|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Administrative region :||Stuttgart|
|County :||Rems-Murr district|
|Height :||267 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||19.81 km 2|
|Residents:||4281 (December 31, 2018)|
|Population density :||216 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postcodes :||71570, 71560|
|Area code :||07191|
|License plate :||WN, BK|
|Community key :||08 1 19 053|
|LOCODE :||DE OPE|
|Address of the
|Mayor :||Bernhard Bühler|
|Location of the municipality of Oppenweiler in the Rems-Murr district|
Oppenweiler (until 1942 Reichenberg) is a Baden-Württemberg municipality in the Rems-Murr district , around 25 kilometers northeast of the state capital Stuttgart on the Murr . It belongs to the Stuttgart region (until 1992 the Middle Neckar region ) and the European metropolitan region of Stuttgart .
Oppenweiler has a share in the natural areas of the Swabian-Franconian Forest Mountains and Neckar Basin . The main town is in the Murrtal . Oppenweiler is a member community in the Swabian-Franconian Forest Nature Park and in the Murrtal Water Association , whose task is flood protection.
In addition to the nearby districts of Reichenberg , Ellenweiler, Rüflensmühle, Reichenbach, Aichelbach, Zell, Rohrbach, Schiffrain, Wilhelmsheim and Unterstaigacker, the municipality of Oppenweiler also includes the remote Bernhalden in Lautertal . The former district of Dauernberg, located on the ridge on the other side of the Lautertal, was reclassified to Spiegelberg in 1977 as part of the municipal reform. In the 19th century there was still an associated single courtyard Charlottenhöhe northwest on a forest height above the place that gave it its name, but which is now desolate.
The largest district is Aichelbach, where Oppenweiler's currently largest new development area is also located - the Neufeld east of the railway line.
The district of Schiffrain with the Wilhelmsheim specialist clinic for addicts located there, thanks to its 400 m high location, offers a beautiful view of the village and Reichenberg Castle as well as the Backnanger Bay , Winnenden , Waiblingen and Stuttgart.
Division of space
According to data from the State Statistical Office , as of 2014.
Based on the place names and the historical context, it is assumed that Oppenweiler and the surrounding towns were created in Carolingian times . The first mention of Oppenweiler dates back to the year 1114. In the 12th century, the margraves of Baden bought Oppenweiler from Speyrian or imperial property. The Reichenberg Castle , built in 1230 and towering over the community, determined the history of Oppenweiler for centuries as the seat of administration and jurisdiction. The local rule lay with the Lords Sturmfeder von Oppenweiler , first recorded in Oppenweiler in 1293 , who were initially in Baden and from the 14th century in Württemberg after Württemberg had gradually acquired Baden property around Oppenweiler. As the Württemberg fiefdom of the Lords Sturmfeder, who belonged to the free imperial knighthood, Oppenweiler did not belong directly to the Württemberg state, but to the knight canton of Kocher , to which the Sturmfeder belonged.
With the mediatization of the imperial knighthood due to the imperial deputation main conclusion , Oppenweiler fell to the Kingdom of Württemberg , where it belonged to the Oberamt Backnang from 1806 . From 1938 to 1972 Oppenweiler was assigned to the Backnang district . After 1945 the municipality was in the state of Württemberg-Baden in the American zone of occupation and since 1952 in the new state of Baden-Württemberg . Since the district reform in 1973 , the community has belonged to the Rems-Murr district.
In 1938 the municipality of Oppenweiler was incorporated into the larger and older municipality of Reichenberg. The station name Oppenweiler (Württ.) Was retained because other places called Reichenberg had stations. The likelihood of confusion increased in the autumn of 1938, when the German Reich annexed the former Czechoslovak Sudetenland after the Munich Agreement , the city of Reichenberg (Czech: Liberec) was designated as its capital in 1939 . To solve the problem, the name of the Württemberg community Reichenberg was changed to Oppenweiler on the instructions of the Württemberg National Socialist Reich Governor Wilhelm Murr on June 29, 1942 .
These are population numbers according to the respective territorial status. The numbers are census results (¹) or official updates from the Baden-Württemberg State Statistical Office (only main residences ).
The Jakobus Church in Oppenweiler was first mentioned in 1468, it belonged to the Sturmfederschen family. In the second half of the 16th century the place became Evangelical-Lutheran in the course of the Reformation in Württemberg , while Messrs. Sturmfeder remained true to the papal faith. So there were religious disputes well into the 19th century. Until 1806, catholic services were only held privately in the Sturmfeder'schen castle chapel. The Catholics were a minority. In 1867 there were over 1500 Protestants in the communities of Reichenberg and Oppenweiler, compared to just over 100 Catholics. This changed with the arrival of displaced people from what was once Austria-Hungary after the Second World War.
