the Saar area and ended the revolution.

After the defeat of the German Empire in World War I , the victorious powers negotiated the future of the industrial area on the Saar. While Great Britain agreed to an annexation by France, the USA finally prevailed on the night of April 9-10, 1919 with the suggestion of a 15-year separation of the industrial area to repair the French war damage and a later referendum. The agreement reached between the victorious powers was recorded in Articles 45 to 50 of the Versailles Treaty and signed by the German Reich.

In the election for the German National Assembly on January 19, 1919 , the population took part in an all-German election for the last time , and was no longer entitled to the next election on June 6, 1920.

Economic connection to France

1 Franc note of the French Saar mine administration with a picture of Marianne (1920s)

The Saar region was economically and politically dependent on France. France extended ownership of the coal mines and the railways west of the Saar by trying to enforce French stakes of 60% in the Saar smelters by controlling the ore, pig iron and coal supplies and thus to control the most important branches of the economy.

Economically, the Saar area was included in the French customs and currency area. From June 1, 1923, the French franc was the sole currency. After a five-year transition period, the Saar area was integrated into the French customs area on January 10, 1925. Because the German Reich not only lost the Saar coal, but also had to cede parts of the Upper Silesian coal basin to Poland after the referendum in Upper Silesia in 1921 , it lost almost half of its coal reserves. France, on the other hand, increased its resources in what was then the most important source of energy. Through the expropriation of the heavy industrial property in Lorraine and because Luxembourg no longer belonged to the German Customs Union, France was able to replace the German Empire in its role as the largest iron producer in Europe.

In the Saar area, the French mine administration also used the “mine money” to issue 50 centimes, one franc and two francs as emergency money , as non-ferrous metals were in short supply (not to be confused with the Saar franc introduced after the Second World War ).

Tried cultural connection

In addition to economic ties, France was also concerned with cultural dominance. In a strategy based on the Saar referendum in 1935, France attempted from 1920 onwards by setting up predominantly French-speaking domain schools to influence future voters in its interests. For this purpose, French-speaking domain schools (Écoles Domaniales) were built near the pits in accordance with the Annex to Article 46 of the Versailles Treaty .

Over these 20 schools, which were founded in 1920 and were popularly known as French schools, a long school battle broke out, which played an important role in the dispute over the return to the German Reich.

Desire to return

On June 19, 1925, on the occasion of the Rhineland's millennium , 40,000 people demonstrated in Saarbrücken for belonging to the German Empire. The occupation by French soldiers , including colonial troops with North Africans , which was sometimes perceived as a particular humiliation (“ black disgrace ”), the exploitation of the Saarland coal and steel mining area, and national German propaganda reinforced the desire of many Saarlanders to return to the German Reich. All Saarland parties supported this during the Weimar Republic .

Saar vote

Announcement on measures to ensure the freedom and honesty of the referendum in the Saar area of ​​July 29, 1934
Ballot for the Saar vote on January 13, 1935

With the seizure of power of the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) in the German Reich, the political conditions in the Saar disordered in the upcoming January 1935 referendum on its future status. In June 1933, on the initiative of its chairman Hermann Röchling, the bourgeois German-Saarland People's Party merged with the unity party German Front (DF) in the Saar region, under the impression that the bourgeois parties agreed to the Enabling Act and their subsequent self-dissolution as well as the conformity in the Reich the return to Germany was. The same was done by the German National People's Party (DNVP), the German Center Party , the Reich Party of German Middle Classes (Economic Party , WP) and, with the personal consent of Reich Chancellor Adolf Hitler, the NSDAP.

As the only significant party, the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) changed course after the takeover of power by no longer advocating the return of the Saar area to Germany, but advocating the continuation of the mandate administration in order to keep it out of the sphere of influence of the Hitler dictatorship.

The Communist Party of Germany (KPD), which rejected all of Germany's territorial cessions laid down in the Versailles Treaty without a referendum, remained an opponent of the mandate administration. They now fought the Social Democrats no longer only as social fascists , but also as "enemies of the fatherland who betrayed the German people to France".

