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Tokelau flag
Tokelau coat of arms
flag symbol
Official language Tokelauian , English
capital city Rotates annually between Atafu , Nukunonu and Fakaofo
Head of state Queen Elizabeth II
Head of government Administrator Ross Ardern
Ulu o Tokelau Kerisiano Kalolo
surface 12.2 km²
population 1,499 (October 2016)
Population density 123 inhabitants per km²
gross domestic product
  • Total (nominal)
  • GDP / inh. (nom.)
  • $ 10.574 million
  • 7287 USD
currency New Zealand dollar
Time zone UTC +13
ISO 3166 TK , TKL, 772
Internet TLD .tk
Telephone code +690
Japan Nördliche Marianen Palau Mikronesien Osttimor Indonesien Midwayinseln Hawaii Johnston-Atoll Wake Papua-Neuguinea Marshallinseln Nauru Kiribati Französisch-Polynesien Pitcairninseln Tokelau Cookinseln Salomonen Norfolkinsel Neuseeland Vanuatu Tuvalu Wallis und Futuna Tonga Niue Australien Samoa Amerikanisch-Samoa Fidschi Howlandinsel Bakerinsel Palmyra Kingmanriff Jarvisinsel Neukaledonien Japan Antarktika Russland Chile (Osterinsel) Vereinigte Staaten (Alaska) Kanada Mexiko Vereinigte Staaten Nordkorea Südkorea Volksrepublik China Republik China (Taiwan) Vietnam Laos Kambodscha Thailand Philippinen Volksrepublik China Singapur Malaysia BruneiTokelau on the globe (Polynesia centered) .svg
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Map of Tokelau
Map of Tokelau

Tokelau (meaning "northwest wind" or "blade tip") is an area in the South Pacific that is dependent on New Zealand and consists of three tropical coral atolls (from the northwest: Atafu , Nukunonu and Fakaofo ) with a total area of ​​12.2 km² and a population of 1499 inhabitants ( October 2016), 48 of whom live and work in Samoa as employees of the Apia- based Tokelau Public Service (TPS) and their relatives . The archipelago is sometimes referred to by its former colonial name, Union Islands .

Tokelau is north of the Samoa Islands , east of Tuvalu , south of the Phoenix Islands , southwest of the distant Line Islands, and northwest of the Cook Islands . The nearest island, the atoll Swains Island about 180 km south of Fakaofo , belongs, although historically and culturally closely connected to Tokelau, politically not to this area, but is administered as part of American Samoas by the USA .

Tokelau's official name was Tokelau Islands until 1976 .


Tokelau consists of the following atolls:

image atoll Coordinates Area
of which
Atafu.jpg Atafu 8 ° 33 ′  S , 172 ° 30 ′  W 3.5 17th 541 413
Nukunonu.jpg Nukunonu 9 ° 10 ′  S , 171 ° 49 ′  W. 4.7 98 452 385
Fakaofo Satellite NASA.jpg Fakaofo 9 ° 22 ′  S , 171 ° 13 ′  W 4.0 50 506 399
Tokelau 9 °  S , 172 °  W 12.2 165 1499 1197

The atolls are located in the middle of the Pacific Ocean north of New Zealand and east of New Guinea . The chain of islands extends from Atafu in the northwest for around 160 km to Fakaofo in the southeast. The three atolls are surrounded by water several kilometers deep; their islands rise only a few meters above sea level. There are about 480 km between Tokelau and the nearest archipelago Samoa.

The exclusive economic zone (EEZ), which is economically important for Tokelau because of the income from fishing licenses, extends over an area of ​​318,990 km². The course of the borders with the EEZ of the Phoenix Islands in the north, the Cook Islands in the southeast, American Samoa in the south and Wallis and Futuna in the southwest is determined by treaties.

The atolls consist mainly of reef limestone and sand . Their strongly alkaline soils are characterized by high porosity , low nutrient and humus content and strong salinization . The poor quality of the soil, which makes agriculture beyond subsistence levels impossible, is considered to be a major obstacle to the country's development.

Climate and environment

Tokelau has a tropical climate with a balanced temperature profile. The average daytime temperatures all year round are 28 ° C on Atafu and 27 ° C on Nukunonu and Fakaofo. The average monthly rainfall is between 160 and 360 mm, with the highest values ​​being reached between November and March. The annual amount of precipitation is 2800 mm.

