|State :||Czech Republic|
|Historical part of the country :||Silesia|
|Region :||Moravskoslezský kraj|
|Area :||9059 ha|
|Geographic location :||49 ° 56 ' N , 17 ° 54' E|
|Height:||257 m nm|
|Residents :||56,638 (Jan 1, 2019)|
|Postal code :||746 01|
|Mayor :||Martin Víteček|
|Address:||Horní nám. 69
746 01 Opava
Opava ( Moravian-Silesian Region in the Czech Republic .; German: Troppau ) is a city in the
The city is located 247 meters above sea level in the Troppauer Bay ( Leobschützer Lösshügelland, Czech Opavská pahorkatina ) on the right bank of the Oppa , which above the city includes the Velká and Pilšťský potok and below the Kateřinský potok and the Mohra , near the Polish border .
In the 12th century a Moravian-Polish trade route crossed the Oppa River north of Grätz Castle . German emigrants called into the country by the Piast Duke Heinrich I settled at this favorable location for settlement at the end of the century . The settlement was first mentioned in 1195 under the name "Opavia".
By commerce and trade, especially cloth making, the site quickly became the center of the "Terra Opavia" so that by which he already 1224 Bohemian King Otakar I the Magdeburg rights received and the royal town was named. In addition to the numerically largest German population group, Czechs and Jews also lived in the city. The Teutonic Order residing here at that time built the town church of St. Mary. In addition to the order of knights , the Johanniter , Franciscans and Dominicans also settled.
In 1241 Mongols invaded the city and caused great damage. In 1284 Opava was given the right to stockpiles , with which the passing merchants were forced to offer their goods in the city. In 1318 the ducal court of the Duchy of Opava, founded in 1269 with Duke Nikolaus I , was relocated from Grätz to Opava. In 1325 blood jurisdiction was granted . Duke Přemysl I built a castle around 1400, which initially served as a fortress, later converted into a chateau and demolished after it fell into disrepair in 1891.
In the 15th and 16th centuries the rulers changed in quick succession. In 1460 the Bohemian Podiebrad family acquired the city, but in 1485 it was already handed over to the Hungarian King Matthias Corvinus , who was succeeded by his son Johann in 1490. Between 1501 and 1511 Sigismund I of Poland was lord of the city.
At the latest with the takeover of the Duchy of Troppau by the Habsburgs in 1526, the German place name Troppau prevailed for the next centuries. Since 1613, the respective ruling Prince of Liechtenstein has also held the title of Duke of Troppau . In 1625 the Jesuit order was called to Opava and five years later the Jesuit grammar school was founded. Then there was the Jesuit Church (1675–1680). The single-nave early baroque hall construction with a mighty barrel vault (1675/79), with frescoes by Franz Xaver Steiner (1731) in the interior, is considered the most splendid church interior, the "Pearl of Silesia". The church was almost completely destroyed in March 1945, but could be rebuilt by 1947. The Baroque appearance of the Jesuit College on Snemovni Street dates back to the years 1711 to 1723. After the dissolution of the order in 1773, this building became part of the estates and initially served as the seat of the Silesian Landtag , today it houses the Troppauer Landesarchiv.
After the Piast dying out in 1675, Opava and the neighboring duchies were part of Silesia , which was ruled by Habsburg as the land of the Bohemian Crown . When most of Silesia was lost to Prussia after Austria's defeat in the Seven Years' War , only the Troppau and Teschen regions remained with Austria.
From October 20 to December 20, 1820, the rulers of Austria, Prussia and Russia met in Troppau for the so-called Troppau Prince Congress , which was held on the occasion of the civil uprising in Naples . After the construction of the Emperor Ferdinand's Northern Railway Vienna - Cracow , which opened in 1845, Troppau was soon connected to the railway network through the Schönbrunn (now Ostrava -Svinov) - Opava - Ziegenhals connecting line opened in 1847 . (Around 1900 the trip to Vienna could be done in five to seven hours; direct through coaches from Vienna to Opava were used.) The construction of further routes from Opava to Bennisch and the neighboring Prussian Silesia created a railway junction. This had a positive influence on industrial development, and brickworks, a sugar refinery and several textile factories were established there. Urban transport mastered in 1905 a tram , in 1956 by the still existing trolley bus was replaced -Netz.
After the introduction of the Austrian constitution of 1849 , Opava became the capital of the Crown Land of Silesia, officially also the Duchy of Upper and Lower Silesia .