It was not until six months before the vote, in July 1934, that the KPD, prompted by the Executive Committee of the Communist International , decided to form a united front with the Social Democrats in order to continue the League of Nations mandate. In order to implement the radical change of course against the resistance of local officials, the KPD leadership sent Herbert Wehner to the Saar area.

The agitation against an affiliation hampered restrictions of the French-dominated mandate administration such as the lack of a radio station for the Saar area and the ban on appearances for speakers or politicians from the German Reich who had briefly stayed in the Saar area as refugees during this time and of their own accord about the Nazi terror Experience reports.

Although many internationally known personalities supported the policy of maintaining the status quo , the status quo policy of the united front was derived from the SPD under Max Braun , KPD under Friedrich Pfordt , a minority of the previous Center Party around Johannes Hoffmann and left-wing socialist and autonomist splinter groups due to the prevailing nationalism doomed to failure.

The Versailles Treaty provided three options for the voting decision:

  1. Maintaining the current legal system (status quo)
  2. Association with France
  3. Association with Germany

No one had made any concrete plans for the first option, the League of Nations itself expressed itself diplomatically non-binding, the Saar area would have continued to be economically exploited and remained a bone of contention between France and Germany. The second would have meant democracy, but the loss of the German language and culture. The third option was to vote for Hitler at the same time as Germany.

The voting battle (also the Saar battle ) was carried out with political, artistic and media means, whereby the media presence of the German Front far exceeded that of the United Front. Months before the referendum, the German Reich made special efforts to reach the Saar region by radio propaganda. People's receivers were distributed and numerous programs emphasized that the Saar area belonged to Germany. In the course of this Nazi propaganda campaign led by Joseph Goebbels , 1,500 assemblies and rallies and over 80,000 posters were used. The alternative to returning to Germany is continued mass unemployment , economic exploitation by France and a lack of political participation.

The opponents of Hitler saw the upcoming vote as an opportunity to put a thought sheet against Hitler. The Saarlandlied Deutsch ist die Saar by Hanns Maria Lux was sung countless times during the events . Bertolt Brecht presented the song Hold the Saar, Comrades! which was set to music by Hanns Eisler . Gustav Regulator wrote the oppositional novel Im Kreuzfeuer .

Cheers when the Berlin voters returned to Berlin in 1935

The result of the vote on January 13, 1935 was:

be right %
status quo 46,613 8.87
Association with France 2.124 0.40
Association with Germany 477.089 90.73
invalid / empty 2.161 -
total 527.987 100
Registered voters / turnout 539,542 97.99

Three days later, in an interview on Obersalzberg, Hitler said to the American journalist Pierre Huss that "one of the Versailles injustices had been finally eliminated".

Return to Germany

Mother Germania, crowned with
oak leaves, and daughter embrace in front of the rising sun, allegories for the German Empire and the Saar area:
The Saar is returning home! ( Special postage stamp from 1935 )

On February 18, 1935, the Saar area was included in the German customs area and the Reichsmark was introduced as a currency alongside the French franc.

In accordance with the will of the people, the League Council ordered the reorganization with effect from March 1, 1935. In return for a payment of 900 million gold francs , the German Reich repurchased ownership of the Saar mines, and the Reichsmark became the sole means of payment. On the same day, Hitler gave a speech in Saarbrücken. He called the day a "lucky day for the whole nation" and said he hoped that the relationship with France would finally improve once the Saar problem was settled.

After the clear majority result, four to eight thousand Hitlerites fled to France or other countries. For the National Socialist regime , the return of the Saar area brought considerable gain in prestige.

In the German Empire, the area was not reassigned back to Prussia and Bavaria, but was subordinated to a Reich Commissioner under the name Saarland ( Reichsland Saarland ). On February 11, 1935, Josef Bürckel was appointed Reich Commissioner for the resettlement of the Saar area ; from June 17, 1936, the title of Head of Authority was Reich Commissioner for the Saarland . Bürckel held the post of Reich Commissioner until March 31, 1941.

The Saarlanders were entitled to vote in the Reichstag election of March 29, 1936 , which had the character of a sham election.

The Parteigau Saar , which had existed since 1926, was absorbed into the Germany-wide, party-internal organization of the NSDAP after a short time in the Gau Pfalz-Saar (1935 to 1936), later Gau Saarpfalz (1936 to 1940) and Gau Westmark (1940 to 1945). Gauleiter was also Josef Bürckel.

