|State of Grenada|
|Motto : Ever conscious of God we aspire, build and advance as one people ( eng. , "Always trusting in God, strive, build and progress as one people")|
|Form of government||Constitutional monarchy|
|Head of state||Queen Elizabeth II
represented by Governor General Cécile La Grenade
|Head of government||Keith Mitchell|
|Population density||314 inhabitants per km²|
gross domestic product
|Human Development Index||0.744 (79.)|
|currency||East Caribbean Dollar (XCD)|
|independence||February 7, 1974
(from the UK )
|National anthem||Hail Grenada|
|National holiday||February 7th (Independence Day)|
|Time zone||UTC − 4|
|License Plate||Flat share|
|Telephone code||+1 (473) see NANP|
Grenada , officially State of Grenada ([ greˈnaːda ], English State of Grenada ), is an island state and the name of an island belonging to the Lesser Antilles , which geographically belongs to the Leeward Islands in the Caribbean Sea. The island state forms an independent member state of the Commonwealth of Nations .
The state consists of several islands of the Grenadines archipelago , a sub- archipelago of the Lesser Antilles , of which Grenada itself is the largest; smaller islands are Carriacou , Petite Martinique , Ronde Island , Caille Island , Diamond Island , Large Island , Saline Island , Les Tantes and Frigate Island . The northern part of the Grenadines is part of the neighboring state of St. Vincent and the Grenadines . The majority of the population lives on the main island of Grenada, where the capital St. George’s as well as the cities of Grenville and Gouyave are also located. The largest settlement on the smaller islands is Hillsborough on Carriacou.
The islands are of volcanic origin and have fertile soils. West of Ronde Island and about 8 km north of the main island Grenada lies the only still active volcano in this region, the Kick-'em-Jenny, at a depth of 180 m . The interior of the island of Grenada is very mountainous. The highest point is Mount Saint Catherine with an altitude of 840 meters above sea level. Numerous small rivers have their source in the mountains, forming two large lakes: Lake Antoine and Grand Etang Lake . In the course of the rivers there are two notable waterfalls: Annendale Falls and Concord Falls . The climate is tropical: hot and humid in the rainy season and a little cooler in the dry season. Grenada is located on the southern edge of the hurricane belt and has only suffered three hurricanes in the last 50 years , but two of them since 2004.
More than 95 percent of the inhabitants of Grenada are wholly or partially descended from Africans who were brought to the island for slave labor by the European colonialists . Few remnants of the originally resident Caribs have survived the conquest of the island by the French in the 17th century. About three percent of the Grenaders have predominantly Indian ancestors who were brought to Grenada as forced laborers from what is now the Indian states of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh in the 19th century . There is also a small minority of European descent, mainly of French and British ancestry.
The official language is English . Besides are creoles in use. The Grenada Creole is considered the lingua franca of the population. The Antilles Creole , which is rooted in the French patois , is only spoken by a few elderly people in remote rural settlements (as of 1998). Individual words from Hindi and other Indian languages are still used in the Grenaders of Indian origin .
About 64 percent of the population are Catholic and 22 percent are Anglicans . The largest Protestant community are the Adventists with 6 percent. 5 percent belong to different Pentecostal churches , 2 percent are Methodists and around 0.5 to 1 percent are Baptists in Grenada .
Other religious communities with Christian roots are the Jehovah's Witnesses with almost one percent of the total population and the syncretistic Spitual Baptists . They number around 300 members and have their roots in Trinidad and Tobago .
Today, like many other Caribbean islands, Grenada is a country of emigration with large numbers of young people leaving the country. It is estimated that in addition to the approximately 100,000 people who inhabit the islands, at least as many born grenadians live in other parts of the Caribbean ( e.g. Barbados , Trinidad and Tobago ) and at least as many in industrialized countries (particularly in the USA , Great Britain and Canada ). This means that only around a third of the native Grenaders still live there.
Grenada was discovered by Columbus in 1498 , he called the island "Concepción". The origin of the name "Grenada" is unknown. It is believed that the island was later renamed after the city of Granada by Spanish sailors .
The Spaniards did not colonize the island, which was inhabited by the warlike Caribs . The English later tried in vain to colonize the island, but had to withdraw in 1609. Local chiefs sold land to French traders from 1649 . The French soon subjugated the island militarily, and the Caribbean population was practically completely exterminated. The French called the new colony "La Grenade" (later called "Grenada" by the British) and in 1650 founded the capital and port city "Fort Royal", later St. George’s , which soon developed into the most important French naval base in the Caribbean .
The island remained under French control until it was conquered by the British in the Seven Years' War in 1762. Grenada was ceded to the United Kingdom in the Peace of Paris in 1763 , but the French have not yet given up their previous possessions. During the American War of Independence , the island was re-conquered by the French in 1779, but returned to Great Britain in the Peace of Paris (1783) . Even if the British had to put down a pro-French uprising in 1795, Grenada was finally part of the British Empire . Grenada was administered as part of the British Windward Islands and was granted crown colony status in 1877 . On February 1, 1881, the colony joined the Universal Postal Union .
