The tasks of the military police are comparable to those of the civil police . In peacetime, in most states this authority only has authority over soldiers. The tasks include, among other things, criminal prosecution with investigative work on military grounds and soldiers (often on behalf of the organs of the military justice ), securing military facilities, personal protection of high-ranking officers , prisoner-of-war operations, operating military prisons , military traffic regulation and the search for deserters . However, not all military police have the same duties.
In some countries, the military police, usually known as the gendarmerie , are also used as the regular civilian police. For these services they are mostly under the guidance and control of the Ministry of the Interior.
Members of the military police can usually be recognized by special badges on their helmets and / or uniforms (e.g. armbands, shoulder pieces). Until the end of the Second World War, the members of the military police of the Wehrmacht wore a ring collar for identification .
One of the earliest military police forces is the Royal Military Police , claiming that their first units were deployed in the British contingent during the Napoleonic Wars under Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington .
Military police in different countries
The military police are part of the Australian Army and form The Royal Australian Corps of Military Police (RACMP)
The tasks of the Belgian military police were originally carried out by the Gendarmerie Nationale / Rijkswacht . When Belgium united all police units into a federal police force, the officers previously acting as the Police Militaire were integrated into a newly established unit of the army .
The Polícia Militar is the gendarmerie of a federal state in Brazil and corresponds - in the broadest sense - to the state police in the Federal Republic of Germany . The term is misleading for non-Brazilians, as it is not a military police in the literal sense and, in terms of both its function and its subordination to the civil authorities, does not correspond to the character of a military police, but rather to that of a “militarized” or “barracked” regular police. The term is historically shaped and referred to the militias of the individual states from around 1890 . The Brazilian military police in the individual states have a total of 400,000 members, of which a good 100,000 belong to the Polícia Militar do Estado de São Paulo alone .
The “real” military police in Brazil are part of the three armed forces of the Brazilian armed forces : Polícia do Exército (PE) ( army ), Polícia da Marinha (PM) ( navy ) and Polícia da Aeronáutica (PA) ( air force ).
The Militærpoliti is part of the Danish Armed Forces .
For the historical German military police units see
- Military police
- Secret field police
- Commanding service of the National People's Army
Federal Republic of Germany
The military police of the German Federal Armed Forces are known as Feldjägertruppe and are assigned to the armed forces base . After restructuring in 2013, it consists of three regiments and the school for military police and staff of the Bundeswehr . In peacetime you have no authority to issue instructions to civilians , unless they are in a military (security) area or it is absolutely necessary for the fulfillment of tasks (e.g. establishment of a military security area).
- Royal Military Police (RMP), part of the British Army ,
Royal Navy Police (RNP), part of the Royal Navy
- Royal Marines Police , assigned to the Royal Navy Police since 2009
- Royal Air Force Police (RAFP), part of the Royal Air Force .
They are under the Engl. The term Service police is summarized.
There are also various civilian police groups assigned to the Ministry of Defense (UK) that are not assigned to the military police. They are
- Ministry of Defense Police ,
- Sovereign Base Areas Police , responsible for bases in Cyprus ,
- Gibraltar Defense Police , responsible for bases in Gibraltar .
The Sotilaspoliisi ("Soldiers Police") is the military police in Finland . In peacetime their role is to monitor military facilities . In times of war, personal protection, the tracking down and destruction of enemy special units, as well as the prisoner-of-war system and prisoner-of-war camps are part of it.
In France these tasks are carried out by the national gendarmerie . This unit also has police powers over civilians. The exception is the Foreign Legion , which still has its own military police ( Police Militaire , PM for short ) in each of its locations. Since the summer of 2011 the unit has been called the Patrouille de la Légion étrangère ( PLE ).
In Israel , the Heyl HaMishtara HaTzva'it is the military police of the Israeli armed forces . Among other things, she is responsible for discipline within the armed forces and the prosecution of deserters. It also supports the surveillance of military prisons.
In Italy , the Carabinieri take over the duties of the military police. The Carabinieri have police powers over civilians even in peacetime and are subordinate to the Italian Ministry of the Interior in performing their duties.
Today , parts of Japan's Self-Defense Forces known as Keimutai perform military-police duties.
In Canada , the Canadian Forces Military Police (CFMP), a mixed force of all three branches of the armed forces ( Canadian Army , Royal Canadian Navy and Royal Canadian Air Force ), takes on the military police tasks under the command of the DND .