Further development

On July 7, 1945, after the Second World War , the American military authorities handed over the Saar region to France for administration. It became part of the French occupation zone . France now undertook a political and administrative reorganization of its zone, which had been pieced together from parts of the American and British occupation zones . In April 1946 the state of Rhineland-Palatinate was formed, with several communities coming to the Saar area. The Saarland became one of the five (later four) districts of the French zone. France released it economically from its zone of occupation in order to integrate its coal industry into its own economy. On July 11, 1946, Great Britain and the USA agreed to the separation of the Saar from the German economic system at the Paris Foreign Ministers' Conference , which focused on the question of Germany's economic unity . In December 1947, the Saarland Landtag passed a new constitution for Saarland, in which it was described as an “autonomous, democratic and socially ordered country, economically attached to France”. As part of the French military government for Germany, it was placed under its own authority. The Saarland's relations with France were regulated by a treaty in which it was recognized as a state "which has a kind of economic protectorate relationship with France". This special status of the now (partially) autonomous Saarland lasted until December 31, 1956.

See also


  • Irmgard Christa Becker: Open research questions on Saarbrücken city history in the Saar area period 1920–1935. In: Journal for the history of the Saar region 58 (2010), pp. 103–117.
  • Irmgard Christa Becker: The instrumentalization of the Saarbrücken city archive for the Saar propaganda 1929-1935. In: Association of archivists (ed.): Das deutsche Archivwesen und der Nationalozialismus , Essen 2007, pp. 396–406.
  • Frank G. Becker: "Deutsch die Saar, immerdar." The Saar propaganda of the Bund der Saarvereine 1919-1935 (=  publications of the Commission for Saarland State History and Folk Research , Volume 40), Saarbrücken 2007.
  • Wilfried Busemann (Ed.): Saar votes 1935 and 1955. Documentation of a series of lectures , series of publications by the cooperation center for science and work at the Saarland University. Universaar, Saarbrücken 2026 ( full text, PDF ).
  • Gabriele B. Clemens : Mandate area of ​​the League of Nations . In: Hans-Christian Herrmann, Johannes Schmitt (Ed. For the Historical Association for the Saar Region eV): The Saarland. History of a region . Röhrig Universitätsverlag, St. Ingbert 2012, ISBN 978-3-86110-511-4 , pp. 217-261.
  • Richard van Dülmen u. a. (Ed.): Remembrance work: The Saar '33 –'35. Catalog for the exhibition on the 50th anniversary of the first Saar vote on January 13, 1935 , Saarbrücken 1985.
  • Wolfgang Freund: People, Empire and Western Frontier. German Studies and Politics in the Palatinate, Saarland and annexed Lorraine 1925–1945 (=  publications of the Commission for Saarland State History and Folk Research , Volume 39), Saarbrücken 2006.
  • Markus Gestier: The Christian parties on the Saar and their relationship to the nation state in the referendum battles in 1935 and 1955 , St. Ingbert 1991.
  • Markus Gestier: "Christ cross or swastika?" The Catholic opposition to Hitler in the Saar referendum campaign in 1935. In: Journal for the history of the Saar region 40 (1992), pp. 154–188.
  • Bernhard Hauptert, Franz Josef Schäfer: Saarland Catholic clergy between adaptation and resistance 1933–1935. Studies on the political understanding and action of the Catholic clergy. In: Journal for the history of the Saar region 46 (1998), pp. 99–158.
  • Joachim Heinz: On the voting campaign on the Saar 1933–1935. In: Journal for the history of the Saar region 37/38, (1990/1991), pp. 118–147.
  • Hans-Walter Herrmann : The referendum of January 13, 1935. In: Saarheimat 29 (1985), pp. 21-24.