In addition to the state government and the Silesian state parliament, finance directorate and regional court, Troppau housed the Chamber of Commerce and Industry, German and Czech grammar schools, teacher training institutes, public library (over 35,000 volumes), state hospital, state lunatic as well as several other public institutions at the end of the 19th century. The number of inhabitants rose to 22,867 by 1890 (including 2,423 Czechs and 377 Poles).
With the establishment of Czechoslovakia after the First World War , the city became Czech in 1918/19; the claim of German Austria to Austrian Silesia could not be realized. Opava remained the administrative seat of Czech Silesia until 1928, when the area was united with Moravia .
With the Munich Agreement , the city came under German administration in October 1938, and the Troppau district was formed. On April 1, 1939, Opava became the seat of the administrative district of the same name in the Reichsgau Sudetenland . On May 1, 1939, the neighboring communities Gilschwitz, Jaktar and Katharein were incorporated. This increased the population to 45,740.
After Soviet troops conquered the city in the course of the Moravian-Ostrava operation on April 22, 1945, Troppau was reintegrated into Czechoslovakia. The German residents were expelled due to the Potsdam Agreement and the Beneš decrees ; the majority of them settled in Bamberg .
In 1991 the Silesian University was founded.
|1834||9,462||The residents are Germans who predominantly speak the written German language|
|1857||13,861||on October 31st|
|1900||26,748||with the military (2,143 men), mostly Germans (2,604 Czechs , 598 Poles )|
|1930||36,030||thereof 21,987 Germans, 11,627 Czechs and 1,484 foreigners|
|1933||48,190||Municipal boundaries from 1939|
|1939||45,740||of which 2,845 Evangelicals, 41,747 Catholics, 378 other Christians and 62 Jews|
Economy and Infrastructure
In the present day Opava is regaining the status of an important business and cultural center.
The city of Opava is part of the industrial urban center of Ostrava ( Ostrava ) and mainly produces mining equipment ago. One of the largest sugar factories in the Czech Republic, which belongs to the Austrian Agrana Group, is also located here .
Before the war, the spirits manufacturer E. Lichtwitz & Co. was particularly important. Opavia is a manufacturer of sweets from Opava. His bath wafers are known nationwide .
Education and museums
It is the seat of a number of scientific and cultural institutions that are of national importance, such as B. the Silesian State Museum . Until 1993, part of the Czech Academy of Sciences was located in Opava. The bank compartment is also widely represented here.
The Silesian University of Opava is located in the city .
From 1905 to 1956 there was a tram service in Opava . After the destruction towards the end of World War II, the entire route network could not be used again until 1947. However, sections of the route were closed for the first time as early as 1950.
After it had been decided in 1950 to replace the tram with trolleybuses , the construction of the first trolleybus connection began in 1952, which was put into operation the following year.
Today there are 11 lines with the line numbers 201 to 210 and 221. On line 221 there are trolleybuses with auxiliary diesel units, because five stops have no overhead lines. Six Solaris Trollino 12 buses and two Škoda 26Tr Solaris buses are available for this. They are to be replaced by ten Škoda 32 Tr from September 2018. These receive a 41 kWh lithium titanate oxide battery, which enables an 8 km long trip without overhead lines.
- Baroque palace: In the city several baroque palaces can be seen, u. a. the Palais Blücher-Wahlstadt
- Hedwig's Church: built according to plans by Leopold Bauer from Jägerndorf
- Heiliggeistkirche: from the 15th century , late Gothic
- Merchant's house (until 1580 town hall) with 72 m high tower
- Provost church of the Assumption: Gothic co- cathedral of the Ostrava-Troppau diocese from the 14th century, interior baroque (national cultural monument)
- St. Adalbert Church: built by the Jesuits in 1675–1679
- City theater from the 19th century.
In the Kateřinky district :
- Holy Cross Chapel: Gothic brick church from the 14th century with an octagonal floor plan (national cultural monument)
- The local ice hockey club HC Slezan Opava played in the highest Czech ice hockey league , the Extraliga , at the end of the nineties , but has since been relegated to the third division.
- The football club Slezský FC Opava ( Silesian FC Opava ) has played in the first Czech football league since the 2018/19 season.
- The basketball club BK Opava plays in the highest Czech basketball league Mattoni NBL .
- Research on the history of sports: Martin Pelc: Struktury opavského sportu 1850–1938.
sons and daughters of the town
Those born in Troppau, regardless of their place of work, in chronological order by year of birth.
