|Belu'uera Belau ( Palauian )
Republic of Palau (English)
|Republic of Palau|
Motto : Rainbow's End
( Engl. , "End of the rainbow")
Palaui and English
Japanese and Angaur in Angaur , Sonsorolese in the Sonsorol Islands and Tobian in Tobi
|Form of government||republic|
|Head of state , also head of government||President Tommy Remengesau|
|population||17,661 (2015 census)|
|Population density||38.7 inhabitants per km²|
|Population development||+ 0.39% (2016)|
gross domestic product
|Human Development Index||0.788 ( 60th ) (2016)|
|currency||US dollar (USD)|
|independence||October 1, 1994
(by the USA or the UN Trust Council )
|National anthem||Belau loba klisiich he a kelulul|
|Time zone||UTC + 9|
|ISO 3166||PW , PLW, 585|
Palau ([ ˈpaːla͜u ], officially the Republic of Palau , pal .: Belau ) is an island state in the Pacific Ocean . The state's around 17,700 inhabitants (as of 2015) populate eleven of the state's 356 islands. The capital is Ngerulmud on the island of Babeldaob ; The official languages are Palaui and English . Until independence on October 1, 1994, Palau was a UN trust territory under administration by the United States . To date, the state has with the United States associated and strongly influenced by the former colonial power; Palau is a presidential republic based on the American model with sixteen states as administrative units.
The South Sea state, which is part of the Pacific island region of Micronesia , includes the Palau Islands , which are formed from the western archipelago of the Carolines and are located north of New Guinea , as well as some remote islands in the southwest (called the Southwest Islands ). The six archipelagos of the Palau Islands consist of 356 islands, the largest of which is by far Babelthuap with 396 km² . Only eleven of the islands are inhabited.
Originally, today's islands were a coral reef that was lifted out of the water by continental movements . Most of the islands are atolls made of coral limestone, which are only a few meters above sea level and are enclosed by a barrier reef.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Palau
The base of many islands was hollowed out, mainly by the tides , creating today's typical mushroom shape. Many islands are under nature protection, which prohibits building and on some islands entry.
The underwater world of the region counts over 1500 fish and 700 coral and anemone species . In Palau there are rare and endangered species such as dugongs , giant clams, and saltwater crocodiles and rarities; For example, in the “Jellyfishlake” Mastigias jellyfish have developed into a non-toxic subspecies in isolation.
There are 142 species of birds in Palau, 16 of which are endemic, including the Palau owl , the Palau ground pigeon and the Palau fan tail , as well as two endemic bat species ( fruit bat ). Of the approximately 1260 plant species, 109 are endemic, including wild orchids and the cicada palm .
In September 2003, then President Tommy E. Remengesau Jr. signed a bill to protect sharks in the waters around Palau, creating the world's first shark sanctuary.
Due to the precarious location of Palau at only a few meters above sea level, its President Johnson Toribiong called on the UN General Assembly on September 22nd, 2011, that it obtain a legal opinion from the International Court of Justice in The Hague on the question of the responsibility of states for the consequences of ongoing climate change. A year later, there was discussion about whether the General Assembly should do this, and there was much to suggest that Palau's initiative could be successful.
Chelbacheb Islands , nature reserve
The first inhabitants of Palau probably came from the Malay Archipelago or Melanesia and settled the islands between 2000 and 1000 BC. The Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos first sighted the islands in 1543 and took them over for Spain . In 1574 Palau was incorporated into the General Government of the Spanish East Indies , which later became the Viceroyalty of New Spain . In the late 19th century, the Spaniards colonized the islands and, after their defeat in the Spanish-American War , sold them together with most of the remaining Carolines in accordance with the German-Spanish Treaty of 1899 as part of German New Guinea to the German Empire . On August 15, 1914, Japan declared war on the German Reich, occupied the islands and later received them as a mandate of the League of Nations .
After the sometimes heavy fighting between the USA and Japan during the Second World War (→ Battle of the Palau Islands ), the islands came under the control of the United States in 1947 as a district of the UN Trust Area Pacific Islands. Active and passive women's suffrage was introduced on April 2, 1979, and confirmed upon independence in 1994.
