List of German license plates (historical)

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The issuing of license plates in Germany goes back to the year 1906. (The Free City of Lübeck already prescribed police license plates on motor vehicles by ordinance of October 1, 1903). From 1906 to 1956, in the course of political changes, several systems of motor vehicles - used until the system in use today was introduced. From 1953 to 1990 the GDR also had its own registration system.

License plate in the German Empire 1906–1945

License plate of the province of Schleswig-Holstein in the German Empire

In 1906, the Federal Council passed a resolution on the principles of motor vehicle engineering, which were implemented by ordinances of the individual states. Police license plates and right-hand driving with left-hand overtaking were thus introduced in general throughout the German Reich.


IA State police district of Berlin
IB Grenzmark Posen-West Prussia (1922–1938)
IC East Prussia Province
ID West Prussia Province (until 1922)
IE Brandenburg Province
IH Pomeranian Province
IK Province of Silesia (1906–1919, 1938–1941)
Provinces of Upper and Lower Silesia (1919–1938, 1941–1945)
IL Hohenzollernsche Lande ("Administrative Region Sigmaringen")
IN THE Province of Saxony
IP Schleswig-Holstein Province
IS Hanover Province
IT Hesse-Nassau Province
IX Province of Westphalia
IY Poznan Province (1906–1922)
Düsseldorf District (1928–1945)
IZ Rhine Province (from 1928 without Düsseldorf administrative district)


Front two-wheel license plate from Nuremberg
II A Munich district
II B District of Upper Bavaria
II C District of Lower Bavaria
II D Palatinate district
II E District of Upper Palatinate
II H District of Upper Franconia
II M Bavarian military (1910-1919)
II N Nuremberg district
II P Post (1910-1923)
II p Middle Franconia district
II U District of Lower Franconia
II Z Swabia district


I. District Headquarters Bautzen (1906–1932)
District Headquarters Dresden-Bautzen (1932–1945)
II District Headquarters Dresden (1906–1932)
District Headquarters Dresden -Bautzen (1932–1945) and Police Headquarters Dresden
III District Headquarters Leipzig and Police Headquarters Leipzig
IV District Headquarters Chemnitz and Police Headquarters Chemnitz
V District Headquarters Zwickau and Police Offices Zwickau and Plauen


III A Neckar District ( Police Department Stuttgart )
III C Neckar District (Head offices of Backnang , Besigheim , Brackenheim , Cannstatt (1906–1923) and Esslingen )
III D Neckar District (Oberämter Heilbronn , Leonberg , Ludwigsburg , Marbach and Maulbronn )
III E Neckar District (Oberämter Neckarsulm , Amtsoberamt Stuttgart , Vaihingen , Waiblingen and Weinsberg (1906–1926) )
III H Black Forest District (Oberämter Balingen , Calw , Freudenstadt , Herrenberg , Horb and Nagold )
III K Black Forest District (Oberämter Neuenbürg , Nürtingen , Oberndorf , Reutlingen and Rottenburg )
III M Black Forest District (Oberämter Rottweil , Spaichingen , Sulz , Tübingen , Tuttlingen and Urach )
III P Jagstkreis ( Aalen , Crailsheim , Ellwangen , Gaildorf and Gerabronn authorities )
III p Jagstkreis (Oberämter Gmünd , Hall , Heidenheim and Künzelsau )
III T Jagstkreis (Oberämter Mergentheim , Neresheim , Öhringen , Schorndorf and Welzheim )
III X Danube district (Oberämter Biberach , Blaubeuren , Ehingen , Geislingen , Göppingen and Kirchheim )
III Y Danube district (Oberämter Laupheim , Leutkirch , Münsingen , Ravensburg and Riedlingen )
III Z Danube district (Oberämter Saulgau , Tettnang , Ulm , Waldsee and Wangen )
III WP post Office (1912-1923)

