Saarland 1947 to 1956

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Flag of the Saarland 1947–1956 Coat of arms of the Saarland 1947–1956
flag coat of arms
Merchant flag of Germany (1946–1949) .svg navigation Flag of Germany.svg
Constitution Constitution of the Saarland of December 15, 1947
Official language German
Capital Saarbrücken
Form of government republic
Head of government Prime Minister
currency French Franc
founding December 17, 1947
resolution December 31, 1956
Time zone CET
National anthem Saarland song (from 1950)
License Plate SA(1945-1948),
Location of the Saarland in Europe

The Saarland was after the Second World War, a branch of the French occupation zone . In October 1946 it was separated from the zone of occupation from an administrative point of view. From 1947 to the end of 1956 it was subordinated to a separate authority within the framework of the French military government of occupied Germany , which in turn was controlled by a high commissioner of France .

The area of ​​the state, established in 1947 and enlarged by more than 100 communities compared to the borders of the Saar area of 1920, especially in the northwest and north at the expense of the later state of Rhineland-Palatinate, corresponded to today's Saarland, apart from a small border correction in 1949. The constitution of the Saarland came into force after the first state elections in 1947 and aimed at secession from Germany and economic connection to France. The independence of the Saarland, even if it was actually limited, should be symbolized by its own nationality , its own flag , its own coat of arms and an anthem .

On October 27, 1956, the Federal Republic of Germany and France signed the Saar Agreement , according to which the Saarland acceded to the Federal Republic on January 1, 1957. The economic affiliation to France existed until July 5, 1959.

Politics and administration


Cover of the Saarland constitution of 1947, with flag

The preamble to the constitution of December 15, 1947 proclaimed "the political independence of the Saarland from the German Reich", the "economic connection" to, as well as the currency and customs unity with France, and transferred "the national defense and representation of Saarland interests abroad" France.

However, the "Saar solution" of 1947 was a unilateral act by France, which would have required the approval of the four allied powers "at the very least" in order to be effective under international law. A permanent separation of the Saar from Germany would have been an unacceptable fact for Germany. The Soviet Union, however, expressly refused to do so. In December 1950, for example, the French Foreign Minister Robert Schuman recognized that “the political statute of the Saar had not yet reached its final stage” and could not do so as long as there was no peace treaty. The constitution and the status of the Saarland could only be a temporary solution.

The French constitutional and international law expert Guy Héraud described the Saar Statute as an “actually unlawful situation” which could only have acquired legal value “on the basis of a revolutionary phenomenon”. Both German and French legal scholars denied Saarland the status of a state, since dependent on a military government, no free will could be formed to found a state. It was therefore just a "state-like entity". In contrast, the Saarland government saw Saarland as an autonomous state.

The Saarland People's Newspaper , published by the CVP , reported before the state elections on October 5, 1947, with reference to French sources that the state elections “did not serve to decide on the annexation of the Saar area to France or the autonomy ”. 97.7 percent of the Saarlanders voted in this election for one of the three parties approved by the French occupying power, all with the exception of the communists had approved the draft constitution. The elected state parliament finally adopted the preamble to the constitution, which provided for the economic annexation of the Saarland to France, with 48 votes against 2. The parties that had advocated the Statute of Autonomy used their election victory in retrospect to legitimize it and as a substitute for a referendum.

Despite the international law provisional situation of the Saarland and contrary to the wishes expressly declared the constitutional committee of the first parliament, the preamble to the provisions of the separation of Germany and the business entity with France later by the pro-autonomist governments of Saarland as was unalterable part of the Constitution and for the Saarlanders declared inviolable (domestically) . Those who question them are acting against the "existence of the Saarland"; anyone who wants to change it is against the constitution and forfeiting his or her civil rights. Accordingly, such efforts were prohibited by the Association Act, amendments to the Criminal Code (Sections 80 to 95), the Party Admission, Election and Press Act.

French influence

Economic and financial policy

Saarland had been part of the French customs area since 1946 . The preamble to the Saarland constitution of December 15, 1947 and supplementary unilateral French regulations on the Saar Statute resulted in the connection to the French economic area and the currency unit with France at the end of 1947 and beginning of 1948. Legal tender was the French franc , which replaced the Saarmark , which was only valid for a few months . 17 bilateral agreements between the Saarland and France concluded between 1948 and 1950 (most of these so-called “Saar Conventions” were signed on March 3, 1950) a “Franco-Saarland Economic Union” (Union franco-sarroise) was created . This term was subsequently preferred to the term "business connection" by the authorities. The "Union", however, was under the tutelle ("guardianship") of France.