In 1978, the citizens of Palau voted against joining the Federated States of Micronesia, which was formed in 1979, and for independence. The chief of Koror Ibedul Gibbons fought for years for the right of his people to constitutionally prohibit the US as a protectorate power from stationing nuclear weapons . In 1983 the people of Palau received the Right Livelihood Award for asserting their democratic and sovereign rights to a nuclear weapon-free zone .
After a long transition period and the death of two presidents ( Haruo Remeliik was murdered in 1985; Lazarus Salii committed suicide in 1988), Palau officially became independent on October 1, 1994. The government had previously signed an association agreement with the US under pressure from the US . The passage about Palau as a nuclear weapon-free zone was deleted from the constitution. The United States remained responsible for the republic's defense and foreign policy. In return, the US pledged to invest approximately $ 480 million in the islands' economy over the next 15 years. In December 1994 Palau was admitted to the United Nations.
The then President Johnson Toribiong announced on June 10, 2009 that Palau was ready to accept 17 Uyghurs from the prison camp at Guantanamo Bay Naval Base , whose extradition China had requested. In this context he spoke of a “humanitarian gesture”. At the end of 2009, 6 Uyghurs were finally admitted to Palau.
The Palau - these are Micronesians with Malay and Melanesian mixtures - are titular nation and form the largest ethnic group with a share of 72.9% percent (as of 2015). Furthermore, 21.6 percent of the population is Asians; 2 percent are Carolinians and 1.2 percent are of European origin.
Palaui, which has official status on most of the islands, is spoken by 77% of the population. English is spoken by almost 32 percent of the population. 11.7 percent speak Filipino , while 1.4% of the population speak Chinese . Carolinian is spoken by only 0.07% of the population.
According to the 2015 census, the population is primarily committed to Christianity : 45.3% Catholics , 26.4% Protestants and 6.9% Seventh-day Adventists . Modekngei , a syncretistic religion of Palau, is represented with 5.7%.
There is a strong identification with the traditional culture, and there is a noticeable close connection between humans and the sea . There was no written language until the late 19th century, so stories, legends and knowledge were passed down orally. Today this custom is still practiced by telling stories and stories at the end of the day by the fire. Women have a strong position in the matrilineal , traditional society.
Palau became known in Germany through the pictures of Max Pechstein , which he depicted especially in art portraits after his trip to the South Seas in 1913/14.
There is a secondary school in Koror where a college degree can be obtained on the American model. Any further education requires leaving the country, mostly to the United States of America , where Palau residents enjoy unrestricted freedom of establishment.
The Republic of Palau is a presidential republic based on the American model and is divided into sixteen administrative units ("states").
The legislature of the Republic of Palau is the parliament called Olbiil Era Kelulau (OEK), which means “House of Discussed Decisions”. It is a bicameral parliament and is directly elected by the people for four years. The House of Representatives consists of sixteen delegates, one for each administrative unit of Palau, while the Senate consists of nine senators who are elected according to the population of the individual member states.
The executive branch of the Republic of Palau consists of a president, a vice-president and the 16-member council of chiefs. These have the administration ministers to support them in their tasks. The chief council is formed from the chiefs of the sixteen administrative units. This body advises the President on customs related to the constitution and laws. The chiefs of Eoueldaob ( Koror ) and Babeldaob (Melekeok) have a traditionally prominent position.
The president is elected for a term of four years; after two consecutive terms in office, an incumbent must pause for one term before running again. In the election period 2017-2021 is Tommy Remengesau the President of Palau, there is already a fourth term.
See also: List of Presidents of Palau
The judiciary currently consists of a court of first instance, a national court and a supreme court, which also functions as an appellate court and constitutional court.
Since October 7, 2006 the capital is Ngerulmud . Before that, Koror , the country's largest city, had been the capital since independence in 1994. The reallocation was done with a view to a better distribution of political power in the individual states.