The Royal Netherlands is the Dutch National Police entrusted with wide-ranging responsibilities. Since 1998 it has been an independent military service alongside the army , navy and air force . Although it is subordinate to the Ministry of Defense, it mainly performs civilian tasks such as monitoring the state border and, since the abolition of the Reich Police, also the police service at large airports. Security during state visits and other ceremonial events as well as personal protection for members of the royal family and the government are also part of their duties. The deportation of unwanted foreigners and asylum seekers who have to leave the Netherlands after their application has been rejected is also a task of Marechaussee.
The Militærpoliti is part of the Norwegian Armed Forces .
The military police in the Austrian Armed Forces are responsible for maintaining order and security within the Armed Forces and for this purpose also have certain powers vis-à-vis civilians. Until March 31, 2019, it was called the Military Patrol Command and Military Police , serving as a military patrol in Germany and as a military police abroad.
In addition to the command, the military police also consists of three operational companies, the training department and a personal protection element.
The military polis is part of the Swedish armed forces .
Since January 1, 2018, in the course of the WEA (further development of the army), the Military Police Command has been subordinated to the newly established Operation Command on the one hand, and to the three professional components of the Military Police Command, MP Command, the Military Police Security Service and the Military Police Task Force on the other , as well as the militia formations of the MP Bat 1 to 4 .
The military police provide security, traffic and criminal police services across all locations. It also protects critical army infrastructures and other objects and areas of the army. The transport of army material that is worth protecting is also part of the duties of the military police.
The military police make a significant contribution to the protection of the army and its administration . In the event of a defense, the military police must also ensure the military prison system.
As part of the basic services, the professional and standby formations of the military police are primarily used. Depending on the development of the situation, an additional, supportive or autonomous use of the militia formations is possible.
When it comes to supporting civil authorities, the military police are mainly deployed where a distinctive police competence is required that cannot be covered by other formations of the army.
The resources of the civilian police can quickly reach their limits, especially in the context of object and conference protection operations. In order to cover possible needs of the civil security authorities, the military police can provide support with professional, standby or militia formations. For example, when protecting objects, things and people, when deploying for the benefit of flight security or when protecting borders and embassies. Even in crisis situations (disasters, emergencies and tasks of national importance), the military police can intervene to provide protection and security services.
In the context of peacebuilding, the military police (as IMP) fulfill the basic services as police of the armed forces within the corresponding contingent of the Swiss armed forces.
In Singapore , the Singapore Armed Forces Provost Unit (SAFPU) serves as a military police force and supports the police forces through cooperation, e.g. B. by means of the training and provision of the training facility for police dogs.
In Spain , the Guardia Civil is the military police. The Guardia Civil is subordinate to both the Ministry of the Interior and the Ministry of Defense and, above all, has police powers over civilians.
The Xianbing ( Chinese 憲兵 ), Taiwan's gendarmerie and military police at the same time, is a police force with a military character. It is part of the military and is therefore under the Ministry of Defense. The tasks of the Xianbing include the following main functions:
- Ensure the security of the Central Government
- Military police duties for the army , navy and air force
- Maintaining public safety and order
- Ensuring the internal security of the state.
The Askeriye İnzibat ( Jandarma ) is responsible for maintaining internal order in the military, as well as the persecution of deserters . They are identified by a red armband with the inscription AS.İZ and are selected separately from among the soldiers.
In the USA almost all branches of the armed forces have their own military police forces . Only the United States Coast Guard , which is itself a police-like organization, does not maintain a special military police. For the individual armed forces these are:
- Army : Military Police Corps
- Air Force : Air Force Security Forces
- Navy : Masters-at-Arms
- Marine Corps : Provost Marshal's Office
In addition to these uniformed military police, the armed forces also have civilian police services, these are:
- Department of Defense : Defense Criminal Investigative Service (DCIS)
- Army : US Army Criminal Investigation Command (USACIDC / CID)
- Air Force : Office of Special Investigations (AFOSI)
- Navy : US Naval Criminal Investigative Service (NCIS)
- Marine Corps : United States Marine Corps Criminal Investigation Division (USMC CID)
- Coast Guard : US Coast Guard Investigative Service (CGIS)
- Military Police Town Patrolling , US War Department training film from 1944 about the deployment of military police in an American city, length approx. 26 min.