- Martin von Troppau (Czech: Martin z Opavy ) († 1287), chronicler
- Franz Emerich (1496–1560), surgeon and university professor
- Amandus Polanus von Polansdorf (1561–1610), Reformed theologian
- Lazarus III. Henckel von Donnersmarck (1729–1805), German industrialist
- Joseph von Hohenzollern-Hechingen (1776–1836), Prince-Bishop of Warmia
- Hermann von Hohenzollern-Hechingen (1777–1827), Prussian major general
- Eduard von Badenfeld (1800–1860), Austrian writer
- Eduard Kuschée (1811–1890), architect
- Felix Fürst Lichnowsky (1814–1848), German politician
- Adolf Kaufmann (1848–1916), landscape and marine painter
- Johann Palisa (1848–1925), astronomer in Pola and Vienna
- Anton Schlossar (1849–1942), director of the Graz University Library and writer
- Karl Wasserrab (1851–1916) professor, economist and social reformer
- Moritz von Auffenberg (1852–1928), kuk general
- Ludwig Baumann (1853–1936), architect of the Austro-Hungarian War Ministry in Vienna
- Joseph Maria Stowasser (1854–1910), classical philologist; his Latin dictionary is still in use at Austrian grammar schools today
- Felix Woyrsch (1860–1944), composer
- Johann Paul Karplus (1866–1936), doctor
- Petr Bezruč (1867–1958), writer and poet
- Joseph Maria Olbrich (1867–1908), architect of the Vienna Secession
- Rudolf Quittner (1872–1910), painter
- Theodor von Zeynek (1873–1948), colonel, head of the quartermaster department of the army high command and translator
- Emilie Kurz (1874 – around 1934), theater and film actress
- Friedrich Hartmann (1876–1945), civil engineer and university professor
- Lucie Weidt (1876–1940), opera singer
- Walther Freiherr von Holzhausen (1876–1935), chess master
- Ernst Wolfgang Freissler (1884–1937), writer and journalist
- Raimund Mosler (1886–1959), painter
- Richard Assmann (* 1887; † 1965 in Fürstenhagen, buried in Munich), academic painter
- Otto Wenzelides (1887–1958), local history researcher
- Richard Wagner (1888–1941), writer, trade unionist, anti-fascist
- Wanda Hanke (1893–1958), ethnologist
- Alfred Jurzykowski (1899–1966), manager and art patron
- Leo Haas (1901–1983), painter, graphic artist, draftsman and caricaturist
- Bruno Nowak (1901–1940), writer under the pseudonym Gottfried Rothacker
- Ilse Ester Hoffe (1906–2007), secretary and partner of Max Brod
- Gustav Fochler-Hauke (1906–1996), geographer and professor at the University of Munich
- Walter Richard Gerlich (1908–1981), educator and politician
- Franz Bardon (1909–1958), hermetic
- Joy Adamson (1910–1980), naturalist, painter and writer
- Gerhard Gerlich (1911–1962), German politician (CDU), Member of the State Parliament (Schleswig-Holstein)
- Fritz Kruspersky (1911–1996), painter and stage designer
- Agi Prandhoff (1921–2018), actress and voice actress
- Gert Heinz Müller (1923–2006), mathematician
- Erich Kleiber (actor) (1929–1985), actor, cabaret artist, theater director and voice actor
- Helmut Niedermeyer (1926–2014), Austrian entrepreneur
- Manfred Scheich (1933–2020), Austrian ambassador
- Peter Halfar (1935–2016), painter
- Georg Lhotsky (1937–2016), Austrian actor, film director, screenwriter and producer
- Helmut Wolf (* 1937), geologist and museum director
- Walter Gillik (* 1938), German bobsleigh driver
- Christel Peschke (* 1938), stage actress
- Rüdiger Peuckert (1940–2014), German politician and entrepreneur
- Gernot Rotter (1941–2010), German orientalist, Islamic scholar, publicist and politician
- Friedrich-Carl Wodarz (* 1942), German politician (SPD)
- Gernot Bubenik (* 1942), visual artist
- Boris Rösner (1951–2006), actor
- Eduard Janota (1952–2011), economist and finance minister
- Bohdan Sláma (* 1967), film director
- Martin Wihoda (* 1967), historian
- Rostislav Haas (* 1968), German-Czech ice hockey goalkeeper and coach
- David Musial (* 1975), Czech-German ice hockey player
- Zdeněk Pospěch (* 1978), football player
- Radek Křesťan (* 1981), German-Czech ice hockey player
- Lukáš Magera (* 1983), football player
- Martin Heider (* 1986), German-Czech ice hockey player
- Jakub Holuša (* 1988), track and field athlete
- Jan Kudlička (* 1988), track and field athlete
- Radek Faksa (* 1994), ice hockey player
- Pernilla Mendesová (* 1994), tennis player
Other personalities and mayors