- 1948 to 1978: Karl Julius Zehender
- 1978 to February 2010: Bernd Brischke
- March 2010 to June 2014: Steffen Jäger
- July 1, 2014 to October 31, 2017: Sascha Reber
- November 1, 2017 to February 28, 2018: Wilfried Klenk (provisional)
- since March 1, 2018: Bernhard Bühler
On December 6, 2009, Steffen Jäger was elected mayor without an opponent, with around 98 percent of the vote and a turnout of around 48%. After Jäger announced that he would be moving to the Baden-Württemberg Municipal Council in Stuttgart in mid-2014 , Sascha Reber was elected on March 30, 2014 with 86% of the vote, 58% voter turnout and five opposing candidates. In the period from February 3, 2017 to February 28, 2018, Wilfried Klenk, Vice President of the State Parliament of Baden-Württemberg, took over the management of the community; initially in his role as Sascha Reber's deputy. After his resignation from November 1, 2017 to February 28, 2018, Klenk was acting mayor. In the mayoral election on January 14, 2018, Bernhard Bühler was elected with 86% of the vote, with a turnout of 54% and two opposing candidates.
The municipal council in Oppenweiler has 14 members. The local elections on May 26, 2019 led to the following final result. The municipal council consists of the elected voluntary councilors and the mayor as chairman. The mayor is entitled to vote in the municipal council.
|Parties and constituencies||
|FGO||Oppenweiler Free Community List||57.93||8th||55.69||8th|
|FWV||Free voter association Oppenweiler||42.07||6th||44.31||6th|
coat of arms
Due to its historical ties, the coat of arms of Oppenweiler corresponds to that of Baden , i. H. yellow shield with a red diagonal bar , but also with three battle axes , the symbol of those from Sturmfeder .
- Dornburg / Saale . This community donated peacocks , which were to be kept free-running in the castle park, as in Dornburg. Since peacocks made it to the surrounding streets and roofs several times, they were housed in an aviary in the palace gardens. After the natural death of the original couple, successors were introduced in the summer of 2009.
Culture and sights
- Oppenweiler (and the Murrtal) are dominated by Reichenberg Castle .
- The octagonal moated castle Oppenweiler was built on an artificial island in the castle lake in 1782 by the barons von Sturmfeder . The building was acquired in the course of the municipal merger in 1939, including the palace garden, and has served as the town hall ever since.
The peace linden tree at the southern entrance to the village reminds of the French campaign of 1870/71 with a memorial stone. Another monument was “Buch-Eich”, two trees that grew together on Hohe Straße, which were felled decades ago by a lightning strike and then replaced by trees that had been planted.
The TV Oppenweiler concentrates on handball and gymnastics. A football department was not set up, the sports field in the center of the village was only used for field handball . To complement this, SG Oppenweiler-Strümpfelbach was founded in the 1970s, which has also been offering tennis since the 1980s. The club uses the sports facilities in the Rohrbachtal that were set up in the 1970s, the TVO handball players are active in the community hall that was replaced by a new building in 1985.
The Oppenweiler mineral swimming pool is idyllically located in the Rohrbach Valley, with a view of Reichenberg Castle. It was originally laid out in the 1950s with the help of pioneers in the US Army to take advantage of the existing mineral springs. The bathroom was modernized in the 1980s. It offers several swimming pools and leisure facilities such as a beach volleyball court and mini golf course. The bath house built on the Murr at the beginning of the 20th century had to be closed before the First World War due to water pollution from a Murrhardt tannery.
There is an old vaulted cellar in the courtyard by the town hall. In this so-called Rentamtskeller numerous events such as cabaret, comedy shows or solo concerts take place every year. In addition, clubs organize various festivals. For several years now, the castle has been open to the public on some Sundays in summer.
Economy and Infrastructure
The traffic connections of Oppenweiler are characterized by the location of the place in the relatively narrow Murrtal below Reichenberg, which defines the main traffic directions. The railway line as well as the federal road 14 and the district road 1897 to Backnang-Steinbach, which branches off from the B 14 at the southern end of the village, run parallel to the river . At Bernhalden, a mill belonging to the municipality of Oppenweiler and remote from the other districts in the Lautertal, the road 1117 joins the road 1066 .
The nearest airports are in Stuttgart (around 45 km) and Frankfurt am Main (around 160 km). In addition, various VVS bus routes run through Oppenweiler to Mainhardt, Neuhütten, Murrhardt, Gaildorf and Backnang. The Stromberg-Murrtal-Weg leads through the village, the Limes-Mühlenwanderweg and the wine villages of the Rems- and Bottwartal can be reached quickly.
