|Matanitu ko Viti (Fiji)
फ़िजी गणराज्य (Fiji-Hindi)
Republic of Fiji (English)
Fijī Gaṇarājya (Fiji Hindi)
|Republic of Fiji|
Motto : Rerevaka na Kalou ka Doka na Tui
(Fiji: for "Fear God and honor the queen" )
|Official language||Fiji , Fiji Hindi and English|
|Form of government||republic|
|Government system||Parliamentary unicameral system|
|Head of state||
|Head of government||
|population||915,696 (end of 2018)|
|Population density||46 inhabitants per km²|
gross domestic product
|Gross domestic product per inhabitant||2016|
|Human Development Index||0.736 ( 91st ) (2016)|
|currency||Fijian Dollar (FJD)|
|independence||October 10, 1970
(from the UK )
Meda Dau Doka / (God Bless Fiji)
|National holiday||October 10 (Independence Day)|
|Time zone||UTC + 12|
|ISO 3166||FJ , FJI, 242|
Fiji , officially the Republic of Fiji (in Fiji : Viti or Matanitu ko Viti ; English Fiji or Republic of Fiji ), is an island nation in the South Pacific north of New Zealand and east of Australia . Fiji has been independent since 1970 and a republic since 1987 with the capital Suva on the island of Viti Levu . Fiji has been a parliamentary democracy since the democratic election on September 17, 2014 . The previous Prime Minister Frank Bainimarama won 59.20 percent of the vote and was thus re-elected.
Fiji is an isolated group of islands in the Southwest Pacific and is located approximately 2,100 kilometers north of Auckland , New Zealand . The total coastline is 1129 kilometers. The archipelago consists of 332 islands with a total area of 18,274 square kilometers, 110 of which are inhabited. Outside the Fiji archipelago, the island of Rotuma in the extreme north and the atoll Ceva-i-Ra in the extreme southwest of the state of Fiji.
The main islands of Viti Levu (10,429 km²) and Vanua Levu (5556 km²) cover almost nine-tenths of the country's area and, like most of the Fiji islands, are of volcanic origin, the smaller ones formed from coral reefs. On the two large islands there are rugged mountain ranges that rise above narrow coastal plains and offshore coral reefs. The highest mountain is the Tomanivi (formerly: Mount Victoria ) on Viti Levu at . In addition to Viti Levu and Vanua Levu, Taveuni (470 km²), Kadavu (411 km²) and Gau and Koro (each 140 km²) are of a certain size.
There is a tropical, hot and humid climate with temperatures of 16 to 32 degrees Celsius. In the summer with higher rainfall, from November to April, tropical cyclones (cyclones) attack the South Pacific. Statistically, the archipelago will be affected by 10 to 12 cyclones in 10 years, two to three of which cause severe damage. In the winter months from May to October, steady southeast winds bring cooler air. This meets warm equatorial air (South Pacific Convergence Zone) and causes cloud formation and rainfall. These weather conditions, caused by trade winds , bring heavy rainfall, especially to the mountainous, densely forested southeast coast of the main island (Viti Levu). The western slopes with sparse trees and grasslands are much drier. Over two-thirds of the land area of Fiji is forested and only a small percentage is grazing.
Before 2007, regional reforms took place in the Central and Western Divisions, which particularly affected Suva , which had to cede areas to the newly founded city of Nasinu and Nausori . Together with Nausori and Nasinu, Suva forms the Suva-Nausori corridor agglomeration . The largest cities are (as of September 17, 2017): Suva with 93,870 inhabitants, Nasinu with 92,043 inhabitants, Lautoka with 71,573 inhabitants, Nadi with 71,048 inhabitants and Nausori with 57,882 inhabitants. Fiji distinguishes between two categories of cities, the 12 incorporated cities / towns , which are made up of the urban area and surrounding areas and have their own city administration, and the seven unincorporated towns without their own city administration.
Flora and fauna
Mangroves can be found on the coasts , while in the interior of the larger islands either tropical rainforest (on the windward sides ) or savannah formations naturally predominate. Due to its isolated location, Fiji is home to its own flora and fauna, made up of species that themselves or their ancestors were able to cross the vastness of the Pacific Ocean, especially from the west. This was done either on its own (e.g. sea birds), passively e.g. B. by drift by floating debris or possibly in the course of catastrophic events such as tsunamis or tropical cyclones.