Remaining states

Front two-wheel license plate from the district of Büdingen (Hessen) with the special feature of an official seal instead of a stamp that was otherwise common
Thuringian license plate (1930s)
IV B to bathe
VH Hesse (1937–1945)
VO Hesse, Province of Upper Hesse (1906–1937)
VR Hesse, Province of Rheinhessen (1906–1937)
VS Hesse, Starkenburg Province (1906–1937)
VI A Alsace-Lorraine , District of Lower Alsace (1906–1918)
VI B Alsace-Lorraine, Upper Rhine District (1906–1918)
VI C Alsace-Lorraine, Lorraine District (1906–1918)
A. Stop
B. Braunschweig
CG Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1906–1918)
Saxe-Gotha and Coburg (1918–1920)
HB Hanseatic City of Bremen
HH Hanseatic City of Hamburg
HL Hanseatic City of Lübeck (1906–1937)
L. Hanseatic City of Lübeck (1903-1906)
L. Lippe (1906-1945)
M. Mecklenburg (1934-1945)
MI Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1906-1934)
M II Mecklenburg-Strelitz (1906-1934)
OI Oldenburg
O II Oldenburg, Lübeck region (1906–1937)
O III Oldenburg, Birkenfeld region (1906–1937)
RA Reuss older line (1906–1920)
RJ Reuss younger line (1906–1920)
S. Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach (1906–1920)
SA Saxony-Altenburg (1906–1920)
SAAR Saar area (1920-1935)
Saar Saarland (1935–1945)
SL Schaumburg-Lippe
SM Saxony-Meiningen (1906–1920)
SR Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (1906–1920)
SS Schwarzburg-Sondershausen (1906–1920)
T Thuringia (1920–1922)
Th Thuringia (1922–1945)
W. Waldeck (1906–1929)

Non-private motor vehicles

MK Military vehicle of the German Army (1914-1919)
RP Reichspost (1923–1945)
RW Reichswehr (1923–1935)

German Empire 1933 to 1945

Organization Todt mark (imperial eagle visible in the enlargement)
Wehrmacht license plate

Non-private vehicles were given the following license plates, regardless of their territory:

DR Deutsche Reichsbahn (1933–1945)
FG Feldgendarmerie (1944)
Fp.-No. Field Post Number (1940; temporary number)
LC Legion Condor (1936–1939; German troops in Spain)
OT Organization Todt (1943–1945)
pole Police , technical emergency aid (1935–1945)
WHEEL Reich Labor Service (1941–1945)
RK German Red Cross (1943–1945)
RP Reichspost (1923–1945)
RW Reichswehr (1923–1935)
SP Security Police (from 1941)
SS Schutzstaffel (1936-1945; abbreviation was shown as Siegrune )
WH Wehrmacht , Army (1935–1945)
WL Wehrmacht, Air Force (1935–1945)
WM Wehrmacht, Navy (1935–1945)
WP Wehrmacht, Police (1944; Military Police )
WT Wehrmacht, Road Transport Service East (1943–1945)

With the annexation of Austria on March 13, 1938, the regulations applicable there ( see historical license plates (Austria) ) for the identification of motor vehicles were adopted, although there was a clear difference in appearance to the German license plates. The license plates were made in white letters on a black background and from 1939 onwards had the following groups of letters to identify the parts of the country:

K Carinthia
Nd Niederdonau (Lower Austria)
Od Upper Danube (Upper Austria)
Sb Salzburg
St. Styria
TV Tyrol-Vorarlberg
W. Vienna

The Burgenland lost its independence. It was divided into the Reichsgaue Steiermark and Niederdonau and therefore did not have its own group of letters.

With the cession of the Sudetenland forced by Czechoslovakia in the autumn of 1938, the code S was introduced for the area of ​​the administrative districts of Karlsbad , Aussig and Troppau . Those areas that were annexed to the surrounding Gaue of the German Empire (Niederdonau, Oberdonau, Bavaria) were given the respective license plates. After the forcible annexation of the so-called “rest of Czechia” on March 15, 1939, the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia was created with its own license plates.

PA Bohemia
PB Moravia
Pc Railway and postal administration
PD Prague
PS Security organs
PV administration
S. Sudetenland

In October 1939, parts of occupied Poland were annexed by the German Reich . Areas assigned to the provinces of East Prussia and Silesia were given the license plates there. The rest of the annexed territory was divided into two Reichsgaue. The area of ​​the Free City of Danzig (1920–1939: registration DZ , oval nationality mark DA ) became part of the Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia .

The so-called Generalgouvernement was formed from the territories of occupied Poland that were not attached to the Reich , which from 1939 to 1942 had its own distinctive mark; after that, their own license plates were used in its districts:

DW Gdansk West Prussia
P Poznan (1939–1940)
Wartheland (1940–1945)
east General Government (1939–1942)
I east General Government, Krakow District
II east General Government, Radom District
III East General Government, Lublin District
IV East General Government, Warsaw District
V east Government General, District of Galicia

After the conquest of France and the Benelux countries, Alsace , Lorraine and Luxembourg were annexed. The Alsatian areas received the number IV analogous to Baden , with which they were to be united to form a district. Lorraine was to be united with the Palatinate and Saarland to form Westmark .

IV ST Strasbourg county
IV T Districts of Altkirch , Mulhouse and Thann
IV U Districts of Erstein, Molsheim , Schlettstadt
IV X Districts of Gebweiler , Colmar and Rappoltsweiler
IV Z Districts of Haguenau , Weißenburg and Zabern
lux Luxembourg
Wm Westmark

During the war against the Soviet Union , the following license plates had to be used in the occupied territories:

LT Lithuania (1941–1942)
LS Latvia (1941–1942)
Est Estonia (1941–1942)
RO Reichskommissariat Ostland (1942–1945)
RKU Reichskommissariat Ukraine (1941-1942)
RU Reichskommissariat Ukraine (1942–1945)

In the area of military commanders in occupied and friendly countries, the following marks were used.

From 1941
MB Military Commander of Belgium and Northern France
MD Military Commander of Denmark
MF Military Commander of France
MG Military Commander of the General Government
MH Military Commander of Holland ( Netherlands )
MN Military Commander of Norway
MO Military Commander of the Ostland
MR Military Commander of Romania
MS Military Commander Southeast ( Serbia and Greece )
MU Military Commander of Ukraine
From 1942
RK Reich Commissioners of the occupied Norwegian and Dutch territories
E.g. Military Commander of Belgium and Northern France (non-armed forces vehicles)
ZF Military Commander of France (non-armed forces vehicles)
From 1943
ZO Military Commander of the Eastern Operations Area (vehicles not owned by the Armed Forces)

Germany 1945–1956

Front motorcycle license plate from the French occupation zone (BD 32: Stadtkreis Konstanz , Baden, 1945–1949), painted over
License plate from the British zone of occupation : Pinneberg district , Schleswig-Holstein
Motorcycle registration number from the British zone of occupation: Siegkreis , North Rhine-Westphalia
License plate of the Soviet occupation zone: City of Dresden , Saxony
Ford Taunus with license plates from the British occupied North Rhine-Westphalia in front of the SMAD Thuringia in Weimar , around 1954

After the Second World War , Germany was divided into four zones of occupation . The four powers each carried out their own registrations and labeling of motor vehicles . The first uniform number plates were introduced at the end of 1945. In the British occupation zone , a procedure similar to today's principle was initially common. The first three letters were used to identify the approval district (as in DUS for Düsseldorf).

In 1947 the British joined the system that had been introduced in the American and French zones of occupation in 1946 , the Soviet followed in 1948. The identification system only became uniform in 1949, after the French zone also introduced the zone letter in the identification (A = American zone of occupation, B = British occupation zone, F = French occupation zone, S = Soviet occupation zone). The letters were not arranged next to each other, but on top of each other in small letters ( for Hesse).

Registration in the occupation zones:

Berlin remained a special area with its own provisions; the first license plates there in 1945 only contained numbers. The Saarland was spun off as a "sovereign state" in 1948.