All international agreements and agreements that France concluded with regard to currency, exchange rates and customs were ex officio also applicable in Saarland without the need for ratification or even public announcement by the Saarland government. All agreements already concluded or yet to be concluded by France in the field of industrial property protection as well as “agreements, trade agreements and tariff setting” with regard to the foreign trade of the “Union” obligated both countries to the same extent solely on the basis of the signature and ratification by France.

The Saarland transferred the legislative and regulatory authority in the areas of currency and customs as well as certain economic matters completely to France. French currency and customs laws, laws and regulations regarding indirect taxes, sales and similar taxes, civil and criminal laws in the field of industrial property and trademark law as well as provisions for shipping freight were applicable “without further ado” in Saarland. Since these applied directly, regardless of their publication in the Saarland legal or official gazette, Saarland organs had no opportunity to object, not even if they had recognized a violation of public policy .

Defense and Security

National defense was completely transferred to France in the preamble to the national constitution of 1947. In fact, the Saarland was "simply" incorporated into the French 6th military region by a French decree in 1948. The representative of France in Saarland had - after hearing the Saarland government - exclusive competence to declare a " state of emergency " (état de siège) . This could be declared in the event of threats to the external security of the Saarland or France, in particular in the event of war or imminent danger for the independence of the Saarland. However, there was no stipulation of what was to be understood by “state of emergency” and which legal system would have been applicable in this case.

Although the Saarland police were principally responsible for maintaining security and order, the French armed forces stationed in Saarland could also be deployed to maintain public order upon request or with the consent of the Saarland government. In addition, French police forces were sent to Saarland. These were called to take action against the perpetrators of crimes against the external security of France or against French troops stationed in the Saarland and in these cases also had the right to make arrests. They had to take part in investigations by the Saarland police insofar as they concerned French police officers or soldiers. In addition, at the request of the French public prosecutor at the Saarland Higher Regional Court (see also under Justice ), they were to be involved if investigations concerned certain French officials (whom the representative of France in Saarland could previously list).

Foreign policy

The Saarland delegated the exercise of its international relations in all areas (i.e. its external representation and the defense of its interests) to France. However, this was only an administrative power, not a delegation of sovereign powers. This did not include the relations between the Saarland and France itself. According to the General Convention of March 3, 1950, these were given a diplomatic “form” (even if they had no diplomatic character) by the French “High Commissioner” by a “representative France in Saarland ”and a Saarland representation was set up in Paris and the representations of the other country were given diplomatic immunity. The representative of France was entrusted with the control of compliance with the "international obligations" of the Saarland (which in particular included the agreements with France). He was able to appeal against Saarland laws and regulations if these were not in line with an obligation.


A French-Saar “mixed senate” was set up at the Saarland Higher Regional Court , which was responsible for all cases in which French law was applicable. This consisted of five judges, three of whom were French - including the chairman. The indictment before him was represented by French public prosecutors who were subordinate to a French public prosecutor at the Saarland Higher Regional Court. At the request of the French Public Prosecutor General, the mixed Senate was able to declare itself responsible and thus declare that the respective (purely) Saarland Senate was not responsible. The mixed Senate proceeded according to French procedural law , its judgments were written in French and were issued “in the name of the French people and the people of Saarland”. An appeal to the French court of cassation was admissible against them .

Charges in criminal proceedings against French officials or soldiers deployed in Saarland could only be brought by French public prosecutors. The procedure took place in the case of crimes (crimes) in the first instance, otherwise on appeal before the mixed Senate of the Saarland Higher Regional Court held, was for the French Code of Criminal Procedure. Like the representative of France in Saarland and his five most important employees, the chairman of the mixed Senate and the French attorney general enjoyed complete judicial immunity.

Crimes against external security to the detriment of France or of the French troops stationed in Saarland were tried by the military tribunal in Metz. This could also hold its negotiations in Saarland if the culprits were staying here and could not be extradited .

French representative

Military governor appointed by France was Gilbert Grandval from August 30, 1945 , who took office on September 7, 1945. He was at the head of the Délégation Supérieure de la Sarre , which represented the French military government on the Saar. Grandval was military governor (until January 10, 1948), then High Commissioner (until March 5, 1952) and finally head of the diplomatic mission of the Republic of France with the rank of ambassador (January 1, 1952 to July 8, 1955) in Saarland. He was followed by Charles-Marie-Eric de Carbonnel as ambassador (until October 27, 1956).

