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Niuē (
Niue ) Niue (English)
Niue / Niuë
Flag of Niues
Seal Niues
flag coat of arms
Official language Niuean , English
Capital Alofi
Form of government Self-governing territory in free association with New Zealand
Government system Parliamentary government system
Head of state Queen Elizabeth II of New Zealand
Head of government Prime Minister Dalton Tagelagi
surface 261.46 km²
population 1784 (2017 census)
Population density 6.82 inhabitants per km²
gross domestic product
  • Total (nominal)
  • GDP / inh. (nom.)
  • $ 24.7 million
  • $ 15,586
currency New Zealand Dollar (NZD)
founding September 29, 1903
(own territory)
independence October 19, 1974
(internal autonomy)
National anthem Ko E Iki He Lagi
National holiday February 6 ( Waitangi Day , New Zealand National Day )
October 19 ( Constitution Day )
Time zone UTC − 11
License Plate NZ
ISO 3166 NU , NIU, 570
Internet TLD .nu
Telephone code +683
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Administrative division of Niues
Administrative division of Niues

Niue ( Niuean : Niue ; English : [ njuːeɪ ]; old name Savage Iceland ) is an isolated coral island in the South Pacific near Tonga , 2400 kilometers northeast of New Zealand . It is located south of Samoa and west of the Cook Islands . Niue has been linked to New Zealand by an association agreement since 1974.

Geology and geography

Coast with reef plateau (2007)

Niue is the tip of an extinct volcano and with an area of ​​261.46 km² one of the largest upscale atolls in the world. It rises between 4,000 and 5,000 meters above the sea floor. The inner plateau of the island is mostly flat and reaches up to 68  m above sea level. Niue has a limestone reef that rises up to 30 meters at its edge . About 80% of the total area can be used for agriculture , the rest consists of mostly tropical forests. The coast is very rugged with many caves and gorges, for example the Talava Cave on the northwest coast or the Avaiki cave in the limestone on the west coast. There are no beaches worth mentioning. There are 14 villages, the largest being Alofi with about 600 inhabitants.

The Niues Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) extends over an area of ​​around 320,000 km². The course of the borders with the EEZ of the Cook Islands in the east and American Samoa in the north is determined by treaties. A corresponding agreement with Tonga in the west is still being negotiated. The Niue government intends to designate around 40% of the EEZ as marine protected areas.



The average temperature in Niue is 26 ° C, and the average rainfall is just over 2000 mm. Since the rainwater quickly seeps into the porous coral limestone, no surface water forms. Cisterns have therefore been built for the water supply .

In stable high-pressure weather conditions, Niue lies on the border between tropical and subtropical areas with southeast winds. In low pressure areas, the wind turns from northwest to west. Tropical cyclones also come from this direction and hit the island in 1959, 1960, 1970, 1989, 1990 and most recently in 2004. The high wave crests caused by the cyclones do practically no damage on land because of the steep coast, but the coral banks are severely affected.

On January 6, 2004, cyclone Heta devastated the Pacific island. Two people lost their lives and over 200 residents were left homeless. The storm surge caused by the cyclone wreaked havoc on the entire northwest coast between Liha Point in the northeast and Halagigie Point in the west.


Young " palm thief "

The Niue flattail sea ​​snake ( Laticauda schystorhyncha ) only lives in front of and on the Niue coast . It is called "Katuali" by the locals, reaches a length of up to one meter, has a flat tail and spends part of its life on land. The snake is highly poisonous, but is supposed to behave peacefully. In addition, living on Niue the land hermit crab " coconut crab " ( Birgus latro , also called " coconut robber"). Endemic to the island is Nacaduba niueensis , a butterfly of the family of Bläulinge . The butterfly, which is unmistakable due to its characteristic brown color and the intricate pattern on the underside of the wings, is depicted on collector coins and postage stamps . In addition, humpback whales can be found off the coast of Niues . Niue is one of the few places where you can legally bathe with these for a few months of the year.


Agriculture is favored by the predominantly fertile soil. It serves almost exclusively for self-sufficiency. The main crops grown are coconut palms , bananas , passion fruits , limes , taro , potatoes , cassava and yams . Livestock breeding mainly includes cattle, pigs and poultry.