Mark Zone Admission location Period
BY United States 48United States Bavaria 1946-1947
FROM United States 48United States Bavaria 1948-1956
B. United States 48United States Bavaria 1950-1956
HB United KingdomUnited Kingdom Bremen 1945-1947
BM United States 48United States Bremen 1947
AE United States 48United States Bremen, "American exclave" 1948-1956
HE United States 48United States Hesse 1946-1947
AH United States 48United States Hesse 1948-1956
H United States 48United States Hesse 1950-1956
AW United States 48United States Württemberg-Baden 1948-1956
W. United States 48United States Württemberg-Baden 1950-1956
WB United States 48United States Württemberg-Baden 1950-1956
БM (= BM) BerlinBerlin Berlin 1945-1946
ГФ (= GF) BerlinBerlin Berlin 1945-1946
БГ (= BG) BerlinBerlin Berlin 1945-1947
ГM (= GM) BerlinBerlin Berlin 1945-1947
KB BerlinBerlin Berlin 1947-1948
GB BerlinBerlin East Berlin 1948-1953
KB BerlinBerlin West Berlin 1948-1956
MGH United KingdomUnited Kingdom Hamburg 1945
H United KingdomUnited Kingdom Hamburg 1945-1947
HG United KingdomUnited Kingdom Hamburg 1947
bra United KingdomUnited Kingdom Hamburg 1948-1956
AUR United KingdomUnited Kingdom Lower Saxony , Reg.-Bez. Aurich 1945-1947
BRA United KingdomUnited Kingdom Lower Saxony , State of Braunschweig 1945-1947
HAN United KingdomUnited Kingdom Lower Saxony , Reg.-Bez. Hanover 1945-1947
HIL United KingdomUnited Kingdom Lower Saxony , Reg.-Bez. Hildesheim 1945-1947
LUN United KingdomUnited Kingdom Lower Saxony , Reg.-Bez. Luneburg 1945-1947
OLD United KingdomUnited Kingdom Lower Saxony , State of Oldenburg 1945-1947
OSN United KingdomUnited Kingdom Lower Saxony , Reg.-Bez. Osnabrück 1945-1947
STA United KingdomUnited Kingdom Lower Saxony , Reg.-Bez. Stade 1945-1947
HA United KingdomUnited Kingdom Lower Saxony 1947
BN United KingdomUnited Kingdom Lower Saxony 1948-1956
N United KingdomUnited Kingdom Lower Saxony 1950-1956
AAC United KingdomUnited Kingdom North Rhine-Westphalia , Reg.-Bez. Aachen 1945-1947
ARN United KingdomUnited Kingdom North Rhine-Westphalia , Reg.-Bez. Arnsberg 1945-1947
DUS United KingdomUnited Kingdom North Rhine-Westphalia , Reg.-Bez. Dusseldorf 1945-1947
COL United KingdomUnited Kingdom North Rhine-Westphalia , Reg.-Bez. Cologne 1945-1947
LIP United KingdomUnited Kingdom North Rhine-Westphalia , Land Lippe 1945-1947
MIN United KingdomUnited Kingdom North Rhine-Westphalia , Reg.-Bez. Minden 1945-1947
MUN United KingdomUnited Kingdom North Rhine-Westphalia , Reg.-Bez. Muenster 1945-1947
NO United KingdomUnited Kingdom North Rhine-Westphalia , North Rhine 1947
WF United KingdomUnited Kingdom North Rhine-Westphalia , Westphalia 1947
BR United KingdomUnited Kingdom North Rhine-Westphalia 1948-1956
R. United KingdomUnited Kingdom North Rhine-Westphalia 1950-1956
S. United KingdomUnited Kingdom Schleswig-Holstein 1945-1947
SH United KingdomUnited Kingdom Schleswig-Holstein 1947
BS United KingdomUnited Kingdom Schleswig-Holstein 1948-1956
BD FranceFrance to bathe 1945-1949
FB FranceFrance to bathe 1949-1956
X FranceFrance Lindau (Lake Constance) , city and district 1947 (?) - 1949
FBY FranceFrance Lindau (Lake Constance), city and district 1948-1950
By FranceFrance Lindau (Lake Constance), city and district 1950-1956
RL FranceFrance Rhineland-Palatinate , Rhineland 1945-1949
PF FranceFrance Rhineland-Palatinate , Palatinate 1945-1949
FR FranceFrance Rhineland-Palatinate 1949-1956
SA FranceFrance Saarland 1945-1948
FS FranceFrance Saarland Planned in 1948
OE FranceFrance Saarland 1949-1956
WT FranceFrance Württemberg-Hohenzollern 1945-1949
FW FranceFrance Württemberg-Hohenzollern 1949-1956
BP Soviet Union 1923Soviet Union Brandenburg , Province 1945-1947
SB Soviet Union 1923Soviet Union Brandenburg 1948-1953
MP Soviet Union 1923Soviet Union Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania 1945-1947
SM Soviet Union 1923Soviet Union Mecklenburg 1948-1953
SB Soviet Union 1923Soviet Union Saxony 1945-1947
SC Soviet Union 1923Soviet Union Saxony 1945-1947
SF Soviet Union 1923Soviet Union Saxony 1945-1947
SH Soviet Union 1923Soviet Union Saxony 1945-1947
SK Soviet Union 1923Soviet Union Saxony 1945-1947
SM Soviet Union 1923Soviet Union Saxony 1945-1947
SL Soviet Union 1923Soviet Union Saxony ("Leipzig") 1948-1953
SP Soviet Union 1923Soviet Union Saxony, province 1945-1947
SN Soviet Union 1923Soviet Union Saxony-Anhalt 1947-1953
TF Soviet Union 1923Soviet Union Thuringia 1945-1947
TH Soviet Union 1923Soviet Union Thuringia 1945-1947
IN THE Soviet Union 1923Soviet Union Thuringia 1946 (?) - 1947
ST Soviet Union 1923Soviet Union Thuringia 1948-1953
A. United KingdomUnited Kingdom/United States 48United States Trailer (British and American Zone) 1946-1947
EGR Agricultural vehicles 1945-1947
BT Soviet Union 1923Soviet Union SBZ central administration and subordinate institutions 1947– (?)
DR Soviet Union 1923Soviet Union Government of the GDR 1949
GDR Soviet Union 1923Soviet Union Government of the GDR 1949-1951
DR German Reichsbahn 1945
RP Reichspost 1945
TEM temporarily, together with the license plate 1945-1947