According to a decree of December 31, 1947, issued unilaterally by the French, the High Commissioner guaranteed the publication and application of French laws and regulations which became legally binding for the Saarland; he himself had the power to legislate, in that he could issue ordinances and administrative acts in order to take measures necessary for the monetary and customs union as well as economic integration; In addition, he had extensive control powers “with regard to guaranteeing compliance with the Saar Statute”. This included that all laws and ordinances of the Saarland government required the approval of the High Commissioner. The appointment of all senior officials as well as naturalizations required his approval. He also had certain rights of financial supervision: after notifying a mixed commission, he was able to book funds in the Saarland budget that he considered necessary for measures in connection with the economic connection or for the proper operation of public facilities. Ultimately, he was empowered to take all necessary measures to maintain public order.

According to Guy Héraud, the powers of the High Commissioner in Saarland were very similar to those of the High Commissioners in former French colonial areas, which were designated as "associated states" of the Union française after the Second World War , such as Indochina .

According to the General Convention between the Saarland and France of 1950, the representative of France in the Saarland had somewhat less drastic but still diverse rights. He could veto against Saarland laws or administrative acts that endangered the monetary and customs union, disregarded an international obligation of the Saarland or "were likely to endanger the political independence of the Saarland or its external security". According to the French lawyer Pierre Laurent, the control procedures and sovereignty restrictions in Saarland were nevertheless more liberal than the occupation statute that was in effect in the Federal Republic of Germany at the same time . Only the revocation or amendment of texts concerning obligations arising from the war (blocking or control of assets, demilitarization) required the prior consent of the representative of France.

According to Laurent, the representative of France had four functions. On the one hand, he was the executive representative of the French sovereignty, insofar as this extended to the Saarland due to provisions of the Saarland constitution. Second, it is a Saarland constitutional body insofar as it participates in the Saarland legislative process on the basis of its control rights and objection powers. Thirdly, he is an executive officer of the “Franco-Saarland Union”, which, on the basis of the Saarland constitutional preamble and the bilateral agreements, was empowered to ensure the application of French currency and customs laws. Ultimately, he was also the authorized representative of the Allied powers in Saarland to ensure compliance with obligations arising from the war.


After the Second World War, there were state elections in 1947 , 1952 and 1955 . 1946 , 1949 and 1956 were carried out local elections .


The Mouvement pour le Rattachement de la Sarre à la France (MRS) was a bipartisan movement that advocated the political annexation of the Saarland to France from 1945 to 1949. It had members from all legal parties except the CP.


Corridor in the started but not completed government bunker in the Schlossberg caves (2010)

Saarland heads of government were:

International recognition

The Saarland was not expressly recognized by any other state under international law. However, from 1950 it was an associate member of the Council of Europe , a signatory to the European Convention on International Law of November 4, 1950 and an observer at the International Labor Organization . It participated in the European Coal and Steel Community (Montanunion), which was founded in 1951, as part of the French economic area, but in certain contexts it also had its own interest group.


After the Second World War

The Saarland was completely taken by the US Army by March 21, 1945 and initially included in the French occupation zone in July of that year . As early as 1946 - in contrast to the other countries in the zone - it was attached to the French customs area. At the Moscow Foreign Ministers' Conference in April 1947 , the Foreign Ministers of the United States and Great Britain agreed to separate the Saarland from a future German state and agreed to tie it to France's economic area.

With the enactment of the constitution drawn up by the Saarland Constitutional Commission of December 15, 1947, France officially regarded the occupation in the Saarland as ended and no longer saw it as part of the French occupation zone in Germany. The Saarland received a statute of autonomy. The French side saw the Saarland now as "autonomous" and strove for the Saarland to be subject to international law under French protectorate . From April 1949, the coal from the Saar was delivered exclusively to France.

The Western Allies initially approved of France's policy. The British government declared its support for the project to separate the Saarland politically and economically from Germany and to integrate it into the French economic and administrative system, but only until the final determination of the German western border in a peace treaty still to be concluded. The United States (represented by three successive Foreign Ministers, Byrnes , Marshall, and Acheson ) even advocated permanent economic union between the Saarland and France and viewed the Saarland as an integral part of the French financial and economic system. The Soviet Union, however, categorically refused to give its consent.

In March 1950 France concluded four agreements with the Saarland government, the so-called Saar Conventions. It was a "General Agreement", the "Agreement on the Implementation of the Economic Union between France and the Saarland", the "Agreement on the Exploitation of the Saar Mines" and the "Agreement on the Operation of the Saarland Railways". They granted the autonomous government of the Saarland complete legislative independence, established the free movement of goods between the Saar and France and at the same time transferred the exploitation of the Saar coal mines to France. Because the last two treaties contained a reservation that their validity would depend on the conclusion of a peace treaty, while the first two did not have this reservation, the German government drew the conclusion that France wanted to determine the status of Saarland without a peace treaty with Germany. This was followed by votes with the Western Allies, after which it was determined that France was only trustee under international law for the Saar area. In a note dated August 3, 1951, the Allied High Commission (three Western powers) promised the federal government that the final status of the Saarland would only be determined in a peace treaty. The federal government declared that the Saar government had no rights to the railways or the mines and therefore no right to conclude contracts about them. An important consequence of this coordination with the Western Allies was the clarification that the Federal Republic of Germany was authorized to have a say in the settlement of the final status of the Saar.

