From 1818 until the end of the district division in 1924, it was under the Jagstkreis , whose seat of government was in Ellwangen . Renamed the district in 1934, it was reorganized during the district reform of 1938. The district of Gmünd (from 1941 district of Schwäbisch Gmünd ) was formed from the Oberamt Gmünd and parts of the Oberämter Aalen , Gaildorf and Welzheim , which was largely absorbed by the district reform in 1973 in the Ostalb district.
This article is devoted to the history and tasks of this historical administrative unit. Information on the geographical description of the region is only given from the perspective of the 19th century .
Status around 1840
According to Johann Daniel Georg von Memminger's description of the Kingdom of Württemberg from 1841, the Oberamt had an area of 4,802 square miles and 24,930 local residents. These were predominantly Catholic (Catholics: 19,972 - 80.1%; Evangelicals : 4,958 - 19.9%). The main trades were agriculture , cattle breeding and timber industry . The Oberamtsstadt Gmünd had 6,343 local residents, of which only 622 were Protestant (9.8%). Memminger writes about the urban infrastructure: Gmünd has a beautiful town hall, two hospitals, and is the seat of the royal. Institute for the deaf and dumb, and the royal. cath. School teacher seminar, with a model school in the building of the former Franciscan monastery. The city also has an asylum for adult blind people, a trade school, a drawing school and still important trade in gold, silver and semilor (along with gravir and ciselir) work, cotton goods, bead knitting, hood embroidery, glass grinding, wax work, etc. Art mill. Gmünd has had excellent hop growing since more recently. Bath facility based on the Struve method. In the summer months Gmünd is the royal residence. Artillery, which is practicing nearby .
In addition to the former rural area of the imperial city of Schwäbisch Gmünd, the Oberamt consisted of old Württemberg towns and aristocratic properties. It comprised a total of 26 communities. The description of Memminger lists 27 municipalities with population figures in addition to the upper administrative city of Gmünd, but Horn and one of the two hamlets of Rechberg did not count as separate municipalities. In the Oberamtsbeschreibung 1870, instead of Zimmerbach, Durlangen is named as the municipality seat .
- Bargau , parish village with 564 Cath. Ew., 1554 sold by Rechberg to Gmünd.
- Göggingen , 287 ev., 197 cath. Ew.
- Herlikofen , Pfarrdorf, 460 Cath. Ew.
- Iggingen , parish village, 418 catholic, 22 ev. Ew.
- Lautern , parish village in a deep valley , 362 catholic, 84 ev. Ew .; a quarter belonged to the Wöllwarth ; Dairy. A neighboring rock cave is very rich in calcareous sinter
- Mögglingen , market town, 892 catholic, 23 ev. Ew. Dairy. Remains of the devil's wall . Mineral bath Christenhof (reference to this bath to the work of Bodenmüller Gmünd 1837)
- Mutlangen ( Muthlangen ), parish village, 597 cath. Ew.
- Oberböbingen ( Ober-Bäbingen ), ev. Parish village, 287 ev., 173 cath. Ew.
- Ober-Bettringen , parish village, 467 Cath. Ew.
- Spraitbach ( Spreitbach ), parish village, 341 cath. Ew.
- Straßdorf , Pfarrdorf, 619 Cath. Ew., Half belonged to Count Rechberg ; Metal goods, tobacco pipes
- Hamlet in the mountains , parish village, 439 cath. Ew .; Ruins of a mountain castle, with which the place was sold from Rechberg to Gmünd in 1581
- Zimmerbach , Pfarrweiler, 184 Cath. Ew.
- Waldstetten , formerly Ellwangischer Marktflecken, 998 Catholic. Ew .; Wood carver, pipe maker, cheese dairy.
Old Württemberg places
- Heubach , town on the Rems , former seat of the upper office, by the way completely open place , 1309 local residents (1219 local residents). Cotton spinning and weaving, mainly the manufacture of handkerchiefs; Cattle trade. Not far away is the Rosenstein , with the ruins of the mountain castle of the same name and a cave below .
- Degenfeld , ev. Parish village, 182 ev., 160 cath. Ew., The latter in Rechberg; wild and romantic valley, ruins of the Degenfeld family castle . In 1597 Christoph von Degenfeld sold his family estate to Württemberg.
- Lindach , 642 ev. Ew., With old lock
- Täferroth , parish village, 181 ev. Ew.
- Unterböbingen ( Unter-Bäbingen ), parish village, 529 cath. Ew .; Dairy.
- Rechberg , Hohenrechberg, castle and parish church with rectory, together with Hinterweiler, under the castle, 334 cath. Ew.