The federal road 14 ( Stockach - Waidhaus ) leads directly through the town center. Due to the high volume of traffic of around 20,000 vehicles a day, documented by the permanent counting point at Strümpfelbach, the residents who remain there are heavily burdened. The former route of the Commerzialstraße over the Staigacker and through the Untere Reichenberg was replaced by an extension in 1846–1848 by the current route: past Katharinenhof Palace and straight ahead from the town center towards Rüflensmühle. The construction of a bypass road has been discussed since 1932, but in 1938 the widening of the narrow thoroughfare was ordered. Ten houses had to give way to the expansion to Reichsstraße, the replacement buildings were built several meters backwards. The still narrow S-curve in the center of the village at the “Einhorn” inn was widened at the end of the 1960s in favor of sidewalks on both sides, with the old Catholic church being torn down; the new St. Stephen's Church was located on the edge of the new building area. A bank building erected in the 1980s protrudes further into the street than the church did due to a planning error. The last bottleneck was the “Löwen” inn on the main road, which burned down at the end of 1999. In the mid-1980s, route variants for a B14 bypass were presented; the view of a bridge over the Rohrbach valley in the west was painted black, while the favored variant in the form of relocating the through-town to the railway line was embellished with idyllic sketches. It has not yet been implemented, not least due to the German Unity transport projects . Renovation work was limited to replacing a traffic light with a pedestrian underpass and creating left-turn lanes in Untere Reichenberg and Bahnhofstrasse. Six traffic lights are currently in operation from the Lower Staigacker to the Lower Reichenberg.
The bypass of Oppenweiler is listed in the Federal Transport Infrastructure Plan 2003 under “Urgent Need - New Projects” as serial no. 82 at a cost of € 23.2 million for 2.6 km (two lanes without verge). When Mayor Jäger was appointed to office, District Administrator Fuchs announced that the plan approval procedure would continue for September 2010. The northern end of the bypass should run on the embankment of the flood retention basin planned by the Murrtal water association between Rüflensmühle and Reichenbach. The combination of the two projects is expected to result in savings and a faster implementation of the bypass.
RegionalExpress trains on the Stuttgart - Nuremberg line run on the single- track Waiblingen – Schwäbisch Hall-Hessental railway, which opened on April 11, 1878 and electrified in the mid-1990s . In Backnang, which is six minutes away by train, there is a connection to the Stuttgart S-Bahn . After its closure, the station building was acquired and renovated by the municipality of Oppenweiler. It houses living quarters and the public library operated by the Catholic parish.
- ContiTech Kühner GmbH & Co. KG, manufacturer of refrigerant lines for the automotive and commercial vehicle industries
- Matrix Vision GmbH, manufacturer of digital image processing devices
- MBO Maschinenbau Binder GmbH & Co. KG, folding technology
- Murrplastik Produktionstechnik und Systemtechnik GmbH, including plastics production for mechanical and plant engineering
- Murrelektronik GmbH, manufacturer of electronics for industrial automation
With the Murrtalschule, the community operates a primary school near the B 14. In addition, the Oppenweiler community supports the secondary school in Sulzbach , as well as vocational and general high schools in Backnang. For the youngest residents there are two parish and one Protestant kindergarten .
- Bernd Brischke, Mayor from 1978 to 2010. He was awarded honorary citizenship in January 2014 as part of the 900th anniversary celebrations of the municipality.
- Berthold Maria Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg (* 1934), son of the Hitler assassin Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg , lives as husband of Mechthild nee. Countess von Bentzel-Sturmfeder-Horneck in Oppenweiler since 1964.
Sons and daughters of the church
- Albert Niethammer (1833–1908), paper manufacturer (Kübler & Niethammer) and national liberal politician, MdR, MdL (Kingdom of Saxony)
- Walter Bertsch (1900–1952), politician ( NSDAP ), Minister of Economics in the Reich Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia .
- Wilfried Klenk (* 1959), politician ( CDU ), 2015–2016 President of the State Parliament of Baden-Württemberg . Political State Secretary in the Ministry of the Interior of the State of Baden-Württemberg since April 2018.
- State Statistical Office Baden-Württemberg - Population by nationality and gender on December 31, 2018 (CSV file) ( help on this ).
- Natural areas of Baden-Württemberg . State Institute for the Environment, Measurements and Nature Conservation Baden-Württemberg, Stuttgart 2009
- Murrtal water association at www.murrhardt.de
- State Statistical Office, area since 1988 according to actual use for Oppenweiler.
- Population development in Baden-Württemberg from 1871 to 2012 ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Oberamt Backnang # Population figures 1867
- Final result of the mayoral election. (PDF) (No longer available online.) Municipality of Oppenweiler, formerly in the original ; accessed on March 31, 2014 . ( Page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Automatic road traffic counts in Baden-Württemberg , counting point "B 14 7022 1100 Strümpfelbach"
- Karl Julius Zehender: Heimatbuch Oppenweiler , published by the municipality of Oppenweiler, Oppenweiler 1992 (Zehender was mayor until 1978)
- Topographical Atlas of the Kingdom of Württemberg - sheet 10 Löwenstein from 1843 (6.0 MByte) - with Oppenweiler and the still existing Charlottenhof
- Website from Oppenweiler
- Chronicle of the Rüflensmühle
- Local Agenda 21 from Oppenweiler
- Sinkholes and sinkholes in the slab forest