Tokelau is on the northern edge of the tropical cyclone track in the South Pacific. The frequency with which Tokelau is hit by cyclones has increased over the past few decades; since 1987 storms have repeatedly caused severe damage to the atolls. On February 25 and 26, 2005, cyclone “Percy” hit the islands. Although it cost no lives, it caused 80% of the village on Nukunonu to be flooded.

In autumn 2011, a month-long period of drought in the South Pacific region led to an acute shortage of drinking water in several of the island states there. Tuvalu and Tokelau were particularly hard hit . Both areas declared a state of emergency; Tokelau's drinking water supply could only be maintained with the help of ships. This event triggered significant investments in the rehabilitation and improvement of Tokelau's water supply.


The people of Tokelau live in four villages, two of which are on Fakaofo and one each on Atafu and Nukunonu. Most of the residents speak Tokelau ; around half of the population can communicate in English. The isolation of the atolls and the lack of natural resources hinder the economic development of the area; agricultural production is at subsistence level . Together with the overpopulation of the area, this led to the emigration of many atolls to New Zealand. After decades of population decline, the population grew by 6.2% in 2016 compared to 2011.


On the Atafu atoll in 2016 the overwhelming majority of 78.3% of the residents present at the census supported the Congregational Christian Church of Samoa (Ekalesia Fa'apotopotoga Kerisiano i Amerika Samoa), while on Nukunonu 81.8% of the Roman Catholic Church ( Mission sui juris Tokelau ). Both denominations are represented on Fakaofo, whereby in 2016 the followers of the Congregational Christian Church outnumbered the Catholics with 62.7% compared to the Catholics with 32.6%. Another 4.2% of Tokelau's population identified themselves as Presbyterians ( Presbyterian Church of Aotearoa New Zealand )

Bless you

According to a 2008 WHO report, Tokelau has the highest percentage of overweight people in the South Pacific at 93.6%. The diabetes rate among 25 to 64 year olds was 43.6% in 2006.


The atolls were colonized by Polynesians from the surrounding islands. The first discovery by Europeans was made by Commodore John Byron on board the British expedition ship Dolphin , who sighted the atoll Atafu on June 24, 1765 and named Duke of York's Island .

On his search for the mutineers of the Bounty , Captain Edward Edwards first reached Duke of York's Island with the Pandora on June 6, 1791 and found another atoll, today's Nukunonu , on June 12, 1791 , which he called Duke of Clarence's Island .

Fakaofo was first spotted by an American whaler under Captain Smith in February 1835 and was named D'Wolf's Island . Between January 25 and 29, 1841, all three atolls were visited by the United States Exploring Expedition , with Fakaofo being renamed Bowditch Island in the belief that it was a hitherto unknown island .

The islands were self-sufficient until the 19th century . As a result of the activities of Peruvian slave traders , who deported almost half of Tokelau's population , including almost all able-bodied men, in 1863 , as well as diseases that were introduced, the original population was severely decimated. In the following years, the immigration of Polynesian men and European and American settlers who settled on Tokelau and married local women ensured a recovery of the population.

In 1877 the islands became a British reserve explained. The corresponding formal declarations and the flag hoisting were made in 1889 by Commodore Oldham, Royal Navy , HMS Egeria , on the respective islands. In 1893 the Union Islands (as the Tokelau Islands were called until 1946) were assigned to the newly established protected area of ​​the Gilbert and Ellica Islands and administered from Tarawa , later from Ocean Island . In 1916 the Tokelau Islands were incorporated into the United Kingdom at the request of the residents and formed part of the Gilbert Ellice Colony; the administration was carried out by the District Officer in Funafuti .

On February 11, 1926, in implementation of a resolution of November 4, 1925, the islands were placed under the administration of New Zealand; the administrator of the territory of Western Samoa was responsible . In the same year, the island of Olohega (now Swains Island ) , which had previously belonged to the Union of Islands, was ceded by Great Britain to the USA. Olohega is about 180 km south of Fakaofo.

Unofficial flag of Tokelau from 1989

The territory has been on the UN list of sovereign territories without self-government since 1946 . The Tokelau Naming Ordinance, passed on May 7, 1946, officially referred to the archipelago as the Tokelau Islands, and the Tokelau Islands Act transferred sovereignty to New Zealand on January 1, 1949 and assigned Tokelau to New Zealand territory .