Palau is divided into 16 administrative "states" (i.e. administrative units):
|North of Babeldaob|
|Southwest of Babeldaob|
Palau courts still recognize the so-called "Krämer" volumes of the Hamburg South Sea Expedition (1908–1910) by the German marine doctor , anthropologist and ethnologist Augustin Krämer (1864–1941) as the only authentic source in land and tribal disputes . The records contained in five volumes are, in the absence of their own or other written records, the codified memory of the Palauan culture and identity threatened by the modern way of life. The German embassy sponsored an English translation of these records (Krämer Translation Project) with the participation of the Etpison Museum and the Belau National Museum , and the German ambassador presented the first volumes to the President in May 2014.
The dominant economic influence comes from overseas remittances from Palau residents working in the United States. Immigrating to and working in the United States is very easy for citizens of Palau. Businesses such as tourism companies are often run by Japanese and American investors. Palau has a high percentage of Filipinos who work primarily in tourism. Virtually all motor vehicles are imported from Japan as used cars. The economy is concentrated in Koror - the location of the new capital Ngerulmud still plays practically no role (as of 2008).
The country's only port is on Malakal , the international airport on Babelthuap . Agriculture is the most common form of economy on Palau and is mainly self-sufficient; the most important crops are manioc , coconuts, bananas and sweet potatoes . Natural resources are copra and fish .
The gross domestic product is over 178.4 million US dollars, per capita it is 8,941 US dollars. With foreign aid over US $ 200 million, per capita it is US $ 10,000. The industry accounts for 21%, public administration with 20%, construction activity with 15%, hotels and restaurants with 10% and the financial sector as well as transport and communication with 8%. (As of 2009)
In 2005 a total of 11,671 people were employed on Palau, 426 people were unemployed. The unemployment rate in 2015 was only 1.5%.
The export volume is approx. 5.9 million US dollars (as of 2004). The most important trading partners are the USA , Japan , Singapore , Taiwan and Korea . The main export goods are tuna , copra , shellfish , clothing, handicrafts and coconuts . The import volume is approx. 129.5 million US dollars (as of 2008). The main trading partners are the USA , Guam , Japan, Singapore, Taiwan and Korea. The most important import goods are machines, oil, tobacco, animals, metal as well as food and spirits.
The national debt in 2004 was around 18 million (2006: 38 million) US dollars or around 13% of GDP.
In 2006, the share of government expenditure (as a percentage of GDP) was as follows:
- Health : 10.5%
- Education : 10.3% (2002)
- Military : 0.0% (Palau has no military, defense is a US task)
Transport and tourism
The international airport has connections with Asiana Airlines to Seoul and Osaka , with Korean Air to Seoul, with China Airlines to Taipei and seasonal charter flights with Japan Airlines to Tokyo and Nagoya . Koror is also connected to the United Airlines hub in Guam , which provides connections to the region to Manila and Yap as well as intercontinental connections to North America and Europe. The Republic of Palau does not have its own airline. Air connections between the larger islands of Palau are operated by private charter organizations with small planes.
Shipping and ferry connections are essential. On the islands, the car, the moped and the ox cart are the main modes of transport in small parts.
Tourism in Palau is not yet very commercial. Most of the approximately 100,000 (as of 2011) tourists per year come from the USA, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan and the Philippines. There are only smaller bungalow and apartment complexes and smaller hotels in Koror and on other islands. Diving and snorkeling are often used by tourists as sports opportunities in Palau. The diving magazine Forbes Traveler selected the Blue Corner in Palau as the “best diving area in the world”. Because of the currents , especially on the outer reef , diving in Palau requires advanced diving skills.
|January 1st||New Year|
|March, 15||Youth day|
|5th of May||Elderly Citizens Day|
|June 1st||Presidents' Day|
|June 9th||Constitution Day|
|first Monday in September||Labor Day|
|October 1||independence Day|
|October 24th||United Nations Day|
|last Thursday in November||Thanksgiving|
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- Palau Shark Sanctuary
- Micronesian Shark Foundation Palau
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- Kramer Translation Project on the Etpison Museum website. Retrieved January 5, 2014.
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- Inflation, GDP deflator (annual%) .
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