|Repiblik d Ayiti (Haitian)
République d'Haïti (French)
|Republic of Haiti|
Motto : Liberté - Égalité - Fraternité
(French, " freedom, equality, fraternity ")
|Official language||Haitian and French|
|State and form of government||semi-presidential republic|
|Head of state||
|Head of government||
|population||11.3 million ( 81st ) (2019; estimate)|
|Population density||404 inhabitants per km²|
|Population development||+ 1.2% (estimate for 2019)|
gross domestic product
|Human Development Index||0.51 ( 170th ) (2019)|
|independence||1 January 1804 (from France )
recognized in 1825
|National holiday||January 1st (Independence Day)|
|Time zone||UTC − 5|
|ISO 3166||HT , HTI, 332|
Haiti (pronounced [ Haiti ]; haitian Ayiti , French Haïti [ aiti ]) is an on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles situated island nation . It covers the western part of the Caribbean island, the eastern part of which is occupied by the Dominican Republic . The approximately eleven million inhabitants of Haiti are mostly of sub-Saharan African descent. The capital of the country is Port-au-Prince .
Haiti was the first independent state in the Caribbean after the French colonial era . It is the only country on the American double continent that is counted among the least developed countries in the world. In addition to the weak economy, there is an unstable political situation with numerous unrest, which is why over three million Haitians have emigrated since the mid-1990s.
The country name comes from the language of the Taíno , the indigenous people of Hispaniola, and means "mountainous land".
The national territory in the west of the island of Hispaniola has the shape of a "U" opened to the west, which is formed by two long peninsulas . In between lies the Golfe de la Gonâve , at the eastern end of which is the capital Port-au-Prince .
Due to the U-shape of Haiti, the geographic center of the country is located 13 kilometers from the Île de la Gonâve outside the national territory in the Caribbean Sea.
The highest mountain is the Pic la Selle with a height of . It is located in the southeast of the country in the Sierra de Bahoruco , not far from the border to the even more mountainous Dominican Republic. Haiti has a 388 km land border with this eastern neighboring state on the island of Hispaniola.
Geology / earthquake
Geologically, the island of Hispaniola lies over the border between the Caribbean and North American plates . As a result of this fault there is frequent seismic activity. Haiti was hit by major earthquakes in 1751, 1842, 1860, 2010 and most recently in 2021 .
Haiti is in the area of tropical cyclones . The hurricane Jeanne taught in September 2004 considerable damage in the area around the city of Gonaives on. About 3,000 people died in Haiti. The state was hit particularly badly in August and September 2008 , when four consecutive tropical cyclones caused destruction by strong winds and heavy rain . A total of around 800 people were killed in Haiti as a result of the effects of Tropical Storm Fay , Hurricane Gustav , Tropical Storm Hanna and Hurricane Ike .
Haiti is severely affected by soil erosion and deforestation , but claims that 98% of the tropical rainforest have been deforested are greatly exaggerated. During the land reform at the beginning of the 19th century, farming families were given 15 hectares of farmland each. The descendants of these land heirs divided the land into smaller and smaller pieces. In 1971 the land allotted to a farming family was only 1.5 hectares in size. The land had to be overexploited to survive. Severe erosion was the result and the soil became sterile within a few years. The descendants made even steeper slopes usable for agriculture. Across the country, the loss of agricultural land for personal consumption led to social destabilization of the country.
Haiti's climate is consistently tropical and therefore has greater temperature differences during the day than during the year. Rainfall is around 1300 mm in most of Haiti, but only around 500 mm in the northwest, where it only rains in summer. There are two main rainy seasons during the year, from April to May and from September to October. Due to the proximity to the warm Gulf Stream , the water temperature is 25 ° C.
Flora and fauna
Since Hispaniola was separated from the American mainland for a long time, a relatively large number of animals and plants could develop independently of the mainland. Of around 5,000 plant species found in Haiti, around 35 percent are endemic . With the introduction of farm animals and culture followers by the colonizers, the diversity of the endemic species was further restricted, so that only two of the 28 mammal species originally found there have survived to this day: the zaguti ( Plagiodontia aedium ) and the Haitian sand weevil ( Solenodon paradoxus ).
In addition, the diversity of flora and fauna is endangered by ongoing erosion and overexploitation of the soil.
The population figures in the following table refer to an estimate as of January 1, 2015.
|No.||Department||Area in km²||Inhabitants (as of 2015)||Inhabitants per km²|
|Haiti as a whole||27,065||10,911,819||403|
Source for the area data: Direction des Statistiques Démographiques et Sociales (DSDS). The sum of the area of the départements differs from the state area given above, since the inland waters are not included in the areas of the départements.