Through the Declaration of Independence Western Samoa in 1962 whose administrator was High Commissioner (High Commissioner) of New Zealand, but retained the office of the administrator for the Tokelau Islands. From January 1, 1972, the title of Administrator of the Tokelau Islands was transferred to the Minister for Maori and Island Affairs in Wellington , from December 1, 1975 to the Foreign Minister of New Zealand.

The island was the target of copra traders who resold the dried coconut pulp , which is mainly used for cooking oil , for a good profit. A mail ship only went to Tokelau three to four times a year. Tokelau's first school was established in 1950.

In contrast to New Zealand, Tokelau was east of the date line until 2011 , making the time 22 hours behind New Zealand. Together with Samoa, however, Tokelau passed December 30, 2011 and thus switched to the western side of the date line. The time on Tokelau was previously UTC − 11 and has since been defined as UTC + 13.


Tokelau is an integral part of New Zealand. Its affairs are regulated by the New Zealand Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade, who has appointed an Administrator of Tokelau to manage the three atolls since 1980 . This is always the New Zealand High Commissioner in Samoa. A large part of the responsibility, however, was transferred to the Togolese population, especially the councils of elders (Taupulega) of the three atolls, so that the administrator functions only as an interface between the colony and the motherland. The Tokelau Islands Act of 1948 forms the basis of Tokelau's legislation, administration and judiciary .

Each of the atolls is headed by a lazy man who heads the respective council and also performs judicial functions. The executive bodies are the three Pulenuku, who can be called mayors. Internally there is no administrative separation of the three islands, which send a total of 20 representatives to the parliament (General Fono) of Tokelau. The number of delegates for each atoll is based on the population figures from the last census; In 2017, Nukunonu had 6 seats and Fakaofo and Atafu had 7 seats each. The chairmanship of General Fono rotates annually between the atolls. The respective lazy man also takes on the role of head of government (Ulu-o-Tokelau) during this time . Outside the session of General Fono , the affairs of government are conducted by the Council for the Ongoing Government of Tokelau , which consists of the Faipule and Pulenuku of the three atolls.

On December 2, 1980, the Tokehega Treaty was signed on Atafu, an agreement between New Zealand and the United States on the maritime border between Tokelau and American Samoa , which, among other things , clarified the claims to the island of Olohega (Swains Island) in favor of the USA . The following circumstances in particular are noteworthy about this contract:

  1. The contract was signed in Tokelau.
  2. The contract was written in both English and Tokelauian .
  3. As representatives of New Zealand the three lazy atolls appeared.

On November 11, 2004, New Zealand and Tokelau agreed to begin negotiations on a treaty that would have converted Tokelau's political status to that of an independent state in free association with New Zealand, similar to the current status of the Cook Islands and Niues . A United Nations- funded referendum on independence was held from February 11-15, 2006 . The two-thirds majority required for detachment was missed with 349 votes against 232 with a turnout of 95%. Above all, the opponents of secession feared the end of financial support from New Zealand. Another referendum took place in October 2007. In this, too, the proposal of a loose link with New Zealand did not receive the necessary majority.

The Pacific Islands Forum granted Tokelau observer status in October 2005 . Tokelau was accepted as an associate member in August 2014.


The residents of Tokelau traditionally operate subsistence farming , in which the sharing of existing resources plays an important role. This principle of communal resource sharing is called Inati on Tokelau . Fishing , the cultivation of coconut palms and breadfruit trees as well as the keeping of pigs and chickens make an important contribution to meeting the demand for food.

A major source of income is the sale of fishing licenses for Tokelau's Extended Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). The waters around the islands have large tuna stocks that are fished with purse seine nets .

The proceeds from the sale of collector's stamps and coins and the export of traditional handicrafts are of secondary importance.

Tokelau became known on the Internet through the free allocation of the top-level domain .tk . However, it is not the island state itself that awards the top-level domains, but an investor who acquired the right to use the address.

In the 2016/17 financial year, the gross domestic product was just under 15 million New Zealand dollars (NZ $), which corresponds to around 10.6 million US dollars . Tokelau's economy is heavily reliant on New Zealand support. This includes direct financial aid such as the settlement of the budget deficit, the payment of salaries for the jobs in the area administration as well as benefits in kind such as the purchase of the supply ship Mataliki or the rehabilitation of the drinking water supply. In the 2015/16 budget year, aid from New Zealand amounted to NZ $ 16.3 million.