License plate in the GDR from 1953 to 1990

Labels of the form "XXX 0-01" circle Stollberg , district Karl-Marx-Stadt , some already with federal German inspection tag

In the GDR, all vehicles with a cubic capacity larger than 50 cm³ were subject to registration . The license plates had the general form "XX 00–01". Unless explicitly stated otherwise in the following, the license plate had black writing (a GDR development of the Prussian pattern drawing IV 44 from 1906) on a white background. With the increase in the number of vehicles, the form "XXX 0–01" was also introduced from October 1974. The first letter of the license plate indicated the district in which the vehicle was registered. The letters were assigned from A to Z in a north-south direction. Some districts had two different possible letters as identification.

A. Rostock district
B. Schwerin district
C. Neubrandenburg district
D , P Potsdam district
E. Frankfurt (Oder) district
H , M Magdeburg district
I. Berlin, capital of the GDR ( East Berlin )
K , V Halle district
L , F District of Erfurt
N Gera district
O District of Suhl
R , Y Dresden district
S , U Leipzig district
T , X Karl-Marx-Stadt district ( Chemnitz )
Z Cottbus district

The letters G , J , Q and W were not used for the district codes. The number combination “00–00” or “0–00” was not assigned. However, there were Suhl license plates with the letters OO , which looked like 00 due to the similarity to the number glyphs.

The second letter indicated the allowable circle (in alphabetical order) for license plates with three letters and three digits. This type of license plate was not allowed for motorcycles.

The assignment of identification numbers for license plates with two letters and four digits was very complex. On the basis of allocation lists from the Ministry of the Interior of the GDR, each license plate could be specifically assigned to a city or district. However, these lists were not available to the public.

The second letter was assigned to different vehicle types, but these were assigned differently in each district. The system was subdivided again with the series of numbers. The letter combinations with the rows of numbers could be distributed over several circles, whereby license plates were assigned twice, but only on different types of vehicle (cars, trucks, etc.). For example, a motorcycle in circle A could have the same license plate number as a trailer in circle B.

Identification of the GST

The vehicle license plates of the Society for Sport and Technology consisted of just one letter for the district, followed by the usual number combination. Yellow license plates with black lettering were used.

License plate of the People's Police in the Potsdam district

The combination VA was reserved for the National People's Army , GT for border troops and 1990 GS for border guards . The German People's Police used from 1949 in a superimposed form. An exclusive combination of numbers followed for all of them. Certain combinations of the normal license plates were reserved for camouflage for civilian vehicles of the Criminal Police and the Ministry of State Security .

In the Neubrandenburg district , the combinations CC , CD , CY were also not assigned because of the abbreviations for the consular and diplomatic corps. The abbreviations " HJ ", " KZ ", " SA ", and " SS " were not given either. The letter Q was not used as a second or third letter in the GDR license plate system.