The proclaimed autonomy of the Saarland was initially severely restricted in practice. In fact, according to various German and French lawyers and political scientists, it was under French protectorate, “quasi-protectorate” or tutelle (for example “guardianship”) at that time.

Various basic democratic rights, such as the basic right to freedom of expression, were suspended in the “autonomous” Saarland, particularly in political matters. Political parties that opposed (partial) autonomy and the economic link with France were not allowed, but gradually found more and more popular supporters. In the state elections in 1952 , around a quarter of those eligible to vote cast invalid ballot papers in protest.

The Federal Republic of Germany , founded in 1949 , repeatedly protested against France's Saar policy and did not recognize the regime established in Saarland. In the opinion of both the Federal Government and the Federal German courts, the Saarland continued to be part of the German Reich under international law, for which France, by virtue of its occupation powers, merely created a regime that deviated from the rest of the occupied territory. Nevertheless, on July 13, 1950, the Federal Republic of Germany and on August 3, 1950 the Saarland joined the Council of Europe as separate associated members.

As a result of the Saar Conventions of March 3, 1950 and May 20, 1953, the actual autonomy of the Saarland gradually increased. Despite these treaties, the international lawyer Eberhard Menzel saw "autonomy" as a euphemistic designation, while his Saarland colleague Hans Wiebringhaus saw the Saarland and France after a phase of the "quasi-protectorate" and one of the "Union trusteeship" now as equals and the Saarland as a separate legal subject of international law.

Saar Statute and referendum

Federal Chancellor Konrad Adenauer , who until then had largely excluded the Saarland problem in his policy of linking Germany to the West and reconciliation with France, began negotiations with the French Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Pierre Mendès France in 1954 . They had a one -to- one conversation on October 19 in Saint-Cloud . He had announced that the Paris Treaties would only be ratified by the French National Assembly after the Saar question had been resolved. The negotiations led to the signing of the so-called "Second Saar Statute" ( agreement between the governments of the Federal Republic of Germany and the French Republic on the Saar Statute ) on October 23, 1954 in Paris as part of the Paris Treaties.

The French Prime Minister renounced the final separation of the Saar from Germany, but demanded a referendum in order to rule out future disputes and to prevent a possible revisionist policy by Germany. The statute now stipulated that the Saarland should receive a “European statute”. A European commissioner to be appointed by the Western European Union (WEU) should be entrusted with the external affairs of the Saarland. The financial union and the privileged economic relations with France would be retained. The Saar Statute corresponded to the ideas of the Saarland Prime Minister Johannes Hoffmann , who wanted to make Saarland the first European territory. The planning of entire metropolitan areas in and around Saarbrücken , which held today in Brussels , Luxembourg and Strasbourg located European institutions , should record was already under way.

In the Federal Republic of Germany, Adenauer was severely attacked, the opposition parties SPD and FDP feared a de facto cession of the Saarland to France. There were also dissenting votes in the CDU executive committee. However, the statute initially provided for a referendum on October 23, 1955. Adenauer and the Federal CDU campaigned for the adoption of the statute, but the Saar CDU rejected it, as did the German Social Democratic Party (DSP), the Saar Democratic Party (DPS) and the Saar Communist Party (KPS). Proponents in Saarland, however, were Hoffmann's Christian People's Party of the Saarland (CVP) and the Social Democratic Party of the Saarland (SPS).

The voting question on the ballot was:

"Do you approve the European Statute for the Saarland, which was agreed between the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany and the Government of the French Republic on October 23, 1954 with the consent of the Saarland Government?"

Postage stamp from Saarland for the 1955 referendum (picture of Saarbrücken University Library )

The result of the vote on October 23, 1955:

be right %
Yes 201,973 32.29
No 423.434 67.71
invalid / empty 15,725 -
total 641.132 100
Registered voters / turnout 662.849 97.55

This vote against the Saar Statute was seen as an expression of the will to join the Federal Republic of Germany.

Integration into the Federal Republic

In 1956 an agency of the Foreign Office was set up to represent the Federal Government. Subsequent international negotiations led to the Luxembourg Treaty of October 27, 1956, in which France agreed to the reintegration of the Saarland under German sovereignty on January 1, 1957. In return, France was assured of extensive coal deliveries and the expansion of the Moselle as a waterway .