Barge for the transport of passengers and goods between the island of Nukunonu and the Tokelau

Tokelau is considered to be one of the most remote areas in the world. There are no seaports or airports on the islands, and there are no significant transport options between the atolls. The archipelago can only be reached by boat. Food and consumer goods are also supplied by sea. The Mataliki , financed by New Zealand and made available to the island nation, has been in service since 2016 . The ship runs every two weeks between Tokelau and the nearest port city of Apia (Samoa) and takes about 24 hours from there to Fakaofo. The journey to the north-westernmost atoll, Atafu, takes an additional nine and a half hours. Since the three atolls of Tokelau only have a jetty that is only accessible for small boats, goods and passengers have to be reloaded on barges off the coast before they can be landed on the islands. Another cargo ship should be put into service in 2018.

Each of the atolls has its own small hospital. Medical treatment is free for Tokelauers.

Tokelau was the last country in the world to be connected to the international telephone network in 1994. In September 2003, the Foundation Tokelau has a 384 kbps - downlink - and a 64 kbps uplink -Internet via satellite created on Fakaofo, which is active around the clock.

Tokelau was the first country in the world to be completely supplied with electricity by means of photovoltaics . For this purpose, photovoltaic systems with a total electrical output of 1  MW were installed on the three atolls in 2012 as part of the Tokelau Renewable Energy Project . By switching from diesel generators to photovoltaics, Tokelau saves around 200 liters of fossil fuel every day. For periods with persistent cloud cover, when not enough solar power can be produced, reserve generators are available that can be operated with coconut oil .


Women play cricket in Tokelau, 1966

Popular sports in Tokelau include rugby union , netball and kilikiti , a type of local cricket .

At the South Pacific Games in Apia in 2007, Tokelau athletes won the first three gold medals in the history of the state in international competitions. In lawn bowls brought Lotomalie Fakaalofa , Sagato Alefosio and Sakaraia Patelesio the gold medal in triple-Men's Track. Previously had Violina Linda Pedro and Opetera Samakia Ngatoko recovered in the same sport in the pair competition of the women's gold medal. Finally, Violina Pedro also won gold in the women’s individual competition, while there was silver for the men in the four-person competition and a bronze medal for the women in the same competition. Lawn bowls is a popular sport in the South Pacific states; all 22 participating nations provided teams for the competitions in this precision ball game.

Netball was believed to have been brought to Tokelau by the British, but the sport did not gain popularity until New Zealand took over administration of the island. The sport is mostly practiced during Inter-Island sports competitions, along with other sports such as rugby league and volleyball .


  • Selwyn Digby Wilson: Tokelau Islands . In: Alexander Hare McLintock (Ed.): An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand . 1st edition. RE Owen, Wellington 1966 (English, online in: Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand [accessed September 17, 2017]).
  • Matagi Tokelau. History and Traditions of Tokelau . Office for Tokelau Affairs / Institute of Pacific Studies, University of the South Pacific, Apia / Suva 1991, ISBN 982-02-0058-X (English, Tokelauan: Matagi Tokelau . 1990. Translated by Antony Hooper, Judith Huntsman).
  • Anthony H. Angelo, Hosea Kirifi: The Treaty of Tokehega - an exercise in law translation . In: Victoria University of Wellington Law Review . tape 17 , no. 2 , April 1, 1987, ISSN  0042-5117 , pp. 125-139 ( available online through the SSRN ).
  • Judith Huntsman, Antony Hooper: Tokelau - A Historical Ethnography . Auckland University Press, Auckland 1996, ISBN 1-86940-153-0 (English).
  • Judith Huntsman: Tokelau 1852 Exodus: A Story and Its History . In: The Journal of Pacific History . tape 39 , no. 1 , June 2004, ISSN  0022-3344 , p. 23–41 , doi : 10.1080 / 00223340410001684831 (English).
  • Kelihiano Kalolo: Tokelau . In: The Contemporary Pacific . tape 12 , no. 1 , 2000, ISSN  1043-898X , p. 246-249 , doi : 10.1353 / cp.2000.0017 (English).
  • Anke Richter: Tokelau - 200 days. Report from a sinking paradise . Egmont Vgs, Cologne 2003, ISBN 3-8025-1527-7 .