- At the foot of the Rechberg lies Vorderrechberg or Vorderweiler, 271 kath. Ew.
- Reichenbach , parish village, 265 cath. Ew., Including Ramsberg Castle, once the seat of a Rechberg branch line. In these places there are skilled wood carvers who manufacture tobacco pipes, cans and the like from measles.
- Winzingen , parish village, 415 cath. Ew., Castle.
- Bartholomä , market town on the high Albuch , 610 Catholic, 321 ev. Ew .; Spinning mill, Falkenloch cave.
- Wißgoldingen , Pfarrdorf, 660 Cath. Ew., High at the foot of the Stuifenberg, which is higher than Staufen and Rechberg
Count of Beroldingen
- Horn , hamlet on a hill above the Lein, 306 cath. Ew., With a pretty lock .
In the upper office district there were some state administrative authorities of the Kingdom of Württemberg (status: Oberamtsbeschreibung 1870):
- the higher district court (it was subordinate to the district court in Ellwangen), to which the court notary's office in Gmünd and the district notary's office in Heubach belonged
- the Oberamt with the Oberamtspflege, the Oberamtsarzt, Oberamtsundarzt, Oberamtvierarzt, Oberamtswegmeister, two Oberfeuerschauers and an Oberamtsgeometer
- the camera office and main tax office Gmünd
- the district building department
- the road construction inspection.
Three classes of churches
According to the Oberamtsbeschreibung Gmünd there was a first class municipality (Gmünd), six second class municipalities (Bartholomä, Heubach, Leinzell, Mögglingen, Straßdorf, Waldstetten). The rest belonged to the III. Class on. The classification allows conclusions to be drawn about the size and importance of the communities.
Until the move to the new district office, built in 1956, the upper office administration was housed in the premises of the former Augustinian monastery in Schwäbisch Gmünd.
The Oberamtsbeschreibung Gmünd appeared in 1870 (approx. 450 pages). The Finance Councilor Paulus is designated as the main author. The Protestant dean of Weinsberg, Hermann Bauer (1814–1872), was responsible for the historical sections .
The Oberamt Gmünd was described in the series The art and antiquity monuments in the Kingdom of Württemberg in 1907 in the first half volume of the Jagstkreis by Eugen Gradmann. The localities that today belong to the city of Schwäbisch Gmünd are recorded in the inventory edited by Richard Strobel, Die Kunstdenkmäler der Stadt Schwäbisch Gmünd (4 volumes, 1995-2003).
Head of office
The Oberamtmen of the Oberamt Gmünd from 1802:
- 1802-1803: Sattler
- 1803: Leo Potschka
- 1803–1806: Ludwig Muff
- 1806–1808: Immanuel Israel Hartmann
- 1809–1810: Johann Nepomuk Fidel Burkard
- 1810-1817: Xaver Milz
- 1818–1819: Johann Nepomuk Fidel Burkard (official administrator)
- 1819–1826: Jakob Ludwig Friedrich Stängel
- 1827–1844: Carl Wilhelm Heinrich Binder
- 1845–1851: Johann Baptist Liebherr
- 1852–1866: Anton Schemmel
- 1867–1881: Karl Adolf Holland
- 1882-1894: Richard Preu
- 1894–1902: Julius Jungel
- 1902–1923: Hugo Rau
- 1923–1924: Franz Xaver Maurer (Administrator)
- 1924–1929: Franz Paradeis
- Richard Schall: The development of the Schwäbisch Gmünd district . In: unicorn. Illustrated magazine for cultivating the idea of home and promoting tourism in the city and district of Schwäbisch Gmünd 1956, pp. 241–248.
- Roland Schurig: The historical roots of today's Ostalb district . In: The Ostalbkreis. Aalen 2004, pp. 293-313, ISBN 3-00-014978-3 .
- Paulus (Hrsg.): Description of the Oberamt Gmünd . New edition. Unchangeable photomechan. Reprint [d. Ed.] Verlag H. Lindemann, 1870. Reprint Magstadt (near Stuttgart): Horst Bissinger KG Verlag und Druckerei. (The Württemberg Oberamtsbeschreibung, Vol. 51), ISBN 3-7644-0049-8 .
- Wolfram Angerbauer (Red.): The heads of the upper offices, district offices and district offices in Baden-Württemberg from 1810 to 1972 . Published by the working group of the district archives at the Baden-Württemberg district assembly. Theiss, Stuttgart 1996, ISBN 3-8062-1213-9 .
- According to the list in Schall, emergence (1956), p. 248.