The fresh waters of Fiji are populated by a total of 53 species of fresh and brackish water fish, mainly the families of gobies and sleeper gobies , with nine and six species respectively. The milkfish , three types of flag tails , four types of mullets and three types of the pipefish genus Microphis live near the coast in brackish water . Predatory fish are the three species of river eel , the moray eel Gymnothorax polyuranodon , which migrates into fresh water, and the barramundi . Some carp fish were introduced by humans , including the carp , the silver carp and the bluebird , viviparous tooth carps such as the guppy , swordtail and mosquito fish , as well as three species of cichlids of the genus Oreochromis .
Also remarkable is the occurrence of two endemic frog species here - Platymantis vitianus (English name: "Fiji Ground Frog") and Platymantis vitiensis (English name: "Fiji Tree Frog"). Aside from the human-introduced cane toad , these are the only amphibians in Fiji. Both show a direct development - so fully developed young frogs, not tadpoles, hatch from their eggs laid on land . Platymantis vitiensis is also one of the few species of frogs in the world in which not only the males but also the females are capable of vocalizations. In particular, the ground-dwelling frog Platymantis vitianus , which was once native to many islands in Fiji, is now at great risk. The main reason is the introduction of mongooses - here probably the little mongoose - for the purpose of rat control. Today this species of frog occurs almost exclusively on islands without mongoose (Ovalau, Taveuni, Gau, Viwa and a single population on Vanua Levu).
It was not until 1979 that one of the archipelago's largest reptiles was discovered and scientifically described two years later, the Fiji crested iguana ( Brachylophus vitiensis ). This green lizard with white “zebra stripes”, yellow nostrils and a back crest made of horn tips can grow up to a meter long. However, it is acutely threatened with extinction and only occurs in a few thousand specimens on individual western side islands such as Yadua Taba, Monuriki and Macuata, after their habitats elsewhere due to fire, storms, habitat change for agriculture, feral goats and feeding pressure from abandoned predators (mongooses , Cats) were destroyed. In total, the reptile fauna of the archipelago consists of 36 species.
Fiji's bird life includes around 150 species, 23 of which are endemic. These endemic species include the Fiji Goshawk ( Accipiter rufitorques ), orange , Goldfrucht- and emerald dove ( Ptilinopus victor, P. luteovirens, P. layardi ) and the rufous pigeon ( Ducula latrans ), five or six parrot species of the family Psittacidae , including the red-throated lorikeet ( Charmosyna amabilis ), three Honigfresser (Meliphagidae), the Kandavufächerschwanz ( Rhipidura personata ), four types of monarch (Monarchidae), the long-legged thicketbird ( Megalurulus rufus ) and the leaves Skitterer ( Cettia ruficapilla ) and the Layardbrillenvogel ( Zosterops explorator ) and the black-fronted parrot finch ( Erythrura kleinschmidti ). The Macgillivray petrel should also be mentioned as an endemic bird of Fiji that is close to extinction .
Only a few mammals have made it to the remote archipelago without human help. Significantly, these are the flighty bats , several species of which are native to Fiji, including the endemic monkey- faced fruit bat ( Pteralopex acrodonta ) on Taveuni.
The Vuata Ono Marine Protected Area was established to protect the marine flora and fauna .
Around 32% of the country's population is under 14 years old, 65% between 15 and 64 years old, and 4.5% of the population is over 64 years old. The growth rate in 2006 was just under 1.4%, with a birth rate of 22.55 births per 1000 inhabitants and a death rate of 5.65 per 1000 inhabitants. The life expectancy is at birth is about 69.9 years (67.3 for men, 72.5 for women).
According to the 2017 census, Fiji has 884,887 residents.
Source: Fiji Bureau of Statistics - Key Statistics: 1.2A Census population of Fiji by ethnicity.
The country's population consists of 57.3% members of the original Fijian population ( iTaukei - predominantly Melanesians with a Polynesian influence) and about 37.6% (fluctuating) Indians. 1.2% of the population are Rotumans . There are also minorities of other Pacific islanders, Europeans and Chinese . Many Indians have left Fiji since 1987.
The official languages are Fijian ( Bauan , the dialect of the island of Bau ), which is one of the Austronesian Malayo-Polynesian languages , Fiji-Hindi and English. Fiji-English is a basilect of the underprivileged. The population of Indian origin speaks Fiji-Hindi (also "Fiji Talk", a variant of the Hindustani in addition to Hindi and Urdu ). Lauan and Rotuman are also spoken.