On December 14, 1956, the Saarland state parliament declared formal accession to the scope of the German Basic Law . By the law on the integration of the Saarland of 23 December 1956, the Saarland was politically on 1 January 1957 as the tenth state to the former Federal Republic of Germany incorporated (so-called. Small reunion ). The accession took place as in 1990 that of the GDR according to Article 23 of the old version of the Basic Law . A law of December 20, 1956 abolished Saarland citizenship at the same time.



From the previous Reichsbahndirektion Saarbrücken , on April 1, 1947, the part that was in the area of ​​responsibility of the Governor de la Sarre was cut out (the northern part was newly constituted as the Trier Railway Directorate and belonged to the Association of Southwest German Railways (SWDE) in Speyer). The railway in Saarland was now called: "Saarland Railways (SEB), Saarbrücken Railway Directorate".

On March 3, 1950, the governments of France and Saarland reached an agreement as the basis for what is now known as the “Saarland Railways” (EdS). The Railway Convention came into force on January 5, 1951. After the Saarland joined the Federal Republic of Germany, the EdS became part of the Deutsche Bundesbahn as the Saarbrücken Federal Railway Directorate .

License Plate

From 1945 to 1948 the vehicle registration number was valid in Saarland SA, the individual circles were numbered consecutively. As in the rest of the French occupation zone, the signs had black letters on a light red background. In 1948 the abbreviation was FSplanned (analogous to FBfor (southern) Baden, FRfor Rhineland-Palatinate and FWfor Württemberg-Hohenzollern, where the "F" stood for "French zone" and the second letter for the respective country), es but was not introduced.

From 1949 to 1956, license plates with white letters on a black background were used, which looked exactly like the contemporary French license plates and whose number and letter combination was structured according to the same system. To identify the Saarland, the letter combination was framed by numbers in the middle OE. This was given simply because it was not yet assigned to a department in the French system. The letter combinations of the French departments at that time were simply assigned consecutively and were not abbreviations for the respective name. In the Saarland population, however, numerous legends and jokes arose, what "OE" could stand for, ranging from Occupation Est ("Occupation East") or Occupation étrangère ("foreign occupation") via "Eastern Alsace" to "no income" or " properly denazified ”were enough.

Since January 1, 1957, the license plates used to this day have been in effect according to the system of the Federal Republic of Germany (with the exception of the change due to the administrative reform). During a transitional phase until the end of 1958, the old signs based on the French model were also valid.


The French-speaking channel Europe 1 also owes its creation to the special status of the Saarland in the first half of the 1950s . Since then, its programs have been broadcast on long wave by the transmitter Felsberg-Berus near Felsberg . Until the introduction of private broadcasting in Germany, it was the only privately operated broadcasting station on German soil.


The Saarland had its own National Olympic Committee from 1950 to 1957 , which was founded in October 1950 and recognized by the IOC on a French proposal . It sent its own Olympic team to the 1952 Olympics , which consisted of 31 men and five women, but they did not win any medals. In 1956 the athletes took part in the all-German team , and Saarlanders won medals. The NOK of the Saarland existed until February 1957 and was dissolved after the Saarland belonged to the Federal Republic of Germany from January 1, 1957.

In June 1950, the Saarland Football Association (SFB) was accepted by FIFA . He organized a Saarland national soccer team ( 19 international matches from 1950 to 1956 , including qualifying for the 1954 World Cup ; there were also two games against eventual world champions Germany ). The top division in club football was the Saarland Honorary League (three seasons from 1948 to 1951), but the first team of 1.FC Saarbrücken , the best team at the time (including participation in the European Cup of State Champions 1955/56 ), did not take part. but played in the 2nd French league in 1948/49 and then organized the International Saarland Cup .

Saarland athletes took part in world championships in their respective sports during these years and also won medals (one of the greatest successes: Therese Zenz , 1954 world champion in single kayak ). The Saarland Grand Prix , a run for the motorcycle world championship, took place in St. Wendel .

From 1952 to 1956 the Saarland Chess Association took part in three Chess Olympiads , but did not achieve any significant successes.


100 so-called Saar-Franken from 1955, lettering “Saarland” on the back

The Saarland was economically linked to the French Republic. In 1947, the Saar-Mark was introduced instead of the Reichsmark , but this was replaced by the French Franc in the same year . In 1954/55, the French coins were supplemented by four of their own Saarland coins, the so-called Saar francs , which, however, also referred to the French franc. There was a customs border with the western zones and later with the Federal Republic, but none with France; until July 6, 1959, the Saarland belonged to the French economic and customs area .