Administrative division

Administratively, Niue is divided into 14 Villages (villages; parishes ). These correspond to the villages with the respective surrounding area, with the capital Alofi consisting of the administrative units Alofi North (north) and Alofi South (south). Each parish has a Village Council that elects its own Village Council Chairman . The parishes also correspond to the constituencies. Each parish sends an assemblyman (representative) to the Niue Parliament.

Avatele Beach in the west of the island is one of the few beaches in Niue (2008)
Weathering phenomena on the north coast of Niues (2007)
No. Village / place Population
( census
Area km² Population
inhabitants / km²
1 Makefu 70 17.13 4.09 Motu
2 Tuapa 112 12.54 8.93 Motu
3 Namukulu 11 1.48 7.43 Motu
4th Hikutavake 49 10.17 4.82 Motu
5 Toi 22nd 4.82 4.56 Motu
6th Mutalau 100 26.31 3.80 Motu
7th Lakepa 87 21.58 4.03 Motu
8th Liku 98 41.64 2.35 Motu
9 Hakupu (Hakupu Atua) 220 48.04 4.58 Tafiti
10 Vaiea 115 5.40 21.30 Tafiti
11 Avatele 143 13.99 10.22 Tafiti
12 Tamakautoga 160 11.93 13.41 Tafiti
13 Alofi South 427 30.212 14.13 Tafiti
14th Alofi North 170 16.268 10.45 Tafiti
Niue 1,784 261.51 6.82  


Niue has 1784 inhabitants (2017). Heavy emigration to New Zealand has cut the population by more than half since 1966. This led to numerous devastation . Around 24,000 Niueans live in New Zealand today. The Niueans speak their own Polynesian language , Niuean , whose closest related language is Tonga . English is also spoken.

About two thirds of the population belong to the Reformed Ekalesia Niue, as well as Catholics , Mormons , Jehovah's Witnesses , Presbyterians , Methodists and Adventists .


Historical map of Niue (around 1900)
Sea map from 1946, with numerous names of settlements

Niue was probably settled by Polynesians from Samoa since the 10th century , more settlers came from Tonga in the 16th century . Niue then had little contact with neighboring islands and developed independently, which is expressed in great differences compared to the language and culture on other islands in the region.

In 1774 James Cook discovered Niue for Europe. He could not land there because of the hostile population and gave the island the name Savage Island (Island of the Wild). Missionaries from England converted most of the residents to Christianity around 1846 .

On October 20, 1900, the island became part of the British Western Pacific Territories . On June 11, 1901, Niue was annexed by New Zealand as part of the Cook Islands , separated again in 1903. In 1974 the Association Agreement was signed with New Zealand.


The international legal status of Niue is of special nature. Niue is an autonomous area in "free association with New Zealand". This status was chosen by Niue in an act of self-determination that has been approved by the United Nations and is continuously monitored. The Cook Islands also have this status . So New Zealand is Suzeran Niues.

Niue is a self-governing territory. The legislative and executive power is not restricted by New Zealand. The legislature rests with Niue Fono Ekepule , the head of government is the prime minister. The country's residents are citizens of New Zealand. At Niue's request, New Zealand continues to exercise certain foreign and security policy responsibilities.

Niue's remote location as well as cultural and linguistic differences to the rest of the Polynesian population of the Cook Islands have led to its self-government.

The strong migration, intensified again by the consequences of the storm disaster, led New Zealand politicians to speculate in 2004 that the association status could be changed in favor of New Zealand in the future. The considerations put forward primarily by the New Zealand Foreign Minister Phil Goff were resolutely rejected by the Niuean Prime Minister Young Vivian .

Niue is an associate member of the Commonwealth of Nations and has been a member of the Pacific Islands Forum since 1975 . Membership in the United Nations has so far been denied to the island state due to the association and the low worldwide recognition. Although Niue has the same status as the Cook Islands, Germany has not yet recognized the Pacific state.