In 2007, 55.4% of the population described themselves as Protestant Christians, of which 34.6% are Methodists , 5.7% followers of the Assembly of God , 3.9% seven-day Adventists and 0.8% Anglicans . Smaller Protestant churches such as the Baptists in Fiji made up a total of 10.4% of the population. 9.1% are Roman Catholic . 27.9% of the total population are Hindus , 6.3% are Muslims and 0.3% are Sikhs . As a result of Christian proselytizing, less than 0.3% of the population belong to the traditional Melanesian and Polynesian religions, 0.7% of the population did not state any religion.
Originally the school system was based on the British system. Schooling now mostly takes place through local committees. Lessons are increasingly being taught separately by ethnic group. Hitting with a whip has only been prohibited since 2002 . School attendance is compulsory for eight years.
The University of the South Pacific , founded in 1968, is located in the capital Suva, to which , in addition to Fiji, the Pacific states of the Cook Islands , Solomon Islands , Kiribati , Marshall Islands , Nauru , Niue , Samoa , Tokelau , Tonga , Tuvalu and Vanuatu are allowed to send a certain number of students . The number of students is 8600.
The private University of Fiji , founded in 2004, is in the development phase. In 2008 the first graduates were dismissed. There is one campus each in Lautoka and Suva. Vice-Chancellor (2019) is the well-known writer Subramani .
Tropical diseases do not occur; about 0.11% are HIV- positive (UNAIDS.org 2005). 290 doctors practice in Fiji.
The archipelago has been inhabited by Melanesians for more than 3000 years, who presumably immigrated from Southeast Asia . The indigenous people lived from agriculture (tuber cultivation), pig farming and fishing under primitive social conditions. They took on many elements of Polynesian culture through contact with other island populations. In the course of the dissolution of early social structures, gentilaristocratic chief dynasties emerged.
On February 6, 1643, Fiji was sighted by Abel Tasman , visited by James Cook in 1774 , and explored by Jules Dumont d'Urville in 1827 . After occasional visits by sandalwood cutters between 1801 and 1813, European planters settled there who began to grow cotton from around 1860. In 1835 representatives of British mission societies began their work.
In 1871 a sham constitution based on the British model was enacted with Cakobau as king (title: Tui Viti ) and a Council of Chiefs , until Fiji was declared a crown colony on October 10, 1874 . Australian and British companies then concentrated on growing sugar cane. They brought the first Indian recruited workers into the country on May 14, 1879 - a total of 61,000 by 1916 - whose descendants formed the majority of the population between 1946 and 1997. In 1881 the island of Rotuma Island was attached to the crown colony.
Second World War
The way to independence
In 1960 there was a nationwide strike by sugar cane growers .
In 1966 Fiji achieved internal autonomy, on October 10, 1970, it gained full independence under the Commonwealth of Nations and became a member of the United Nations . The head of state was the British Queen, Elizabeth II , and the country's first Prime Minister was Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara .
In 1987 Indian parties won the elections. However, through two successive military coups led by Sitiveni Rabuka on May 14 and September 25 of the same year, the Melanesians' supremacy was restored and at the same time the previous constitutional monarchy was converted into a republic , whereupon the Commonwealth excluded the country from its ranks in October . The republican constitution of 1990 solidified the undemocratic state by elevating the Melanesian hegemony to constitutional status. The political unrest (strikes, political turmoil), bad harvests and falling world market prices for sugar led to a decline in the economy and a mass exodus of the country's Indian population, which was politically oppressed by the Melanesians but dominated by the economy, and which continues today. In 1994, Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara became president and the following year convened a commission to review the constitution. As a result, a new constitution was drafted that restored equality for all population groups and came into force in July 1997. Fiji was re-admitted to the Commonwealth that same year.
In May 1999, Mahendra Chaudhry , leader of the Fiji Labor Party (FLP), became the country's new prime minister after his party's election victory. The first head of government of Indian origin formulated the end of tensions between the individual ethnic groups as the most important domestic political goal. Chaudry and the entire cabinet were taken hostage on May 19, 2000 by putschists led by businessman George Speight and with the support of conservative forces. Frank Bainimarama , chief of the armed forces, declared President Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara to be deposed after the coup and himself to be the new ruler of the island state. The intervention of the military ended the coup, but at the same time meant the temporary end of the brief phase of political development and equality of the Indo-Fijians.