Vehicle with diplomatic license plates at Checkpoint Charlie 1982, 57 = Federal Republic of Germany

Diplomatic missions and consulates used two-letter symbols beginning with a C in white letters on a red background. Other foreigners, on the other hand, used two-letter marks beginning with a Q with white letters on a blue background. This is followed by a maximum of three digits that indicate the country of origin and, after a hyphen, another two serial digits. There was the following key:

CC Service vehicles of consular posts and consular officials
CD Diplomatic missions and their staff
CY Vehicles of technical and administrative staff
QA Foreign correspondents
QB , QX Foreign trade branches, industrial agencies and commercial offices
QC Travel agencies, airlines and cultural and information centers
QD Others
The last registration number "DDR 2-10" registered in the GDR
from September 30, 1990 for a Trabant

The customs license plate used from 1966 onwards consisted of a number indicating the customs district, a hyphen and four other numbers. Green characters were used on these signs.

In the course of reunification , Federal German license plates were assigned from 1991. License plates according to the GDR scheme were still issued until December 31, 1990, but had to be exchanged by December 31, 1993. Even before reunification, however, the font type and size began to be used as in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1990.

Federal Republic of Germany after 1956

In 1956, the labeling system that is still in use today was introduced. The most important feature of the system is an allocation of up to three-letter distinctive signs for each registration area. Urban districts and districts of the same name had the same distinguishing mark. In an annex to the road traffic regulations it was determined which letter and number combinations the municipal registration office and which those of the district were allowed to issue. The distinctive sign of the districts was also strictly from the seat of the district administration, not from a u. U. deviating district names derived (e.g. "FH" for the Main-Taunus district, because the district administration had its seat in Frankfurt-Höchst, "GM" for the Oberbergischen district after the seat of the district administration in Gummersbach). With the territorial reforms in the 1970s, this principle was increasingly deviated from; Newly formed great districts were now often given a distinctive sign derived from the district name, no longer from the seat of the district administration (e.g. "MKK" for the Main-Kinzig district instead of initially "HU" for the seat of the district administration in Hanau).

Originally, the distinguishing signs for the administrative district were set out in an appendix to the Road Traffic Licensing Regulations , since 2007 to the Vehicle Licensing Regulations . Since the so-called. Mark liberalization distinguishing marks, at the request of the country concerned by the new Minister of Transport set or canceled and only in the Federal Official Gazette published.

An overview of the currently established distinctive signs can be found in the list of vehicle license plates in Germany . For all distinctive signs issued so far in Germany with information on the periods of time, see the list of all vehicle registration numbers in the Federal Republic of Germany .

After 1956, only five distinctive signs have completely disappeared from road traffic. These were the distinguishing signs DB of the Deutsche Bundesbahn and BP of the Deutsche Bundespost . Since June 2006, BP has been used again for the Federal Police , replacing the old BG mark of the Federal Border Police . The license plate ROH for the former district of Rotenburg in Hanover was completely replaced by ROW ( district of Rotenburg (Wümme) ). On May 12, 1995, the last woman driver who still wore ROH signs on her vehicle was given two new license plates with the letters ROW.

See also


  • License plate map of Germany. Edition Jungbluth, Freiburg 2001, ISBN 3-932172-00-0 .
  • Andreas Herzfeld: The history of the German license plate. 4th edition. German Flag Society V. 2010, ISBN 978-3-935131-11-7 .
  • Directory of owners of motor vehicles in Württemberg and Hohenzollern. 1913.
  • Directory of owners of motor vehicles in Württemberg and Hohenzollern. 1921.
  • The motor vehicle owners in Württemberg and Hohenzollern. Stuttgart, 1926.

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Martin Isaac: The law of the automobile according to the police regulations at home and abroad . Comparative representation for police officers, lawyers and motorists in the form of explanations on the German automobile ordinances (main features of the Federal Council of May 3, 1906). 2nd edition, Berlin 1907.
  2. a b c d German vehicle registration number (before 1945) (Russian).
  3. SS license plate ( memento from July 22, 2012 in the web archive )
  4. a b
  5. (PDF; 198 kB).
  6. Annual press report 2002 ( Memento from July 9, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 615 kB), Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt, p. 17, accessed on June 7, 2011.