- Franz Ballner (1870–1963), attended grammar school and lived here from 1933 to 1945 as a senior physician. D. and ao Univ.-Professor a. D. (conscripted from 1939 to 1945)
- Eduard Freiherr von Böhm-Ermolli (1856–1941), kuk field marshal and military leader in World War I, lived and died here
- Antonín Boll (1721–1792), philosopher and Jesuit, taught here
- Ferdinand II Cavallar von Grabensprung (1845–1906), an old Austrian officer, worked here
- Faustin Ens (1782–1858), founder of the Silesian State Museum , teacher
- Albert Ferenz (1907–1994), artist and restorer, worked here from 1936 to 1942
- Aloys Fuchs (1799-1853), music researcher and music collector, received his musical training in the Minorite Monastery in Opava from 1811 to 1816
- Robert Hohlbaum (1886–1955), holder of the Troppauer cultural gift
- Leon Kellner (1859–1928), teacher and director at the kk Oberrealschule
- Georg von Kopp (1837–1914), Bishop of Fulda and Prince-Bishop of Breslau, member of the Silesian Landtag in Opava , died here
- Hans Kudlich (1823–1917), doctor and politician, known as the peasant liberator, attended high school in Opava
- Nikolaus Wilhelm Freiherr Lenk von Wolfsberg (1809–1894), kuk Feldzeugmeister, owner of Corps Artillery Regiment No. 4 and scientist
- Gregor Mendel (1822–1884), naturalist, attended high school in Opava
- Franz von Mückusch and Buchberg (1749–1837), founder of the Silesian State Museum, natural scientist
- Karl Ferdinand Borromäus Freiherr Putz von Rolsberg (1852–1921), member of the House of Representatives of the Austrian Imperial Council and large landowner
- Andreas Scultetus (around 1622 / 23–1647), late mystical poet, died here
- Kurt J. Siegel (1926–2010), state children's gymnastics supervisor of the Bavarian Gymnastics Association
- 1744–1751: Johann Paul Emmerle
- 1751–1751: Johann Leopold Elliger
- 1752–1752: Gabriel Rockert
- 1752–1755: Thomas Cipps
- 1755–1755: Johann Leopold Ellinger
- 1755–1755: Karl Josef Fuchs
- 1756-1760: Thomas Cipps
- 1760–1769: Georg Kolbe
- 1769–1778: Josef Alscher
- 1779–1785: Georg Oehler
- 1786–1791: Karl Wilhelm Emerle
- 1797–1834: Josef Johann Schößler
- 1834–1836: Leopold Lenz
- 1837–1856: Josef Rossi
- 1856–1862: Franz von Hein , politician
- 1863–1869: Karl Wilhelm Ritter von Dietrich , lawyer
- 1869–1873: Anton Heinz
- 1873–1882: Martin Woytech von Willfest
- 1882–1886: Moritz Rossy
- 1886–1887: Emil Rodler
- 1888–1892: Franz Hauer
- 1892–1908: Emil Rochowanski, lawyer
- 1908–1919: Walter Kudlich , lawyer
- 1919–1920: Alfred Wessely, governor's advisory board
- 1920–1932: Ernst Franz, teacher
- 1932–1938: Ernst Just, lawyer
- 1938–1943: Reinhart Kudlich, lawyer
- 1943–1945: Gerhard Stellwag von Carion, Magistrate Council
- 1945–1945: Artur Hrbáč
- 1945–1946: Vladislav Krejčí
- 1946–1948: Vladimír Mařádek
- 1948–1950: Josef Přikryl
- 1950–1954: Rudolf Illík
- 1954–1957: Josef Kravar
- 1957–1960: Miroslav Gottwald
- 1960–1963: Miloslav Ochmann
- 1963–1964: Drahomír Neuser
- 1964–1971: Karel Glogar
- 1971-1981: Jan Serafin
- 1981–1986: Jiří Doucha
- 1986-1989: Petr Ambroz
- 1989–1990: Štěpán Krpec
- 1990–1994: Jiří Staněk
- 1994-2002: Jan Mrázek
- 2002–2010: Zbyněk Staňura
- 2010–2014: Zdeněk Jirásek
- 2014–2015: Martin Víteček
- since 2015: Radim Křupala
- Karl Wilhelm Ritter von Dietrich (1811–1889) from 1845 to 1884 in Troppau, lawyer, founded the first volunteer fire brigade with Adolf Trassler in 1862 and in 1864 had a choir built for the Protestant parish
- Karl von Stremayr (1823–1904), Minister for Culture and Education
- Franz von Hein (1808–1890), Mayor of Troppau, Austrian Minister of Justice and first President of the Austrian Imperial Council
- City of Roth near Nuremberg, Germany
- City of Racibórz , Poland, since 1991
- City of Liptovský Mikuláš , Slovakia
Sponsorship for expellees
The city of Bamberg took over the sponsorship for expellees from Troppau on June 22, 1958 . The local "Troppauer Heimatstube" is looked after by the "Heimatkreisgemeinschaft Troppau eV"
Opava consists of the 15 districts Jaktař , Kateřinky , Komárov , Komárovské Chaloupky , Kylešovice , Malé Hoštice , Město , Milostovice , Podvihov , Předměstí , Pusté Jakartice , Suché Lazce , Vávrovice , Vlaštovičky and Zlštovičky .