After the hostages were released, on July 13, 2000, the Grand Council of Tribal Chiefs elected Ratu Josefa Iloilo as the new head of the state. According to the putschists' demands, the cabinet of the new head of government Laisenia Qarase only included one minister of Indian origin. On September 10, 2001, Qarase was appointed Prime Minister by President Iloilo after the election victory of his United Fiji Party (SDL), which he had founded a few months earlier - it represents the interests of the indigenous population. Qarase refused, according to constitutional custom, to allow the largest opposition party - Chaudhry's multi-ethnic Labor Party - to participate in the cabinet composition. The formation of a government turned out to be problematic and the ethnic tensions in the country deepened. The announcement by the head of government in the early summer of 2005 that an amnesty would have been initiated that would have given the coup plotters of 2000, especially leader George Speight, the early freedom, caused renewed excitement. Likewise, the land in the coastal areas should be redistributed and in the course of this, the original Fijians should displace the Indian minority in these areas. After strong protests against the project, Qarase agreed to revise the draft law.
In May 2006 the House of Representatives was elected . On December 5, 2006 (Fiji time = GMT + 12), the military began the fourth coup in just 20 years. Roadblocks have been set up around the capital, Suva, and Prime Minister Laisenia Qarase and some ministers have been placed under house arrest. Military chief Frank Bainimarama declared the Qarase government deposed. The reasons given were persistent corruption within the Qaras government, despite repeated warnings, and a controversial amnesty plan for those involved in the 2000 coup who tried to kill him at the time. In addition, Bainimarama accused the Prime Minister of stirring up ethnic tensions between the native Fijians (Melanesians) and the Fijians of Indian origin, who make up more than 40% of the population. "Much larger illegal activities" can be seen here than in the thoroughly illegal coup. He also said democracy is good for the people, but should not be used to hide corruption. The assessment of this coup as a dictatorial coup in the classic sense is controversial on the international political stage.
On January 4, 2007, Bainimarama surprisingly returned power to President Iloilo. The interim premier Jona Senilagakali also gave up his office. In a speech, Iloilo approved the military's approach and announced the establishment of a transitional government and new elections. As the new head of government, Bainimarama was sworn in on January 5, 2007.
In April 2009, an appeals court ruled that the military government was illegal and asked the president to form a new government. Iloilo then suspended the constitution and dismissed all judges. He announced that a transitional government would be set up to prepare democratic elections by 2014. Contrary to the instructions of the court of appeal not to use Frank Bainimarama or his predecessor Laisenia Qarase, Bainimarama was again head of government.
On May 2, 2009, Fiji was suspended from participation in the Pacific Islands Forum after Bainimarama missed a deadline to restore democracy in Fiji. However, Fiji remains a member of the forum.
Membership in the Commonwealth of Nations was suspended on September 1, 2009 , after its demand that democratic elections be held in Fiji by October 2010 at the latest went unheeded. Bainimarama insists on its road map , which did not include democratic elections until 2014. This is how much time it takes to successfully fight corruption in the country and form the basis for an elected democratic government. As a result of the exclusion, Fiji lost its eligibility to participate in Commonwealth meetings and sports events (such as the Commonwealth Games in 2010) and eligibility to receive technical support from the Commonwealth. In addition, Fiji was no longer represented with its national flag or other symbols at the headquarters of the Commonwealth and at Commonwealth events , but still formally remained a member of the organization. In early 2011, the government changed the official state name from Republic of the Fiji Islands to Republic of Fiji . Fiji had this name from the abolition of the monarchy in 1987 to the entry into force of the 1997 constitution.
In 2013, a new constitution came into force, according to which all citizens, regardless of their origin, are Fijians with equal rights. The previous political privileges of the indigenous population were abolished.
Elections were held in 2014 . Thereupon the suspensions in the international organizations were lifted. During the years of military rule, Australia and New Zealand also stopped developing aid. China stepped into the breach with loans. In early 2018, former Prime Minister Sitiveni Rabuka estimated that repaying this accrued debt could be difficult.