The date for the economic integration into the Federal Republic through the introduction of the Deutsche Mark was kept secret from the population for a long time. The hopefully awaited “Day X” was July 6, 1959. From this day the D-Mark was introduced in Saarland at the rate of 100 Saar Francs = 0.8507 DM, and the customs barriers were removed from the border with the federal state of Rhineland- Palatinate moved to the border with France. The “small reunification” on the Saar was only complete with the economic connection . For the workers in Saarland, however, it initially meant a deterioration in their income situation and for many Saarland companies the end.

See also


  • Wilfried Busemann: A brief history of the Saarland trade unions after 1945, Saarbrücken 2005.
  • Wilfried Busemann: Go your own way. The self-discovery of social democracy on the Saar from 1945 to 1968. Röhrig Universitätsverlag, St. Ingbert 2013, ISBN 978-3-86110-533-6 . ( Review in the Annotated Bibliography of Political Science )
  • Herbert Elzer: At a distance from Adenauer's Saar Agreement of 10/23/54. The Rhineland-Palatinate CDU as an indomitable advocate of a “German Saar”. In: Yearbook for West German State History. 24, 1998, pp. 457-544.
  • Herbert Elzer: The German reunification on the Saar. The Federal Ministry for All-German Issues and the network of the pro-German opposition 1949 to 1955. Röhrig Universitätsverlag, St. Ingbert 2007, ISBN 978-3-86110-429-2 .
  • Herbert Elzer: Konrad Adenauer, Jakob Kaiser and the "little reunification". Röhrig Universitätsverlag, St. Ingbert 2008, ISBN 978-3-86110-445-2 .
  • Herbert Elzer: Posthorn and Saarstaat. West German-Saarland postal relations 1945–1955. In: Jahrbuch für Westdeutsche Landesgeschichte 39, 2013, pp. 509–556.
  • Armin Flender: Public culture of remembrance in Saarland after the Second World War, studies on the connection between history and identity, Baden-Baden 1998.
  • Markus Gestier: The Christian parties on the Saar and their relationship to the nation state in the referendum battles in 1935 and 1955, St. Ingbert 1991.
  • Markus Gestier (Ed.): Johannes Hoffmann, Eine first Bilanz, Blieskastel 2004.
  • Wolfgang Harres: Sportpolitik on the Saar 1945–1957, 2nd edition, Saarbrücken 1999.
  • Armin Heinen: Saar years. Politics and economy in Saarland 1945–1955. Stuttgart 1996, ISBN 3-515-06843-0 .
  • Armin Heinen and Rainer Hudemann (eds.): Saarland University 1948–1988, 2nd edition, Saarbrücken 1989.
  • Hans-Christian Herrmann: Social acquis and failed social partnership, social policy and trade unions in Saarland 1945 to 1955, Saarbrücken 1996.
  • Johannes Hoffmann: The goal was Europe. The way of the Saar 1945–1955. Reprint of the edition from 1963. Conte Verlag, St. Ingbert 2013, ISBN 978-3-95602-003-2 .
  • Rainer Hudemann, Burkhard Jellonnek, Bernd Rauls (eds.): Grenz-Fall. The Saarland between France and Germany 1945–1960 ( History, Politics & Society series of the Saarland Democracy Foundation , vol. 1). Röhrig University Press, St. Ingbert 1997.
  • Rainer Hudemann and Raymond Poidevin (eds.): The Saar 1945–1955, A Problem of European History, Munich 1999.
  • Rainer Hudemann, Armin Heinen (ed.): The Saarland between France, Germany and Europe 1945–1957. A source and work book , Saarbrücken 2007.
  • Martin Kerkhoff: Great Britain, the United States and the Saar question 1945 to 1954. Stuttgart 1996, ISBN 3-515-07017-6 .
  • Heinrich Küppers: Education Policy in Saarland 1945–1955, Saarbrücken 1984.
  • Heinrich Küppers: Johannes Hoffmann (1890–1967), biography of a German, Düsseldorf 2008.
  • Ludwig Linsmayer and Paul Burgard: Der Saarstaat / L`état Sarrois, Images of a Past World / Images d´un monde passé, Saarbrücken 2005.
  • Ludwig Linsmayer (Ed.): The Birth of the Saarland, On the Dramaturgy of a Sonderweg (Echolot, Historical Contributions of the Saarbrücken State Archives , Volume 3), Saarbrücken 2007.
  • Ludwig Linsmayer and Bernd Reichelt: The autonomous Saarland. In: Hans-Christian Herrmann, Johannes Schmitt (Ed. For the Historical Association for the Saar Region eV ): The Saarland. History of a region. Röhrig Universitätsverlag, St. Ingbert 2012, ISBN 978-3-86110-511-4 , pp. 313–338.
  • Rainer Möhler: Denazification in Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland under French occupation from 1945 to 1952, Mainz 1992.
  • Gerhard Paul and Ralph Schock: Saar history in posters 1918–1957, Saarbrücken 1987.
  • Regional History Museum Saarbrücken (ed.): From “Zero Hour” to “Day X” - The Saarland 1945–1959 , Merzig 1990.
  • Johannes Schäfer: The autonomous Saarland. Democracy in the Saar state 1945–1957. Röhrig Universitätsverlag, St. Ingbert 2012, ISBN 978-3-86110-513-8 .
  • Heinrich Schneider: The miracle on the Saar, a success of political community, Stuttgart 1974.
  • Gisela Tascher: State, power and medical professional practice 1920–1956, health care and politics: The example of Saarland, Paderborn 2010.
  • Clemens Zimmermann u. a. (Ed.): Media landscape Saar from 1945 to the present. 3 volumes, Munich 2010.

