St. Vincent and the Grenadines
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines|
|St. Vincent and the Grenadines|
Motto : Pax et Justitia.
Latin , "Peace and Justice"
|Form of government||Parliamentary monarchy|
|Head of state||
Queen Elizabeth II
|Head of government||Ralph Gonsalves|
|Population density||301 inhabitants per km²|
|gross domestic product||2016|
|Human Development Index||0.719 (91.)|
|currency||East Caribbean Dollar (XCD)|
|independence||October 27, 1979
(from the UK )
|National anthem||St. Vincent Land So Beautiful|
|Time zone||UTC − 4|
|Telephone code||+1 (784) see NANP|
St. Vincent and the Grenadines ( English Saint Vincent and the Grenadines , is an independent island state in the Caribbean in the area of the West Indies . He is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations and the Bolivarian Alliance for America .), officially
The island state includes the island of St. Vincent and the 32 islands of the northern Grenadines , which belong to the Lesser Antilles . The southern Grenadines with the islands of Grenada, Carriacou and Petite Martinique do not belong to St. Vincent and the Grenadines , but to the national territory of Grenada . The capital and largest city of the country is Kingstown .
A total of around 117,000 people live in the island state. The annual growth rate of the population is 0.3%. As of 2002, 43% of the total population live in rural areas, while the remaining 57% live in cities.
St. Vincent is on an immigration route from North America to South America. The island has probably been around since the 5th millennium BC. At least temporarily settled. From 700 BC The Arawak settled the island. They were expelled from the Caribs around 800 AD . The Caribs called the island Hairoun ("home of the blessed").
In the early 17th century, the island was claimed by both Great Britain and France . The rule over the island changed again and again between the two kingdoms and the Caribs in the following decades. In 1783, France ceded St. Vincent to Great Britain.
European colonists soon began growing sugar cane throughout the Caribbean , with most of the work being done by African slaves . In 1635 a slave ship ran aground off St. Vincent. The “black” Caribs were formed from the descendants of the survivors and the native “yellow” Caribs.
Over time, more and more Africans were brought to work in the plantations on the island. Soon the Africans, and no longer the Europeans or Caribs, made up the majority of the population. To feed the rapidly growing population, new crops were introduced to the island, such as the breadfruit brought to the island by William Bligh , previously in command of the famous Bounty , on his second breadfruit voyage in 1793.
In 1838 slavery was abolished on St. Vincent and a new society developed in which the now free descendants of the slaves formed the majority of the population. The big landowners brought Indian contract workers to the island. A number of Portuguese immigrated in the middle of the 19th century . Today's "Vincentians" were formed through the mixing of the many cultures.
Active and passive women's suffrage was introduced on May 5, 1951. The principles of universal, equal, secret and direct suffrage had been in effect since the 1951 House of Assembly elections .
St. Vincent remained a British colony until 1969 before it was given wide-ranging autonomy . From 1958 to 1962 St. Vincent was a member of the West Indian Federation . In 1975 the country became an associated state and became independent on October 27, 1979 under the new name of St. Vincent and the Grenadines , but remained in the Commonwealth . The women's suffrage was confirmed at independence 1979th
The movie Pirates of the Caribbean was later shot in St. Vincent.
St. Vincent and the Grenadines is a Commonwealth Realm and thus a parliamentary monarchy with the British Queen Elizabeth II as head of state. Since Frederick Ballantyne's resignation on July 31, 2019, she has been represented by Governor General Susan Dougan . The head of government is Ralph Gonsalves .
Parliament is called the House of Assembly and consists of 21 members, 15 of whom are elected and 6 appointed every five years. All persons over the age of 18 are entitled to vote. The last election took place on December 13, 2010. The United Labor Party ULP won 8 seats and the New Democratic Party 7 seats.
On June 24, 2009, St. Vincent and the Grenadines joined the Bolivarian Alliance for America . The Iran , which has observer status in this organization, engages in St. Vincent and the Grenadines with economic aid and loans at low interest rates. During the civil war in Libya in 2011 , the government of St. Vincent and the Grenadines joined Hugo Chávez's negotiation proposal .
The country exported goods worth $ 42.2 million in 2002 . Of this, 31% was bananas , 16% flour , 11% rice . The four most important trading partners are here with 40% Great Britain , 10% Trinidad and Tobago , 9% St. Lucia and 9% Barbados .
A major problem is the high unemployment rate of 22%.
The gross national product in 2002 was EUR 282.5 million. That corresponds to 2416 euros per inhabitant.
The government of St. Vincent and the Grenadines is a member of the economic alliance Bolivarian Alternative for America .
The state budget included expenditures in 2016 of the equivalent of 222.2 million US dollars , which were income equivalent to 222.2 million US Dollar against. This results in a balanced budget .
The national debt was 79.2% of GDP in 2016.
The expenditure was distributed (in% of GDP) as follows:
- Health : 8.6% (2014)
- Education : 5.1% (2010)
- Military : k. A. (St. Vincent and the Grenadines have no military in the strict sense).
Means of communication
Fixed line and mobile telephony
In 2005 the country had 22,500 landline telephone lines. In 2004 there were already 57,000 cell phones in St. Vincent and the Grenadines . In 2015, 24,865 residents had a landline telephone connection, but at the same time there were 113,000 cell phones, which is more than 1,000 residents. The connections are provided by two providers - Digicel and Flow.
The country has nine radio stations (as of 2007) and one television station. All radio stations broadcast on FM and can therefore not be received internationally. According to the Freedom of the Press report by the non-governmental organization Freedom House , the press in St. Vincent and the Grenadines is considered "Free". According to the report, the country even has one of the freest presses on the entire American continent. (As of 2017)
- Saskia Thorbecke: St. Vincent and the Grenadines. In: Wolfgang Gieler , Markus Porsche-Ludwig (Hrsg.): State dictionary America: Geography, history, culture, politics and economy. Peter Lang, Berlin 2018, ISBN 978-3-631-77017-7 , pp. 403-410.
- official government website
- Country and travel information from the Federal Foreign Office
- Ministry of Tourism website
- Database of indexed literature on the social, political and economic situation in St. Vincent and the Grenadines
-  (PDF) International Monetary Fund
- Human Development Report Office: Saint Vincent and the Grenadines - Country Profile: Human Development Indicators, accessed October 25, 2014.
- St. Vincent and the Grenadines. In: Foreign Office. October 2008, accessed June 9, 2009 .
- World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations. Retrieved July 28, 2017 .
- Jad Adams: Women and the Vote. A world history. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2014, ISBN 978-0-19-870684-7 , page 438
- Mart Martin: The Almanac of Women and Minorities in World Politics. Westview Press Boulder, Colorado, 2000, p. 328.
- Bernd Hillebrands: St. Vincent and the Grenadines. In: Dieter Nohlen (Ed.): Handbook of the election data of Latin America and the Caribbean (= political organization and representation in America. Volume 1). Leske + Budrich, Opladen 1993, ISBN 3-8100-1028-6 , pp. 695-701, p. 697.
- - New Parline: the IPU's Open Data Platform (beta). In: data.ipu.org. May 5, 1951, accessed September 28, 2018 .
- Trend: EU wants new black list of tax havens
- The World Factbook
- This Business of Public Debt ( Memento of November 6, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
- The Fischer World Almanac 2010: Figures Data Facts, Fischer, Frankfurt, September 8, 2009, ISBN 978-3-596-72910-4
- Freedom of the Press 2017 | Freedom House. Retrieved November 26, 2017 .