Presidency of the 23rd UN Climate Change Conference
The Republic of Fiji was selected in mid-November 2016 at the 22nd UN Climate Change Conference in Marrakech to chair the 23rd UN Climate Change Conference in Bonn 2017 . Since the expected number of 15,000 to 20,000 participants could not gather together in one place on their territory , the seat of the UN Climate Secretariat in Bonn was chosen as the venue .
The head of government is the prime minister who sets the guidelines for politics. The prime minister is elected by the unicameral parliament. From the parliamentary elections in September 2014, the party went FijiFirst of Frank Bainimarama out with an absolute majority as election winner. He was ultimately elected by the parliament as head of government and thus replaced the military government led under him.
The parliament has 51 seats. It was reinstated in 2014 after the military government on the basis of the new constitution, but converted from a bicameral parliament into a one-chamber parliament . There are currently three parties in Parliament:
In the 2019 Democracy Index, the country ranks 81st out of 167 countries, making it a "hybrid regime" with both democratic and authoritarian elements.
The most common crimes in Fiji are theft and alcohol-related violence. After the 2000 coup, many Fijians exercised vigilante justice , particularly against Indo-Fijians. There are currently around 960 inmates in prisons. There is no death penalty .
Until 2006 homosexual acts were banned, but the constitution did not allow discrimination. Such a contradicting rule existed only in Fiji in the world. After a convict appealed and this was upheld, the Senate revised the law. Since then homosexual acts are no longer punishable.
Fiji's international reputation suffered greatly as a result of the coups in 1987, 2000 and 2006 as well as the discrimination against Indo-Fijians by the Melanesians . The main contact and trading partners are Australia and New Zealand . In addition, efforts are made to maintain good relations with the other Pacific states, especially with their direct neighbors Samoa and Tonga . The small Pacific state of Tuvalu is in negotiations with the Fiji Islands for the purpose of land acquisition; however, these negotiations were postponed indefinitely after the coup in 2000.
The armed forces of Fiji ( Republic of Fiji Military Forces ) consist of the components army and navy and comprise 3500 soldiers , including approx. 300 marines, with a population of 853,445 (status: estimated at the end of 2006). Most of the soldiers are Fijians. About 20 percent are in UN services. Fiji spends around $ 32 million a year on the military, equipped with a helicopter and armored vehicles. The army has already carried out four coups against the government within 20 years .
The divisions are divided into 14 provinces (yasana).
The four divisions are:
( middle )
( east )
( north )
( west )
After the coup in 2000, economic output fell by 12.5 percent. Many Indo-Fijian professionals emigrate because of the social problems in the country. The unemployment is currently about five percent. 82 percent of Fiji's energy needs are currently generated from hydropower .
The most important cultivated products include sugar cane , ginger , coconuts , rice , cocoa , coffee , taro , pineapple and tobacco . The basis of the country's industry is the processing of products from agriculture , forestry and fishing .
Sugar cane has been Fiji's most important agricultural raw material since the colonial era and, in its refined form, is an important export product alongside fish, textiles, wood and coconut oil. The political unrest with the coup in 1987 and the subsequent economic crisis led to a greater diversification of exports. Today the sugar industry , the textile and clothing industry and tourism are the main sources of income in the country. More than 100,000 people are employed in the three sectors, which generated export revenues of 1.1 billion Fiji dollars (2004).
Fiji has large gold deposits . In 2000 the annual production was 3675 kilograms.
The economic importance of tourism is increasing. Fiji is by far the top tourist destination in the South Pacific. French Polynesia , in second place, had only about half as many tourists in 2003 (212,767) and Samoa fewer than a quarter (92,313). The number of tourists rises and falls with the political situation in the country. After the coup in 2000, the number of tourists fell to 294,070 from 409,955 in the previous year. In 2003, the number of arrivals had recovered to 430,800. Most of the tourists came from Australia (32.9%), New Zealand (17.4%), the United Kingdom (11.6%) and Japan (5.4%).
The most attractive destinations for tourists are small resort islands on the Mamanucas , the Yasawas or beaches on the Coral Coast on the main island of Viti Levu . On Taveuni and Vanua Levu also plays diving tourism a role. Tourists receive an entry permit for four months upon entry and upon presentation of a return flight ticket and sufficient financial means.
The gross domestic product (GDP) is 4.70 billion US dollars (2016). The service sector has a share of 70.7 percent, industry 18.1 percent and agriculture 11.3 percent. This results in a GDP per inhabitant of 5233 US dollars, making Fiji one of the middle-income countries.