Web links

Commons : Tokelau  - album with pictures, videos and audio files
Wikimedia Atlas: Tokelau  - geographical and historical maps
Wikivoyage: Tokelau  Travel Guide

Individual evidence

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  2. a b c Profile of Tokelau: 2016 Tokelau Census of Population and Dwellings. (PDF; 2.4 MB) 4. Population structure. In: Government of Tokelau - Tokelau National Statistics Office, May 2, 2017, pp. 15-20 , accessed September 23, 2017 .
  3. a b Tokelau revenue 2006-2017. ( Excel Spreadsheet ; 17 kB) In: Government of Tokelau - Tokelau National Statistics Office, accessed April 14, 2020 .
  4. Why is Tokelau called Tokelau? In: Martin Mühlbauer, accessed on September 23, 2017 .
  5. ^ Tokelau Amendment Act 1976 (1976 No 122). (PDF; 103 kB) An Act to amend the Tokelau Islands Act 1948 (December 9, 1976). In: New Zealand Acts As Enacted. New Zealand Legal Information Institute, accessed September 23, 2017 .
  6. Atafu atoll profile: 2016 Tokelau Census of Population and Dwellings. (PDF; 1.01 MB) Data from the 2016 census. In: Government of Tokelau - Tokelau National Statistics Office, March 13, 2017, p. 8 , accessed September 23, 2017 .
  7. Nukunonu atoll profile: 2016 Tokelau Census of Population and Dwellings. (PDF; 831 kB) Data from the 2016 census. In: Government of Tokelau - Tokelau National Statistics Office, March 13, 2017, p. 8 , accessed September 23, 2017 .
  8. Fakaofo atoll profile: 2016 Tokelau Census of Population and Dwellings. (PDF; 916 kB) Data from the 2016 census. In: Government of Tokelau - Tokelau National Statistics Office, March 13, 2017, p. 8 , accessed September 23, 2017 .
  9. ^ A b Rod Nairn et al .: Tokelau Hydrographic Risk Assessment . Land Information New Zealand, October 15, 2017, 2.1 Atafu, Nukunonu, and Fakaofo Atolls, p. 3–5 (English, [PDF; 4.7 MB ; accessed on May 12, 2020]).
  10. Tokelau - MRGID 8449. Database entry . In: Flanders Marine Institute, accessed May 12, 2020 .
  11. ^ New Zealand: Maritime boundary delimitation agreements and other material. In: Maritime Space: Maritime Zones and Maritime Delimitation. United Nations - Office of Legal Affairs, February 19, 2020, accessed May 12, 2020 .
  12. ^ About Us - Geology and Soils. In: Government of Tokelau, accessed May 12, 2020 .
  13. ^ Climate in Tokelau: Temperature, rainfall, prevailing weather conditions, when to go, what to pack. In: Climates to Travel - world climate guide. Pegasusweb Mirko Cecchini, accessed on September 23, 2017 .
  14. ^ Tokelau - Weather & Climate. Severe weather & climate change. In: Martin Mühlbauer, accessed on September 23, 2017 .
  15. Pacific Islands: South Seas paradises suffer from a lack of drinking water. In: SPIEGEL ONLINE . October 4, 2011. Retrieved September 23, 2017 .
  16. Niels Büngen: State of emergency declared: South Sea islands are running out of drinking water. In: RTL NEXT. RTL interactive GmbH, June 16, 2012, accessed on September 23, 2017 .
  17. Climate change adaptation project helps Tokelau, now better prepared for droughts. (No longer available online.) Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Program (SPREP), July 31, 2014, archived from the original on September 23, 2017 ; accessed on September 23, 2017 (English).
  18. ^ Profile of Tokelau: 2016 Tokelau Census of Population and Dwellings. (PDF; 2.4 MB) Languages ​​spoken. In: Government of Tokelau - Tokelau National Statistics Office, May 2, 2017, pp. 25–26 , accessed September 23, 2017 .
  19. ^ Tokelau: Atolls & Population. Population Statistics in Maps and Charts. In: City Population. Thomas Brinkhoff, accessed on September 23, 2017 .
  20. ^ Profile of Tokelau: 2016 Tokelau Census of Population and Dwellings. (PDF; 2.4 MB) Religion maintains importance. In: Government of Tokelau - Tokelau National Statistics Office, May 2, 2017, p. 28 , accessed September 23, 2017 .
  21. ^ WHO report on the situation in the Pacific island world ( Memento of November 4, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
  22. ^ John Byron: An account of a voyage round the world, in the years MDCCLXIV, MDCCLXV, and MDCCLXVI . In: John Hawkesworth (Ed.): An account of the voyages undertaken by the order of His present Majesty for making discoveries in the Southern Hemisphere . Vol. I. William Strahan and Thomas Cadell, London 1773, Chap. X, S. 110-111 (English, online ).