In 2016, 59.8% of the population lived in cities or urban areas. Haiti's largest city is by far the capital Port-au-Prince, which has a population of 875,978. 2,296,386 people live in the metropolitan region of Port-au-Prince and thus almost 20% of the entire population of the country. The five largest cities are (as of 2009):
- Port-au-Prince : 875,978 inhabitants
- Carrefour : 430,250 inhabitants
- Delmas : 359,451 inhabitants
- Pétionville : 271,175 inhabitants
- Cité Soleil : 241,055 inhabitants
- Gonaives : 228,725 inhabitants
In Haiti, only a very small proportion of births and deaths are officially recorded. Therefore, all figures are based on estimates and projections. The following figures are therefore very uncertain.
The population has tripled since the first census in 1950; at that time 3.1 million were counted.
The average life expectancy at birth is given for the years between 2006 and 2016 (with the exception of the earthquake year 2010) with values between 61 and 65 years. The mean age of the population is 23 years (2017). The infant mortality rate is less than 5%, and the average annual population growth is 1.34% (2017). The total fertility rate in 2017 was estimated at 2.72 children per woman.
The Haitian population is divided into 95% black, 0.1% white, and 4.9% of those who emerged from ties between blacks and whites. Other sources give 60–80% black, up to a maximum of 5% white and 15–35% for people with black and white ancestors. These play a dominant role in the country's economy.
Haitians form large minorities through migration in the United States (approximately 600,000) and the Dominican Republic (800,000). A quarter of the Bahamas' population is from Haiti. Escape workers offer the transportation of boat refugees for a few hundred US dollars. Important destination countries for Haitian immigration are the Dominican Republic, the United States and France , Brazil and Canada as well as, increasingly, since 2010, Chile and Mexico in order to reach the USA via the Mexican northern border. Many are denied this and so, for example, many Haitians live in Tijuana.
The two main languages of Haiti are Haitian and French . The latter is particularly important as a second and educational language. Haiti is thus the only independent French-speaking state in Latin America. The language Langaj (also Langay or Haitian Voodoo Culture Language ) has exclusively religious significance . The languages of the indigenous population have died out.
The Roman Catholic Church in Haiti was the state church until the constitution came into force in 1987 . Exact numbers on religious affiliation were not yet available according to US data in 2003; At the time, it was estimated that around 80 percent of Haiti's citizens were Roman Catholics. According to more precise estimates, around 55% of Haitians were Roman Catholics in 2003, and almost 30% belong to various Protestant denominations, especially Baptists (more than 15 percent), Pentecostals (just under 8 percent) and Adventists , with a growing tendency in recent decades (about 3 percent). Although only a few percent (2003: estimated 2.1) of the population state that they belong to the voodoo religion, which originated in West Africa , many residents who officially profess Christianity also practice voodoo or spiritualist rituals - overall, well around 75 percent of the population, mostly black and people from a black / white relationship. Voodoo served President François Duvalier as an opportunity to take action against people from a black / white relationship. Although it has been recognized by the authorities as a religious practice since 2003, it did not receive full religious rights. Other religions are given as 4.6%, non-believers make up around 10 percent.
In the decades following the discovery of the island of Hispaniola by Christopher Columbus in 1492, its indigenous people, including the Taino, to the group of Arawaks belonging, and the Ciboney almost completely exterminated . In the late 17th century, the island was repopulated mainly by African slaves who were used on the sugar plantations .
In 1697, in the Peace of Rijswijk , Spain ceded the western third of the island to France . This area was then called Saint-Domingue and in the 18th century became the richest colony of the French colonies on the American continent.
On August 23, 1791, under the leadership of Dutty Boukman and Georges Biassou , a slave revolt broke out, which developed into a bloody war everyone against everyone : Europeans fought against Africans, Creole planters against French loyal to the king, French republican troops against the intervening English and Spaniards. The ex-slaves ("Africans") prevailed in the end. Even an army sent by Napoleon against Haiti's national hero Toussaint Louverture was ultimately defeated.
Saint-Domingue declared its independence from France on January 1, 1804 under the name Haiti ( French spelling: Hayti ), General Dessalines declared himself emperor following the example of Napoleon and ruled until his violent death in 1806. Haiti, the first independent republic of Blacks, campaigned for the abolition of slavery and also supported Venezuela , Peru and Colombia in their struggle for independence under revolutionary leaders such as Bolívar and Miranda .
In 1806 Haiti split into the " State of Haiti " ( État d′Haïti ) in the north (a kingdom from 1811 ), which was dominated by a black elite, and the "Republic of Haiti" in the south, which was dominated by a mulatto elite.