The currency in Fiji is the Fijian Dollar .
The national debt amounted to 47.0% of GDP in 2016.
In 2006, the share of government expenditure (as a percentage of GDP) was as follows:
With the airports Nadi and Nausori (near Suva) Fiji has two international airports. The Fiji Islands have their own airline, Fiji Airways , with which they mainly fly to the surrounding islands. The state of Fiji (51%) and Qantas (46.05%) control the majority of the shares. In addition to Fiji Airways, there is the domestic airline Sun Air. The length of the road network in Fiji is 3,440 kilometers, the rail network is 595 kilometers, but is limited to railways for the transport of sugar cane to the refinery in Lautoka . There are no passenger trains; local public transport is handled by omnibus.
Fiji is one of the most important transportation hubs in the southern part of the Pacific Ocean. Regular shipping connections exist with the USA , Canada , Australia , New Zealand and some Pacific islands. The main port is the capital Suva. The port of Lautoka , a center of the sugar industry, is also important .
Celebrations and holidays
The biggest festival in Fiji is the Hibiscus Festival, which is celebrated for one week in the capital Suva in August. The country's public holidays are New Year (January 1st), Easter (Good Friday through Easter Monday), National Youth Day (in March), Ratu Sir Lala Sukuna Day (in May or June), the British Queen's birthday (celebrated on a Monday around June 14th), Constitution Day (in July), Independence Day (on a Monday around October 10th), the birthday of the Prophet Mohammed (in July), the Hindu festival of lights Divali (in October or November), Christmas (December 25th) and Boxing Day (December 26th). The latter holiday goes back to the British tradition.
The national sport in Fiji is rugby union (rugby 15). Fiji is one of the twelve best rugby nations in the world. The country regularly participates in rugby world championships as well as the Pacific Nations Cup . Fiji is even more successful in rugby 7 , the rules of which are based on those of rugby 15. The national team of 7 has won two of the previous five events of the 7th Rugby World Cup , three times the renowned IRB Sevens World Series and all three rugby tournaments at the World Games .
The country's greatest sporting success is winning the gold medal in men's rugby 7 at the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro. Fiji is the first Pacific island nation in Oceania to win a gold medal at the Summer Olympics . Because of this success, a $ 7 bill was introduced in Fiji.
Fiji, however, like the other island states, has to struggle with some problems: Since the republic is quite small, there are hardly any sponsors who would guarantee the professional practice of the sport. The larger nations in Oceania , Australia and New Zealand use scouts on the islands and attract the greatest talents with sports scholarships. Fiji and the other island states are losing numerous talents as they are being naturalized by the respective target country. Fiji has been trying for years to have a team in the super rugby league. However, admission has so far been refused. Most of Fiji's players try their luck abroad as they can make money playing the sport there. The main destinations are Australia, New Zealand and England . English clubs in particular rarely allow the Fijians to play games with the national team.
Even football enjoys in the Fiji Islands increasingly popular. Here Fiji takes part in the Oceania Championship (corresponds to a European Championship and qualification for the World Championship in one). However, the situation is a bit lost here too, as New Zealand and Australia refuse to visit the islands here too. Accordingly, all games will be played in tournament mode in Australia.
Two daily newspapers appear in Fiji, the Fiji Times (since 1869) and the Fiji Sun (since 1996). There is also the Nai Lalakai (since 1962) and the Shanti Dut (शान्ति दूत, since 1935); they appear weekly as an offshoot of the Fiji Times . The daily newspaper circulation is 51 per 1000 inhabitants.
The main radio service providers are Fiji Broadcasting Corporation Limited (FBC, since 1954, 6 programs), Communications Fiji Limited (CFL, since 1985, 5 programs) and Evangelical Bible Mission Trust Board (EBM, since 1996, 3 programs).
Television was only introduced in 1991. The main television providers are Fiji Television Limited (since 1994), Mai TV (since 2008) and FBC (since 2011). The switch to digital television took place in 2016.
