The Oberamt Backnang was an administrative district in Württemberg (on attached map no. 2) , which was renamed District Backnang in 1934 and enlarged in 1938 by parts of the dissolved districts of Marbach and Gaildorf to form the District of Backnang . For general comments on the Württemberg upper offices, see Oberamt (Württemberg) .
As early as the 14th century, the city of Backnang was the capital of a Württemberg bailiwick from which the secular office, from 1758 Oberamt, Backnang emerged. The area around Murrhardt , which was administered as a monastery office since the abolition of the Benedictine monastery there in the 16th century, was also old Württemberg . The administrative reform begun in 1806 merged these two offices as well as the previously Löwenstein area around Sulzbach that had come to Württemberg with the Rhine Confederation Act to form the enlarged Oberamt Backnang. Neighbors of the district, which was assigned to the Neckar District from 1818 to 1924, were, after the reorganization, the Württemberg regional offices of Gaildorf , Welzheim , Waiblingen , Marbach and Weinsberg .
In 1813, after the regional reform was completed, the district was made up of parts that had belonged to the following rulers in 1800:
Duchy of Württemberg
- Oberamt Backnang: Backnang, Althütte, Bruch, Cottenweiler, Ebersberg, Ober-, Mittel- and Unterfischbach, Heiningen, Heutensbach, Lippoldsweiler, Maubach, Oberbrüden, Oberweissach, Reichenberg, Sechselberg, Steinbach, Strümpfelbach, Unterbrüden, Unterweissach, Waldrems;
- Oberamt Marbach: Rietenau, Mittelschöntal;
- Oberamt Weinsberg: Grab, Mannenweiler, Morbach, Rösersmühle, Schönbronn, Schönthalerhöfle, Neufürstenhütte, Erlach (partly), Liemannsklinge, Eschenstruet, Großhöchberg, Vorder- and Hinterbüchelberg;
- Murrhardt Monastery Office : Murrhardt and Fornsbach (the Hub);
- Backnang Abbey Administration: Allmersbach;
- Rentkammer : Fürstenhof, Ungeheuerhof, Unterschöntal and the Spiegelberg staff office with Jux and Roßstaig.
Löwenstein Fornsbach with Hinterwestermurr, Köchersberg, Mettelberg, Schloßhof and Sulzbach with Bartenbach, Berwinkel, Eichelhof, Erlach (partly), Ittenberg, Kieselhof, Klein-Höchberg, Lautern, Liemersbach belonged to
the county of Löwenstein , which had been under the sovereignty of Württemberg since 1504 . Schleisweiler, Siebenknie, Siebersbach, Trauzenbach, Zwerenberg.
Imperial Knighthood The following were registered with
the knightly canton of Kocher, the Swabian knighthood: Großaspach and Oppenweiler with Rüflensmühle ( Freiherr von Sturmfeder ).
Population figures 1867
In 1871 the following communities were subordinate to the Oberamt Backnang. The population numbers broken down by denomination refer to 1867:
|No.||former parish||possibly||cath.||otherwise.||today's parish|
|2||Allmersbach||604||-||-||Allmersbach in the valley|
|3||Old hut||1006||16||-||Old hut|
|4th||fracture||256||-||-||Weissach in the valley|
|5||Cottenweiler||280||1||-||Weissach in the valley|
|12||Heutensbach||321||1||-||Allmersbach in the valley|
|19th||Ober-Weissach||405||3||-||Weissach in the valley|
|27||Sulzbach||2593||14th||8th||Sulzbach an der Murr|
|29||Unter-Weissach||931||3||-||Weissach in the valley|
Changes in the community since 1813
After the constitution of 1819 had prepared the basis for local self-government, the bourgeois communities were constituted in the modern sense. Up to 1828 the following were raised to independent communities: Althütte, Heutensbach, Jux, Neufürstenhütte and Sechselberg.
In 1827 Großhöchberg was incorporated into Spiegelberg.