½ penny postage stamp from 1932
James Cook on postage and tax stamp from 1932

The gross domestic product in 2016 was 24.7 million US dollars . Niue is heavily dependent on New Zealand aid payments; in the 2015/16 budget year, aid from New Zealand amounted to NZ $ 22.5 million  . Agriculture is primarily used for self-sufficiency. The industry mainly processes the food produced. Selling postage stamps and handcrafts are important sources of income. As everywhere in Polynesia, the economy suffers from a lack of resources, remoteness and a shrinking population. In addition, cyclone Heta at the beginning of 2004 shook the sensitive economy. The country is dependent on foreign aid for reconstruction. The government is trying to promote tourism and finance. Tourism is severely restricted as there are hardly any accommodations and no beach worth mentioning. The rugged cliffs prevent access to the sea almost everywhere. Murray McCully , New Zealand's foreign minister , decided to launch a government investment program in Niue's tourism sector worth NZ $ 7.5 million. According to McCully, tourism is the greatest driver of Niue's economic growth and can promote Niue's independence.

The trade balance Niue runs chronic deficits. In 2008 imports worth nearly NZ $ 11 million were compared to exports of just NZ $ 27,000.

On January 28, 2016, the EU Commission presented a package of measures to combat tax evasion , including Niue on the black list of tax havens .

In April 2016, based on the Panama Papers , which had leaked to the public , Niue was named as a hub in the trade in high-priced works of art.


Niue has no port. All goods must by in front of Alofi roads are handled ships lying on smaller boats, which then in one of two leading lights marked fairway through a gap in the coral reef to the local pier Port of Alofi - Locode: NUALO. can get. On Niue there is an airport with an asphalt runway, Hanan International Airport . From 1990 to 1992 Niue Airlines connected the island with Auckland , later with Pago Pago . Until October 2005, Niue was served by flights from Apia ( Samoa ) once a week . Air New Zealand flies to Niue Airport from Auckland with an Airbus A320 every Friday (from November 2005) and every Wednesday since May 2014 .

Niue on November 5, 2019, Landssat-8 image

The island has a total of 120 kilometers of 1st order roads; 67 kilometers of these are circular roads. There is no public transport.

In Niue there is a radio and TV station as well as an internet café. The news is taken from New Zealand television. Since Niue is on the other side of the date line, it is one of the few places on earth where you can always only see the news of "tomorrow".

The island plans to cover 80% of its electricity needs from 2025 with renewable energies ( wind energy and solar energy ).

Niue made headlines in 2003 when the Internet Users Society Niue (IUSN) set up free, nationwide WiFi on the island. At first there was resistance from the government, which is in dispute with the IUSN. In the meantime, however, 18 hotspots are already in operation, and another is in preparation (as of September 2014). Niue thus became the first “Wi-Fi nation”.

Top-level domain .nu

On the island there are 1100 internet users (2009 ) compared to 382,600 domains (2008). The reason for this lies in the international identifier .nu, which means "now" in some Scandinavian languages and in Dutch and is therefore often used because interesting names can be formed from it. For example, a Swedish internet company from Kalmar secured the domain and sells domains with the .nu extension. For the assignment of the international top-level domain , the responsible IANA requires a certain autonomy status of the area concerned.

Since "nu" means "naked " in French , the domain is also often used for French-language adult sites.

In addition, these domains are used for some GNU projects because the "G" is mute in English pronunciation, such as Parabola GNU / Linux-libre .


The only television station and radio station (broadcasts on FM and AM ) on Niue are operated by the Broadcasting Corporation of Niue , a state broadcaster . As a state-independent medium that is not internet-based, only the Niue Star newspaper exists , which is also the country's only newspaper.


The Niue Island Soccer Association is not a member of the world football association FIFA and is merely an associate member of the OFC . Therefore, the country cannot qualify for the soccer world championships or the soccer oceania championship. So far, a Niuean national soccer team has only appeared in two international matches at the South Pacific Games in 1983 . The games against Papua New Guinea (0:19) and Tahiti (0:14) were lost.

In contrast, Niue has a relatively successful national rugby union team that took part in qualifying for the 2007 World Cup. As part of this, a win against Tahiti (55: 8) was achieved on July 23, 2005 , but this was followed two weeks later by a defeat against the Cook Islands (5:24), which meant that qualification for the finals was missed. Currently (March 2020) the team is ranked 94th in the world rankings.

In the sevens rugby Niue was also able to achieve some successes in the context of the World Rugby Sevens Series. Two victories against the much higher rated Japan at the Wellington Sevens in 2003 (Niue achieved his best result to date with 10th place) and in 2005 caused a particular stir.