20th century: independence and revolution
Active and passive voting rights for women were introduced under British administration on August 1, 1951 .
From 1958 to 1962 the island was part of the West Indian Federation . In 1974 Grenada became independent under Prime Minister Eric Gairy , who had good relations with the US and Great Britain. The women's suffrage was confirmed at independence. Gairy ruled increasingly dictatorial and maintained a secret police to suppress counter-movements. Gairy's government was overthrown in 1979 in a bloodless revolution by the leftist New Jewel Movement (NJM) under Maurice Bishop . Bishop wanted Grenada to be non-aligned and to have good relations with the USA as well as with the Soviet Union and Cuba . Relations with the US deteriorated rapidly after 1981, when Ronald Reagan became President of the United States , and a boycott was imposed on Grenada by the US government. Social reforms (including free health care, building new schools) ensured Maurice Bishop's popularity among the population. Under his administration, a consortium led by a British company began building Point Salines Airport . This should stimulate tourism. The human rights situation improved, although, as was the case under Gairy, no free elections were held. In a coup d'état in 1983, Bishop was deposed by internal party rivals for his Vice Prime Minister Bernard Coard and later murdered by the military.
U.S. invasion 1983
After the coup d'état against Bishop, the Governor General of Grenada Paul Scoon - acting as Head of State of Grenada as representative of Queen Elizabeth II - and the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States asked the United States to intervene. Scoon stood as a representative of the British Crown against the British government under Margaret Thatcher , which refused to intervene.
On October 25, 1983, citing Scoon's request, the United States launched an invasion with the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States ( Operation Urgent Fury ), as a result of which the NJM government was overthrown. The international legal legitimacy of the intervention was highly controversial; the use was criticized , among others, by the US allies Great Britain and Canada as well as by the UN General Assembly . The operation was initially justified with the aim of guaranteeing the safety of US citizens on Grenada. It is more likely that the US government feared that Grenada would lean heavily on Cuba and Nicaragua . After some of Coard's supporters were arrested and later sentenced to long prison terms, elections were held in 1984 and have been held regularly since then and are considered free.
Grenada in the 21st century
In the years 2000 to 2002 a truth-finding and reconciliation commission, which also received international attention, tried to come to terms with the events of 1979 to 1984.
In early September 2004, Grenada was badly affected by Hurricane Ivan . 95% of the houses in the capital St. George's have been destroyed or damaged. The island's important agricultural plantations were devastated. The loss of more than 35 lives was to be lamented. The drinking water and power supply collapsed.
In July 2005 Grenada was hit again by a hurricane - Hurricane Emily . The storm claimed at least one death in Grenada. Some buildings and the infrastructure were damaged again. Export-oriented agriculture was hit worst, as Emily destroyed numerous nutmeg trees.
As a Commonwealth Realm, Grenada is a monarchy under the British Crown, so the British Queen Elizabeth II is also Queen of Grenada and its head of state. The British Crown is represented by a Governor General (since May 2013: Dame Cécile Ellen Fleurette La Grenade). The real executive power rests in the hands of the Grenadin Prime Minister. This is formally appointed by the Governor General. As is usual in parliamentary democracies, the head of government is determined on the basis of the political balance of power in the parliamentary elections. Usually the prime minister comes from the strongest party in parliament.
The parliament consists of a Senate (thirteen members) and a House of Representatives (fifteen members). The senators are appointed by the government and the opposition, while the representatives are elected by the population in five-year terms. The New National Party (NNP) won all 15 seats in the elections on March 13, 2018 (as in the previous legislative term). The National Democratic Congress (NDC) , which ruled from 2008 to 2013, came away empty-handed. Keith Claudius Mitchell of the NNP, who ruled the country from 1995 to 2008, has been prime minister again since 2013.
Grenada has had no standing army since the US invasion in 1983 ; defense is the responsibility of the US.
Grenada shares a common central bank and currency with seven other member states of the OECS , the East Caribbean dollar . The economic situation in Grenada in recent years has been shaped mainly by the tourism, construction and trade sectors, favored by tax reforms and a solid financial policy. In the course of the financial market crisis, however, there was a sharp slump in tourism in numerous Caribbean countries, which resulted in a sharp rise in current account and budget deficits. In March 2013, Grenada - like some other Caribbean countries in previous years - was no longer able to service bonds and became insolvent.