In 1836 Vorderbüchelberg was incorporated into Spiegelberg.
In 1843 Fornsbach (with Hinterwestermurr, Köchersberg, Mettelberg and Schloßhof) was separated from Sulzbach and raised to the status of an independent municipality.
In 1848 the new community Großerlach was formed from parts of Sulzbach (marks Großerlach and Liemersbach) and Reichenberg (marks Ober-, Mittel-, Unterfischbach). The new municipality Grab was created from parts of Murrhardt (marks Grab, Mannenweiler, Morbach, Rösersmühle, Schönbronn, Schöntalhöfle) and Sulzbach (mark Trauzenbach).
In 1855 Roßstaig was incorporated into Spiegelberg. (The municipality of Roßstaig only included the town of Ober-Roßstaig; Unter-Roßstaig belonged to the municipality of Neulautern in the Oberamt Weinsberg.)
Around 1858 the Kieselhof was changed from Sulzbach to Murrhardt.
In 1933 the following were changed:
- Köchersberg from Fornsbach to Murrhardt,
- Seven knees from Sulzbach to Murrhardt,
- Eschenstruet and Liemannsklinge from Murrhardt to Sulzbach,
- Frankenweiler from Murrhardt to Grab,
- Rösersmühle from Grab to Mainhardt ( Oberamt Hall ).
1934 Harnersberg was umgemeindet from Murrhardt to Fornsbach; Neuhaus followed in 1935.
In 1936 Sachsenweiler was reassigned from Unterweissach to Backnang.
In 1938 Oppenweiler was incorporated into Reichenberg. In autumn of the same year the Sudetenland was annexed to the German Empire. Because of the risk of confusion with the city of Reichenberg in the Sudetenland and to align it with the name of the station, the municipality was renamed Oppenweiler in 1942 .
Head of office
- 1807–1810: Johann Konrad Gottlob Reuss
- 1810–1813: Gottlieb Benjamin von Wolf
- 1813–1819: Heinrich Friedrich Krauss
- 1819–1823: Gotthold Karl Georg Ströhlin
- 1823–1839: Karl Christian Schmid
- 1839–1843: Gustav Stockmayer
- 1843–1846: Carl Theodor Friedrich Lang
- 1846–1849: Adolf Daniel
- 1849–1852: Carl Friedrich Wilhelm Stetter
- 1853–1860: Karl Hermann Hörner
- 1860–1877: Wilhelm Friedrich Drescher
- 1877–1883: Adolf Göbel
- 1883–1889: Gregor Münst
- 1889–1895: Karl Albert Christoph Schütz
- 1895–1897: Gustav Kälber
- 1898–1914: Carl Preuner
- 1915–1919: Oswald Susset
- 1919 Maximilian Binder (clerk) :
- 1919 Karl Kircher (clerk) :
- 1920–1924: Heinrich Klumpp
- 1924–1933: Gustav Drautz
- 1933–1936: Karl Heckel
- Stälin / Paulus (ed.): Description of the Oberamt Backnang . New edition. Unchangeable photomechan. Reprint [d. Ed.] Verlag Lindemann, Stuttgart 1871. Reprint Magstadt (near Stuttgart): Horst Bissinger KG Verlag und Druckerei, 1968. (The Württemberg Oberamtsbeschreibung, Vol. 53), ISBN 3-7644-0051-X .
- Wolfram Angerbauer (Red.): The heads of the upper offices, district offices and district offices in Baden-Württemberg from 1810 to 1972 . Published by the working group of the district archives at the Baden-Württemberg district assembly. Theiss, Stuttgart 1996, ISBN 3-8062-1213-9 .
- landesarchiv-bw.de: Holdings F 152 I , II , III and IV of the State Archives Ludwigsburg (files of the Oberamt Backnang)
- uni-duesseldorf.de: Description of the Oberamt Backnang / ed. from the Royal Statistical-Topographical Bureau, 1871