The Niue government has been issuing collector and investment coins for some time . Although the coins are officially recognized by a resolution, they are not in use on Niue for this purpose. The motives range from tennis players up to characters from Disney - comics and science fiction serials Doctor Who and Star Wars .

In addition, Niue also issues better-known coins, such as the "Niue Lunar Series" or the "Niue Turtle". Both coin series, like many other coins issued by Niue, are minted by the New Zealand Mint .


From the beginning of 2018 to the beginning of 2019, the male mallard Trevor was the only duck bird living on Niue, whose news of death received worldwide media attention in January 2019.


  • AH McLintock : Niue Island . In: Ministry for Culture & Heritage (Ed.): An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand . Wellington 1966, ISBN 978-0-478-18451-8 (English, [accessed December 13, 2015]).
  • Stephenson Percy Smith : Niue - The Island and its People . Ed .: The Polynesian Society . Institute of Pacific Studies , Suva 1983 (English, reprinted from 1902/1903 by the University of South Pacific ).
  • Stephen I. Levine : Niue . In: The Contemporary Pacific . tape 13 , no. 1 (spring), 2001, p. 239-246 (English).
  • James P. Terry, Warwick E. Murray (Eds.): Niue Island . Geographical Perspectives on the Rock of Polynesia . International Scientific Council for Island Development , Paris 2004, ISBN 92-990023-0-4 (English).

Web links

Commons : Niue  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikimedia Atlas: Niue  - geographical and historical maps
Wiktionary: Niue  - explanations of meanings, origins of words, synonyms, translations
Wikivoyage: Niue  travel guide