  • Hans-Walter Herrmann: About the creation of a historical area of ​​its own on the central Saar . In: Bruno Aust, Hans-Walter Herrmann, Heinz Quasten: The Becoming of the Saarland - 500 Years in Maps (=  publications of the Institute for Regional Studies in Saarland , Volume 45), Saarbrücken 2008, ISBN 978-3-923877-45-4 , ISSN  0537-801X .
  • Fritz Jacoby: The National Socialist takeover of power on the Saar. The domestic political problems of the reintegration of the Saar area up to 1935 , Saarbrücken 1973.
  • Peter Lempert: “The Saarland, the Saarlanders!” The Francophile efforts in the Saar area 1918–1935 , Cologne 1985.
  • Ludwig Linsmayer: Political culture in the Saar area 1920–1932. Symbolic politics, prevented democratization, national cultural life in a separate region , St. Ingbert 1992.
  • Ludwig Linsmayer (Ed.): January 13th. The Saar in the focus of history (echo sounder, historical contributions of the Saarbrücken State Archives, Volume 1), Saarbrücken 2005.
  • Klaus-Michael Mallmann, Gerhard Paul: The splintered nine, Saarlanders against Hitler , Bonn 1989.
  • Peter McGee (Ed.): January 13, 1935 - The Saar chooses: "Heim ins Reich" , newspaper witnesses , # 11/2012.
  • Patrick von zur Mühlen : “Beat Hitler on the Saar!” Voting campaign, emigration and resistance in the Saar area 1933–1935 , Bonn 1979.
  • Gerhard Paul : "German mother - home to you!" Why it failed to beat Hitler on the Saar. In: Der Saarkampf 1933–1935 , Cologne 1984.
  • Gerhard Paul: The NSDAP of the Saar area 1920-1935. The belated rise of the NSDAP in the Catholic-proletarian province , Saarbrücken 1987.
  • Gerhard Paul, Ralph Schock: Saar history in posters 1918–1957 , Saarbrücken 1987.
  • Ralph Schock: Writer in the voting campaign 1935. On the literary argumentation strategy of anti-fascist and völkisch-national authors. In: Journal for the history of the Saar region 45 (1997), pp. 170–200.
  • Günter Scholdt : The Saar vote from the point of view of writers and publicists. In: Journal for the history of the Saar region, Volume 45, Saarbrücken 1997, pp. 170–200.
  • Gisela Tascher: State, power and medical professional practice 1920–1956. Health care and politics: The example of Saarland , Paderborn 2010.
  • The Saar area under the rule of the Armistice Agreement and the Treaty of Versailles. Presented to the Reichstag as a white paper by the German government , Berlin 1921.
  • Trade and industry in the Saar area , ed. from Pestalozzi-Verlag Wilhelm Bredehorn, Saarbrücken, Düsseldorf, Berlin 1924.
  • Curt Groten: The control of the League of Nations over the activities of the government commission , Saarbrücken 1929.
  • The population figures of the Saar area according to the results of the census of July 19, 1927 , edited and published by the statistical office of the government commission of the Saar area, Saarbrücken 1930.
  • Martin Herold, Josef Niessen, Franz Steinbach: History of the French Saar policy , Bonn 1934.
  • Fritz Kloevekorn: The Saar area, its structure, its problems , Saarbrücken 1929.
  • Paul Krichel: The taxation of agriculture in the Saar area , Gelnhausen 1936.
  • Hermann Overbeck, Georg Wilhelm Sante (Ed.): Saar Atlas , Gotha 1934.
  • Règlement pour le vote plébiscitaire dans la Territoire du Bassin de la Sarre du 7 juillet 1934 / Election regulations for the referendum in the Saar basin of 7 July 1934 , Saarbrücken 1934.
  • Albert Schneberger (sic!) (Ed.): Saar Statute and League of Nations Statute, text edition in the version of the German translation of the Versailles Treaty published in the Reichsgesetzblatt, taking into account subsequent amendments , Saarbrücken 1932.
  • Emil Straus: The social structure of the Saar area. A sociographic description , Würzburg 1935.
  • Theodor Vogel (Ed.): The Saar Liberation Struggle in the Reich 1918–1935 , Berlin 1935.
  • Hans Westhoff: Law and administration in the Saar area , Trier 1934.