Web links

Commons : Saar Protectorate  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Time of entry into force of the Saarland constitution.
  2. ^ Robert Stöber: The Saarland constitution of December 15, 1947 and its creation. Comel Verlag, Cologne 1952, p. I.
  3. ^ Robert Stöber: The Saarland constitution of December 15, 1947 and its creation. Comel Verlag, Cologne 1952, p. Ii.
  4. Guy Héraud: Le Statut politique de la Sarre dans le cadre du rattachement economique a la France. In: Revue génerale de droit international public (RGDIP), vol. 52 (1948), p. 189, on p. 193 Original quote: “Nous sommes alors dans une situation de fait illégale, et dans la mésure où cette situation retrouve une valeur juridique, c'est en vertu d'un phenomène revolutionnaire ”. German translation after Robert Stöber: The Saarland constitution of December 15, 1947 and its creation. Comel Verlag, Cologne 1952, p. Ii.
  5. ^ Robert Stöber: The Saarland constitution of December 15, 1947 and its creation. Comel Verlag, Cologne 1952, p. Ii.
  6. ^ Alfred Grosser : Germany in the West. A balance sheet after 40 years , extended edition by the author, Munich 1988, ISBN 3-446-12619-8 , p. 43.
  7. ^ Robert Stöber: The Saarland constitution of December 15, 1947 and its creation. Comel Verlag, Cologne 1952, pp. Viii, x.
  8. ^ Robert Stöber: The Saarland constitution of December 15, 1947 and its creation. Comel Verlag, Cologne 1952, pp. Iii – iv, ix.
  9. Pierre Laurent: L'union franco-sarroise d'apres les Conventions conclues entre la France et la Sarre de 1948 à 1950. In: Clunet, Journal du droit international , Volume 79 (1952), pp. 84-160, para. 3 (p. 91).
  10. ^ Laurent: L'union franco-sarroise. 1952, no. 6 (p. 93).
  11. ^ Laurent: L'union franco-sarroise. 1952, no. 8 (p. 95).
  12. ^ Laurent: L'union franco-sarroise. 1952, no. 10 (p. 99).
  13. ^ Décret du 25 mars 1948 . JO , April 8, 1948, p. 3469.
  14. ^ Laurent: L'union franco-sarroise. 1952, no. 8 (p. 97).
  15. ^ A b Laurent: L'union franco-sarroise. 1952, no. 8 (p. 97).
  16. ^ Laurent: L'union franco-sarroise. 1952, no. 11 (p. 101).
  17. ^ Laurent: L'union franco-sarroise. 1952, no. 46 (p. 139).
  18. ^ Laurent: L'union franco-sarroise. 1952, no. 46 (p. 141).
  19. ^ Laurent: L'union franco-sarroise. 1952, no. 51 (p. 145).
  20. ^ Laurent: L'union franco-sarroise. 1952, no. 51 (p. 143).
  21. ^ Laurent: L'union franco-sarroise. 1952, no. 50 (p. 143).
  22. Décret du 31 décembre 1947, n o . 47.2436. JO, January 4, 1948.
  23. Guy Héraud: Le Statut politique de la Sarre dans le cadre du rattachement economique a la France. In: RGDIP 52 (1948), pp. 197-198.
  24. Guy Héraud: Le Statut politique de la Sarre dans le cadre du rattachement economique a la France. In: RGDIP 52 (1948), p. 198.
  25. ^ Laurent: L'union franco-sarroise. 1952, no. 12 (pp. 101-103).
  26. ^ Laurent: L'union franco-sarroise. 1952, no. 16 (p. 105).
  27. Peter Schindler: Data Handbook on the History of the German Bundestag 1949 to 1999. Nomos, Baden-Baden 1999, p. 95.
  28. Herbert Elzer: Konrad Adenauer, Jakob Kaiser and the "little reunification". The federal ministries in the foreign policy struggle over the Saar from 1949 to 1955. Röhrig Universitätsverlag, St. Ingbert 2008, pp. 493–494.
  29. ^ Fritz Münch (1990): Saar Territory. In: Rudolf Bernhardt (Ed.): Encyclopedia of Public International Law. Vol. IV, Elsevier, Amsterdam 2000, p. 272.
  30. ^ Albert Bleckmann: Basic Law and International Law. Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1975, p. 116.