The municipality is divided into 16 Katastralbezirke Držkovice , Jaktař , Jarkovice , Kateřinky u Opavy , Komárov u Opavy , Kylešovice , Malé Hoštice , Milostovice , Opava-Město , Opava-Předměstí , Palhanec , Podvihov , Suché Lazce , Vávrovice , Vlaštovičky and u Zlatníky Opavy .
|Czech name||German name||Polish name|
(1869: Diržkowitz, since 1938: Dirschkenhof)
|Malé Hoštice||Klein Hoschütz||Goszczyce Małe
|Pusté Jakartice||Wüst Jakartitz and blade bag||Blow Jakarcice|
- Faustin Ens : History of the City of Troppau. Vienna 1835 ( books.google.de e-copy).
- Faustin Ens : Description of the Oppaland and its inhabitants in general . Vienna 1836, pp. 125–180.
- Erasmus Kreuzinger: Chronicle of the old and modern times of Troppau, or Troppau and its peculiarities. A guide for locals and a guide for strangers. Kreuzinger, Troppau 1862 ( books.google.de digitized version).
- Karl August Müller: Patriotic images, or history and description of all castles and knight palaces in Silesia and the county of Glatz. Second edition, Glogau 1844, pp. 183-185 ( books.google.de ).
- Viktor Velek: Troppau. In: Oesterreichisches Musiklexikon . Online edition, Vienna 2002 ff., ISBN 3-7001-3077-5 ; Print edition: Volume 5, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna 2006, ISBN 3-7001-3067-8 .
- Website of the city of Opava
- Info center (Czech)
- staraopava.cz Historical photos and postcards (Czech)
- Website with lots of pictures
- Silesian-German Association eV
- ↑ Český statistický úřad - The population of the Czech municipalities as of January 1, 2019 (PDF; 7.4 MiB)
- ^ A b Meyers Konversations-Lexikon. 5th edition, 16th volume, Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig and Vienna 1897, p. 1054.
- ↑ Faustin Ens : Description of the Oppaland and its inhabitants in general. Vienna 1836, p. 165 ff. ( Books.google.de ).
- ↑ Statistical overviews of the population and livestock in Austria . Vienna 1859, p. 52, left column ( books.google.de ).
- ^ Carl Kořistka : The Margraviate of Moravia and the Duchy of Silesia in their geographical relationships . Vienna and Olmüz 1861, pp. 268–269 ( books.google.de ).
- ^ Meyer's Large Conversational Lexicon . 6th edition, Volume 19, Leipzig and Vienna 1909, pp. 750–751 ( zeno.org ).
- ^ A b c Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. sud_troppau.html. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).
- ↑ metro-report.com from January 15, 2018 (English), accessed on January 16, 2018.
- ↑ kostel Nanebevzetí P. Marie ÚSKP 20285 / 8-1318 in the monument catalog pamatkovykatalog.cz (Czech).
- ↑ chapter sv. Kříže, zv. Švédská ÚSKP 34449 / 8-1323 in the monument catalog pamatkovykatalog.cz (Czech).
- ↑ Struktury opavského sportu 1850–1938. Opava 2009, ISBN 978-80-7248-549-9 ( academia.edu ).
- ↑ isoldes-liebestod ( Memento of the original from July 21, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ Literaturport.de ( Memento of the original from July 19, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ painter of z. B. Hunter with a dead buck and his dog. in 1934, last on January 15, 1997, Dorotheum Vienna
- ↑ uir.cz
- ↑ uir.cz
- ↑ Political and judicial organization of the countries of Austria represented in the Reichsrathe. Publishing house of the literary-artistic establishment of C. Dittmarsch, Vienna 1869, p. 186, ( books.google.at )