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. According to the International Agreement of April 1926, cf. P. 60 of the ADAC foreign tour book and foreign travel guide 1931 , Verlag Dr. Hüsing & Co. GmbH Berlin, 1931.
  2. Langenscheidt's Pocket Dictionary French , 23rd edition 1992, ISBN 3-468-11151-7 .
  3. Announcement to the residents of the Saar area, dated February 26, 1920, Official Gazette 1920, p. 1 ( digitized version ).
  4. ^ Wolfgang Laufer: Saar basin, Saar region, Saar region . In: Saargeschichte | n, 2/2007, Saarbrücken 2007, pp. 2–4.
  5. ^ Atlas des cartes de la Frontière du Bassin de la Sarre, partie Germano-Sarroise. Atlas of the border maps of the Saar area, German-Saarland part , 73 sheets, printed, Berlin 1921. Atlas of the cartes de la Frontière du Bassin de la Sarre, partie Franco-Sarroise. Atlas of the border maps of the Saar area, Saarland-French part , 46 sheets, printed, Saarbrücken 1921.
  6. Jürgen Hannig: Die Saarregion , Frankfurt am Main 1995, No. 58, S. 81 f .: Report of the government commission of the Saar area to the League of Nations of June 1, 1920. ISBN 3-425-07225-0 .
  7. , accessed on August 17, 2019.
  8. ^ Gabriele B. Clemens: Mandate area of ​​the League of Nations, in: The Saarland - History of a Region, ed. from the Historical Association for the Saar Region, St. Ingbert 2012, pp. 217–261, here p. 220.
  9. Contract text in RGBl. ( Digitized version ).
  10. Contract text in machine-readable form in: LeMO , documentArchiv , archiv.jura.uni-saarland .
  11. ^ Wilfried Loth : History of France in the 20th Century , Frankfurt a. M. 1992, ISBN 3-596-10860-8 , pp. 62f.
  12. Peace Treaty of Versailles. Annex, Chapter I: Assignment and exploitation of the mines. dated June 28, 1919:
    Ҥ 14. The French state can at any time establish and maintain elementary schools or technical schools for the staff as ancillary facilities to the mines and have the lessons given in French according to a curriculum established by it by teachers chosen by it. [...] "
  13. Jürgen Hannig: The Saar region , Frankfurt am Main 1995, No. 59, p. 82 f .: Comment from the Saarbrücker Zeitung on the millennium of the Rhineland from June 23, 1925. ISBN 3-425-07225-0 .
  14. ↑ In a speech on February 13, 1923 in Darmstadt, the Social Democratic Reich President Friedrich Ebert stated that “the use of black troops of the lowest culture as overseers over a population of the high intellectual and economic importance of the Rhinelander” was “a permanent violation of the laws of European civilization . “In: On the way to a bio-powerful society ?: Chances and risks of genetic engineering. Achim Bühl, 2009, accessed on February 6, 2015 .
  15. The other man: African soldiers as a mirror of white masculinity and femininity (1870–1923). Sandra Maß, 2008, accessed December 17, 2014 .
  16. ^ Blieskastel: Regional historical context. Gerhild Krebs, 2009, accessed December 17, 2014 .
  17. Quotation from Martin Sabrow : Erich Honecker. The life before. 1912–1945 , CH Beck, Munich 2016. ISBN 978-3-406-69809-5 , p. 100.
  18. Martin Sabrow: Erich Honecker. The life before. 1912–1945 , CH Beck, Munich 2016. ISBN 978-3-406-69809-5 , p. 195.
  19. Scholdt 1997, p. 187.
  20. Patrik von zur Mühlen : Beat Hitler on the Saar! , Bonn 1979, p. 230.
  21. ^ Saar area, January 13, 1935: Status .
  22. a b Saarland., February 28, 2012, accessed December 19, 2016 .
  23. Scholdt 1997, p. 190.
  24. ^ German Reich, supplementary map for Diercke, School Atlas , 1938.
  25. Part I. Constitution and constitutional jurisdiction in Saarland. A demolition., 2018, accessed May 11, 2018 .
  26. ^ Theo Stammen : The allied occupation regime in Germany , in: Becker, Stammen, Waldmann (Ed.): Prehistory of the Federal Republic of Germany. Between surrender and the Basic Law , Uni-Taschenbücher 854, Munich 1979, ISBN 3-7705-1769-5 , p. 77 ff.