  23. HMS Pandora - Capt. Edward's Report from Batavia, Nov 25, 1791, Part 2. (No longer available online.) In: Fateful Voyage. James Galloway, archived from the original on April 7, 2016 ; accessed on January 7, 2019 .
  24. ^ Judith Huntsman, Antony Hooper: "Who really discovered Fakaofo ..."? In: The Journal of the Polynesian Society . tape 95 , no. 4 , December 1986, pp. 461-467 (English, online ).
  25. ^ Charles Wilkes: Voyage round the world, embracing the principal events of the narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition, in one volume. Illustrated with one hundred and seventy-eight engravings on wood . George W. Gorton, Philadelphia 1849, Chapter XXXIII: Cruise of the Peacock and Flying-Fish, pp. 537-539 (English, online ).
  26. ^ Pacific - Tokelau Information Bulletin. History. (No longer available online.) In: Foreign relations - Pacific. New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, archived from the original on May 13, 2014 ; accessed on September 23, 2017 (English).
  27. Christiane Oelrich: Date jump in Samoa: Who needs 30 December? - Away with it! In: Welt online . WeltN24 GmbH, December 26, 2011, accessed on September 23, 2017 .
  28. ^ Tokelau Politics. In: Martin Mühlbauer, accessed on September 23, 2017 .
  29. ^ How Tokelau is governed. Governance of Tokelau. Government of Tokelau, accessed September 23, 2017 .
  30. Angela Gregory: Tokelau votes to remain dependent territory of New Zealand. (No longer available online.) In: The New Zealand Herald . October 25, 2007, archived from the original on June 29, 2012 ; accessed on September 23, 2017 (English).
  31. ^ Tokelau becomes Associate Member of the Pacific Islands Forum. Government of Tokelau, accessed September 23, 2017 .
  32. Tokelau 2015/16 Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) - Tabulation and Summary Report. (PDF; 2.5 MB) Section 3: Economic Context - Economy. Government of Tokelau - Tokelau National Statistics Office, September 28, 2016, p. 7 , accessed September 23, 2017 .
  33. ^ Solidarity economy in the South Pacific. Inati postage stamps. In: June 25, 2019, accessed June 30, 2020 .
  34. Handicraft. Government of Tokelau, accessed September 23, 2017 .
  35. ^ Aid partnership with Tokelau. New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, accessed September 23, 2017 .
  36. Jaap Jasperse: Tokelau's new ferry 'Mataliki' reaches Apia port. Government of Tokelau, February 2016, accessed on September 23, 2017 (English).
  37. Tourist Information. Transport. Government of Tokelau, accessed September 23, 2017 .
  38. ^ Tokelau: A Tourism, Travel and Information Guide. Travel & Tourism: Getting There & Away. In: Base-Camp International, accessed on September 23, 2017 .
  39. ^ Tokelau's new cargo vessel on schedule for 2018 service. Government of Tokelau, accessed September 23, 2017 .
  40. Tokelau 2015/16 Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) - Tabulation and Summary Report. (PDF; 2.5 MB) Section 3: Economic Context - Services - Health. Government of Tokelau - Tokelau National Statistics Office, September 28, 2016, p. 7 , accessed September 23, 2017 .
  41. For the good of the island. Tolelau Internet Project. In: Tokelau magic. Dot TK, accessed September 23, 2017 .
  42. Ben Chapman-Smith: NZ company turns on first Tokelau solar system. In: The New Zealand Herald . August 10, 2012, accessed on September 23, 2017 .
  43. First country in the world with 100 percent solar power supply. Communication from SMA Solar Technology AG. In: Solarportal24. Iris and Thomas Wiest GbR, November 15, 2012, accessed on September 23, 2017 .
  44. Lonely Planet (Ed.): South Pacific and Micronesia . 2006, ISBN 1-74104-304-2 , pp. 682 ( ).
  45. XIII th South Pacific Games Samoa 2007 - Tokelau. Overview of the medals for Tokelau. In: SportsTG. Retrieved September 23, 2017 .
  46. ^ Peter McQuarrie: Tokelau People, Atolls and History . Publications Committee of MacMillan Browne Center for Pacific Studies, Wellington, New Zealand 2007, ISBN 978-1-877449-41-3 .

Coordinates: 9 °  S , 172 °  W