  31. ^ Helmut Altrichter , Walther L. Bernecker : History of Europe in the 20th Century , Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-17-013512-0 , p. 226
  32. ^ Conseil de l'Europe, Assemblée Consultative ( Consultative Assembly of the Council of Europe ), Sixième Session Ordinaire. Annexe au Doc. 225. The Statut Future de la Sarre. Annexe au Rapport de la Commission des Affaires Généraux présenté par M. Van der Goes Van Naters , March 20, 1954, para. 146.
  33. Van der Goes Van Naters: Le Statut Futur de la Sarre. 1954, no. 147.
  34. Herbert Elzer: Konrad Adenauer, Jakob Kaiser and the "little reunification". The federal ministries in the foreign policy struggle over the Saar from 1949 to 1955. Röhrig Universitätsverlag, St. Ingbert 2008, pp. 197–198.
  35. ^ Fritz Münch: On the Saar Treaty of October 27, 1956. In: Journal for foreign public law and international law (ZaöRV), Vol. 18 (1957), pp. 1-60, here p. 3.
  36. ^ Sven Leunig: The government systems of the German states. 2nd edition, Springer VS, Wiesbaden 2012, p. 41 .
  37. Herbert Elzer: Konrad Adenauer, Jakob Kaiser and the "little reunification". The federal ministries in the foreign policy struggle for the Saar from 1949 to 1955. Röhrig Universitätsverlag, St. Ingbert 2008, pp. 845, 852, with further references.
  38. ^ Fritz Münch: On the Saar contract of October 27, 1956. ZaöRV 18 (1957), p. 3 with further references.
  39. ^ Fritz Münch: On the Saar contract of October 27, 1956. ZaöRV 18 (1957), pp. 1-2.
  40. BVerfGE 4, 157 (158).
  41. Eberhard Menzel: The discussion about the current legal position of the Saarland. In: Europa-Archiv 9 (1954), pp. 6599–6616, here p. 6608, as well as the reply to this by Heinrich Schneider with the same title in EA 9 (1954), pp. 7003 ff. Quoted from Elzer: Konrad Adenauer, Jakob Kaiser and the "little reunification". 2008, p. 852.
  42. Hans Wiebringhaus: The development of the contractual relationships between the Saar and France. In: Archiv des Völkerrechts , 1953/54, pp. 323–333, here p. 333. Quoted from Elzer: Konrad Adenauer, Jakob Kaiser and the “small reunification”. 2008, p. 845.
  43. ^ 1) The Saar Statute - The Saar on the way to Europeanization. January 14, 2015, accessed February 6, 2015 .
  44. ^ "The fat man must go" - DPS poster for the Saar referendum, 1955., accessed on February 6, 2015 .
  45. Manfred Görtemaker : Little History of the Federal Republic , Frankfurt am Main 2005, ISBN 3-596-16039-1 , p. 106.
  46. a b Both the Saarland constitution and the Saar statute itself provided for a referendum , but the referendum on October 23, 1955 was of its kind a referendum and was officially designated as such.
  47. a b 2) Referendum and voting campaign. July 18, 2014, accessed January 1, 2015 .
  48. ^ 3) Results and political consequences of the referendum. July 18, 2014, accessed January 1, 2015 .
  49. ^ Establishment of a department of the Foreign Office in Saarbrücken (cabinet minutes of January 25, 1956).
  50. Saarland's declaration of membership in accordance with the Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany of December 14, 1956, Saarland Official Gazette , p. 1645 (PDF; 233 kB).
  51. ^ Law on the integration of the Saarland of December 23, 1956.
  52. Guesswork around the OE mark. In: Kreisanzeiger für Homburg and St. Ingbert , Saarbrücker Zeitung , No. 104 from May 6, 1949 ( facsimile ).
  53. Day X for the Saar is approaching. In: Zeit Online . April 10, 1959, accessed February 6, 2015 .