Individual evidence

  1. a b c d e f g h i CIA World Factbook: Niue (English)
  2. ^ Total Land Area of ​​Niue. In: Niue Environmental statistics. Department of Justice, Lands and Survey, archived from the original on November 28, 2007 ; accessed on October 28, 2017 (English).
  3. a b c Fanuma Sioneholo u. a .: Niue Household and Population Census 2017 . Ed .: Statistics and Immigration office. Government of Niue - Ministry of Finance and Planning, 2019, Chapter 1: Population structure - 1.2 Population composition, p. 5 , Table 1.3: Resident population and absentees by village, 2011 and 2017 (English, download link on [PDF; 3.0 MB ; accessed on May 16, 2020]).
  4. ^ A b Niue - Trade: Recent Niue statistics. In: New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, accessed April 14, 2020 .
  5. a b Niue. Chronology. In: World Ben Cahoon, accessed October 28, 2017 .
  6. Europa Publications (Ed.): The Europa World Year Book 2008 . Routledge, London, 2008, ISBN 978-1-85743-451-4 , p. 3359.
  7. Country Codes. In: Statoids. Gwillim Law, accessed October 28, 2017 .
  8. ^ PJ Hill: Volcanic core of Niue Island, southwest Pacific Ocean . In: BMR Journal of Australian Geology & Geophysics . tape 8 , no. 4 . Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics (BMR), December 1983, p. 323–328 (English, available online from Geoscience Australia [PDF; 11.0 MB ]).
  9. a b Floor Anthoni: Cyclone Heta wreaks havoc on Niue Island. In: In-depth articles about our coasts and seas., 2004, accessed on October 28, 2017 (English).
  10. Hubert Mana Kalauni: Niue Maritime Boundaries Delimitation Project: Overview. (PDF; 881 kB) In: Fédération Internationale des Géomètres , June 28, 2016, accessed on May 14, 2020 .
  11. Niue - MRGID 8447. Database entry . In: Flanders Marine Institute, accessed May 14, 2020 .
  12. ^ Niue: Maritime boundary delimitation agreements and other material. In: Maritime Space: Maritime Zones and Maritime Delimitation. United Nations - Office of Legal Affairs, February 17, 2020, accessed May 14, 2020 .
  13. Hubert Mana Kalauni: Niue Maritime Boundaries Delimitation Project: Common Boundary with Tonga. (PDF; 881 kB) In: Fédération Internationale des Géomètres , June 28, 2016, accessed on May 14, 2020 .
  14. Niue to create large-scale marine protected area. In: United Nations Development Program , October 20, 2017, accessed May 14, 2020 .
  15. ^ Environment Statistics. In: Statistics Niue. Niue Stats, accessed October 28, 2017 .
  16. ^ Floor Anthoni: Niue's marine ecology. Hurricanes. In: Niue Island., accessed on October 28, 2017 .
  17. ^ Susan Scott: The sea snakes of Niue are harmless swimmers. In: Ocean Watch. April 21, 2014, accessed October 28, 2017 (column in Honolulu Star Advertiser ).
  18. Craig Schiller: Assessment of the status of the Coconut Crab "Birgus latro" on Niue island with recommendations regarding an appropriate resource management strategy. A Consultancy report prepared for The Food And Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), April 1992, accessed on October 28, 2017 .
  19. ^ David Britton: Niue Blue Nacaduba niueensis. In: Australian Museum , August 29, 2012, accessed October 28, 2017 .
  20. Whale watching. In: The Official Website Of Niue Tourism. Niue Tourism Office, accessed October 28, 2017 .
  21. ^ Niue Islands Village Council Ordinance 1967. Ordinance 41 of 1967. In: Niue Sessional Legislation. Pacific Islands Legal Information Institute, May 1, 1967, accessed October 28, 2017 .
  22. Niue
  23. The island is divided into two historical tribal areas, Motu in the north (eight communities) and Tafiti in the south (six communities).
  24. Stephenson Percy Smith : Niue - The Island and its People . Ed .: The Polynesian Society . The Institute of Pacific Studies and the Niue Extension Center of the University of the South Pacific , Suva 1983, The History of Niue-Fekai, written by Mohe-Lagi, p. 132–133 (English, Niue, limited preview in Google Book Search - reprint of the first edition from 1902/1903).
  25. Niue. Our relationship with Niue. New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, accessed October 28, 2017 .
  26. Kimray Vaha: Niue Census of Population and Households 2011 . Ed .: Statistics Niue. Government of Niue - Department of Finance, Planning and Statistics, 2012, Chapter 3: Social Characteristics - 3.2 Religion, p. 46 (English, online [PDF; 11.8 MB ; accessed on October 28, 2017]).
  27. ^ Niue - Photos - History. A short history of Niue. In: OzOutback - Images of the World. Ludo Kuipers, accessed October 28, 2017 .
  28. ^ Floor Anthoni: A short history of Niue. Timeline. In: Niue Island., 2004, accessed on October 28, 2017 (English).
  29. ^ Aid partnership with Niue. New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, accessed October 28, 2017 .
  30. ^ Michael Serge: Government announces major Niue investment. In: . NZME. Publishing , October 15, 2015, accessed October 28, 2017.
  31. International Trade. In: Statistics Niue. Niue Stats, accessed October 28, 2017 .
  32. Martin Hirsch: EU wants new black list of tax havens. In: news networld internetservice GmbH, January 28, 2016, accessed on October 28, 2017 (agency report from the Austria Press Agency ).
  33. ↑ The Pacific island of Niue as a Picasso turntable - the art of secrecy. In: Österreichischer Rundfunk (ORF), April 8, 2016, accessed on October 28, 2017 .
  34. [1]
  35. ^ Niue looks to sun for power. In: Radio New Zealand News. Radio New Zealand , November 16, 2015, accessed October 28, 2017 .
  36. Internet Niue - Connecting Niue to the World since 1997. Internet Niue Ltd, accessed on October 28, 2017 (English).
  37. World's First WiFi Nation. In: LightReading - Networking the Communications Industry. Light Reading, June 23, 2003, accessed October 28, 2017 .
  38. ^ World Rugby Rankings - Men's. World Rugby , March 4, 2019, accessed March 6, 2019 .
  41. Strange Coins on the Pacific State of Niue: That makes two Mickey Mouse, please. In: SPIEGEL ONLINE . October 13, 2014, accessed on October 28, 2017 (news from Agence France-Presse ).
  42. ^ New Zealand Mint. In: GS Management GmbH & Co.KG, accessed on October 28, 2017 (English).
  43. NZ parliament sends condolences to Niue over Trevor the Duck's death. Retrieved January 29, 2019 .

Coordinates: 19 ° 4 ′  S , 169 ° 52 ′  W