On April 10, 2009, the current government drastically restricted the freedom of the press. Foreign reporters were expelled from the country. A censor accompanied by the police is always present in the editorial offices of the press organs and the television station, who prevents any reporting that does not make the military rulers appear in a positive light. Oppositionists like Virisila Buadromo from the Fiji Women's Rights Movement (FWRM), which Condoleezza Rice presented with the “International Woman of Courage Award” in 2008, no longer have a public mouthpiece. In protest against the censorship measures, the "Fiji Times" appeared with a blank front page on the day after the freedom of the press was restricted. In 2014, Fiji ranked 107th in the press freedom list published by Reporters Without Borders . The constitutional amendment and the 2014 elections had a positive effect, and in 2018 Fiji was 57th out of 180 nations in this ranking.
Fiji has 102,000 phone lines, 109,000 cell phones, 541,500 radios, 91,000 televisions and 55,000 internet connections.
Painting and graphics
Fiji is home to several visual artists and graphic artists who are well-known beyond the island, including William Bakalevu , who began as a socially critical wall painter, Mason Lee , who mainly paints images from Fiji's world of myths and legends, and the designer Josaia McNamara .
The campus of the University of the South Pacific in Suva became the center of literary work in the South Pacific region , see the main article Literature of Oceania
- Crosbie Walsh: Fiji. An Encyclopaedic Atlas . University of the South Pacific, Suva 2006, ISBN 982-01-0752-0 .
- Hermann Mückler : Fiji. The end of a South Seas paradise . Promedia, Vienna 2001, ISBN 3-85371-171-5 .
- Jon Fraenkel, Stewart Firth (Eds.): From election to coup in Fiji. The 2006 campaign and its aftermath . Asia Pacific Press / IPS Publications, Canberra / Suva 2007, ISBN 978-0-7315-3812-6 ( online [PDF; 3.1 MB ]).
- Brij V. Lal: Islands of Turmoil. Elections and Politics in Fiji . Asia Pacific Press, Canberra 2006, ISBN 0-7315-3751-3 ( online [PDF; 1.1 MB ]).
- David Routledge: Matanitu . The Struggle for Power in Early Fiji. University of the South Pacific , Suva 1985.
- Justine Vaisutis and others: Fiji . 7th edition. Lonely Planet Publications, Footscray 2006, ISBN 1-74104-288-7 .
- Dominik Schieder: The phenomenon of the coup culture . Political conflicts on the Fiji Islands (= sources and research on the South Seas. Series B: Research . Volume 5 ). Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 2012, ISBN 978-3-447-06615-0 .
- Country and travel information from the Federal Foreign Office
- Country and travel information from the EDA
- Country and travel information from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
- Official government site
- CIA World Factbook: Fiji (English)
- Census 2017. (No longer available online.) In: statsfiji.gov.fj. Fiji Bureau of Statistics, March 5, 2018, archived from the original on March 20, 2018 ; accessed on March 23, 2018 (English).
- United Nations Development Program ( UNDP )
- Johannes Winter, Heiko Faust: Causes and Effects of Ethnic Conflicts in the Pacific: Social Disintegration in Fiji (Fiji) (= Pacific Forum . No. 8 ). Duehrkohp & Radicke, Göttingen 2003, ISBN 3-89744-226-4 , p. 153–168 , urn : nbn: de: 0168-ssoar-7877 .
- Fiji Islands Bureau of Statistics: Census 2007 Results: Population size, growth, structure and distribution , 2008, p. 33. ( Memento of September 9, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) In: Statistical News , No. 45, 2008 (PDF; 322 kB). Retrieved August 6, 2015.
- FishBase List of Freshwater Fishes for Fiji Islands
- List of the amphibian species in Fiji at Amphibiaweb
- Species portrait (with photos) of Platymantis vitiensis at Amphibiaweb (English)
- Species portrait (with photos) of Platymantis vitianus at Amphibiaweb (English)
- Entry on Brachylophus vitiensis at Reptiles database (English)
- IUCN Redlist: Brachylophus vitiensis (English)
- www.iucn-isg.org: Newsletter Vol. 6 No. 1, 2003 (English)
- Reptiles Database: Species list of Fiji's reptile species
- Avibase: Bird Control Lists of the World - Fiji
- Information at www.markuskappeler.ch
- Fiji Bureau of Statistics: Population of Fiji by ethnicity. ( Memento of September 24, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Date: January 25, 2013. Retrieved on August 6, 2015 (English).
- CIA World Fact Book Fiji. Retrieved November 2, 2011 .
- University website
- tagesschau.de, "Fiji Islands without constitution and government", April 10, 2009 ( Memento from April 13, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
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