The main source of income and foreign exchange as well as the largest employer in Grenada is tourism. Today there is a large selection of hotels, but also many small pensions, guest houses and holiday apartments. Tourism is concentrated in the southwest of the main island around St. George's, Grand Anse, Lance Aux Epines and Point Salines. Grenada has many attractive tourist beaches on its coasts. The 3 km long Grand Anse Beach in St George's is even considered to be one of the most beautiful beaches in the world. Conventional beach and water sports tourism is concentrated in this zone, while ecotourism , which is growing in importance, is concentrated in the parishes of Saint David and Saint John . Since the construction of a large pier for cruise ships, cruise tourism has also increased enormously; In the 2007/2008 season, up to four cruise ships called at St. George's every day.
The nutmeg is Grenada's main export product and is even featured on the national flag as a symbol of Grenada's agriculture. Before Hurricane Ivan in 2004, 20% of world nutmeg consumption came from Grenada, which was the second largest nutmeg producer in the world after Indonesia . Since the nutmeg trees were badly damaged by the hurricane, one of the three nutmeg factories on the island had to close. Grenada is currently only 4th or 5th in world nutmeg production. New nutmeg trees need about 15 years before they can produce a rich harvest again. In the meantime, the islanders have tried to grow and sell more cocoa. Grenada chocolate is very rich in cocoa, contains at least 60% cocoa, little cane sugar and cocoa butter, which is why it does not melt even in warm climates. It has an extraordinary taste, as there is no monoculture on Grenada and the plant grows in optimal climate and soil conditions.
In addition to spices, cocoa, bananas and sugar are other important export goods.
The unemployment rate is given as 24% in 2017 and is therefore very high. In 2008, 11% of all workers worked in agriculture, 69% in the service sector and 20% in industry. The total number of employees is estimated at 55,270 for 2017.
Grenada's most important transport hubs are Point Salines International Airport (IATA: GND, ICAO: TGPY), now known as Maurice Bishop International Airport (MBIA) , and the port of St. George's. International air connections exist to other Caribbean islands, the United States and Europe. There is a daily ferry service between St. George's and Hillsborough.
- Gross National Product 2010: $ 773 million (approx. EUR 566 million)
- 2010 gross national product per inhabitant: 6,918 dollars (approx. 5,068 EUR)
The state budget included expenditures in 2017 of the equivalent of 284.6 million US dollars , which were income equivalent to 279.2 million US Dollar against. This results in a budget deficit of 0.5% of GDP .
The national debt in 2017 was about 790 million US dollars or about 72% of GDP.
In 2006, the share of government expenditure (as a percentage of GDP) was as follows:
- Health : 6.9%
- Education : 5.2% (2003)
- Military : k. A. (Grenada does not have a military in the strict sense of the word)
- Saskia Thorbecke: Grenada. In: Wolfgang Gieler , Markus Porsche-Ludwig (Hrsg.): State dictionary America: Geography, history, culture, politics and economy. Peter Lang, Berlin 2018, ISBN 978-3-631-77017-7 , pp. 197-206.
- Page of the government of Grenada
- Site with information about tourism in Grenada
- Country information from the Federal Foreign Office on Grenada
- Database of indexed literature on the social, political and economic situation in Grenada
- Germany radio broadcast on the 25th anniversary of the coup and its background - script
- Grenada Names First Female Governor General, Cecile La Grenade . English. Caribbean Journal of April 10, 2013. Online at caribjournal.com.
-  (PDF) International Monetary Fund
- Human Development Report Office: Grenada - Country Profile: Human Development Indicators , accessed October 25, 2014
- Kick 'em Jenny. Retrieved April 9, 2018 .
- World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations. Retrieved July 28, 2017 .
- Art. Grenada . In: Colin Baker, Sylvia Prys Jones: Encyclopedia of bilingualism and bilingual education . Multilingual Matters, Clevedon 1998, ISBN 1-85359-362-1 , p. 389.
- Foreign Office: Grenada
- On the Grenadian Baptists, see Justice C. Anderson: An Evangelical Saga: Baptists and Their Precursors in Latin America . Xulon Press: [no location] 2005. ISBN 1-59781-495-4 . Pp. 558-561
- Justice C. Anderson: An Evangelical Saga: Baptists and Their Precursors in Latin America . Xulon Press: [no location] 2005. ISBN 1-59781-495-4 . P. 561
- Mart Martin: The Almanac of Women and Minorities in World Politics. Westview Press Boulder, Colorado, 2000, p. 155.
- - New Parline: the IPU's Open Data Platform (beta). In: data.ipu.org. August 1, 1951, accessed October 2, 2018 .
- Script of a DLF contribution on the 25th anniversary of the operation "Urgent Fury" , October 24, 2008
- Grenada General Election Results - 13 March 2018. Retrieved on August 7, 2018 .
- Source: Central Statistical Office of Grenada
- Trend: EU wants new black list of tax havens
- The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency. Accessed August 6, 2018 .
- The World Factbook
- The Fischer World Almanac 2010: Figures Data Facts, Fischer, Frankfurt, September 8, 2009, ISBN 978-3-596-72910-4