In 1820 President Boyer succeeded in reuniting the divided country. Under his leadership, Haitian troops conquered the eastern part of the island that belonged to Spain (the later Dominican Republic ). In 1822, Haiti annexed eastern Hispaniola and abolished slavery there too; In 1844 this area, the later Dominican Republic, regained its independence.
In return for recognizing Haiti's independence in 1825, France demanded compensation for former plantation owners. For decades, Haiti paid France a total of 90 million gold francs . Soon after independence, large plantations were among the people divided , whereby the export of agricultural goods collapsed. Several attempts to increase the productivity of agriculture (beginning with the Code Rural of 1826) have failed because of the agrarian structure consisting of small and very small parcels . Nevertheless, the country was considered an exporter of coffee , cocoa , hides and logs .
Haiti has suffered from rulers and kleptocrats for most of its history . Just two of his rulers - Jean-Jacques Dessalines (1804–1806), also called Jakob I or Jacques I, and Faustin Soulouque (1849–1859) - raised themselves to be emperors at different times .
In 1902 there was an incident in which there was a sea battle between the Haitian gunboat Crête-à-Pierrot and the German gunboat SMS Panther ( Markomannia incident ), in the course of which the Haitian boat sank and Admiral Hammerton Killick fell.
During the US military intervention in Haiti 1915-1934 , the country was occupied by the United States Marine Corps , which set up a Haitian gendarmerie , the Gendarmerie d'Haïti . Efforts have been made to improve rural infrastructure and the education system; but these reforms, which ignored the customs and traditions of Haiti, were neither welcomed nor successful. Charlemagne Péralte was the leader of the armed resistance against the occupation forces and the Gendarmerie d'Haïti .
The US intervention ushered in a period that lasted until the end of Élie Lescot's (Leslie Lescot) presidency in 1946, during which the descendants of a black and white relationship held the economic and political strings in hand. There was only one government paper. US troops were withdrawn in 1934 under the Good Neighbor Policy . In 1946 the blacks came to power in the so-called "revolution"; their supremacy was expanded under Presidents Dumarsais Estimé (1946) and Paul Eugène Magloire (1950).
Until 1950, a census was in force in Haiti, which made certain income and property limits necessary in order to gain the right to vote. In addition, there was no active or passive right to vote for women until 1950 .
From 1957 onwards, the former country doctor François “Papa Doc” Duvalier succeeded in gaining power with an anti-US American, emphatically “black” program. He became a dictator in 1964 and became known for the so-called Tontons Macoutes , a volunteer force that used the methods of a secret police and a group of thugs against unpopular people. The voodoo cult was also tolerated again. "Papa Docs" son Jean-Claude "Baby Doc" Duvalier followed him in 1971 at the age of 19 in the government. The 1985 constitution extended the right to vote to all citizens. In 1986 "Baby Doc" was driven out of the country.
After the constitutional reform of 1987 , the military , supported by the wealthy upper class, put on a coup against President Leslie Manigat in June 1988 and ruled (after another coup in September 1988) until the 1990 elections, in which the Catholic poor priest Jean-Bertrand Aristide was overwhelming Majority was elected president. His opponents accused him of class struggle , and he considered himself part of the liberation theology . As early as 1991 he was put out of office by Brigadier General Raoul Cédras . The regime initially sought US support. Even under pressure from the Organization of American States , the USA decided in 1994 to undertake the military intervention Operation Uphold Democracy and let Aristide return to his office, on the condition that he now agree to the rules with the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund keep the market economy and cede part of its rights to parliament. In 1996, according to the constitution, Aristide handed over the office to his companion René Préval after one term of office had expired . The UN mandate, under which Haiti had been since 1995, expired in 1997.
In January 1999, President Préval failed to renew parliamentarians' mandates. In addition, the terms of office of local government officials also ended, which meant that by the third quarter of 2000 there were practically no elected incumbents in Haiti and the president ruled by decree. In the first half of 2000 local and parliamentary elections were initially held; voter turnout was estimated at 60 percent. According to Amnesty International and the World Council of Churches, this resulted in intimidation and violence up to the murder of candidates on both sides and controversial decisions up to and including election fraud in the evaluation and counting of votes by the government. According to election observers, the government received around 60% of the vote, but it obtained almost all parliamentary seats. The opposition then brought about a widespread boycott of the following presidential election, which Aristide therefore won in November 2000 with over 91 percent of the vote. After taking office in 2001, his government was also accused of mismanagement and corruption. There was increasing nationwide resistance, which was fueled by forces of the former dictator Duvalier, including death squads working for him . Aristide tried to keep himself in power by mobilizing his supporters - including the equally violent "Chimères" of the " Fanmi Lavalas " (FL). Under conditions similar to civil war , the internal order finally collapsed and in February 2004, with the approval of the UN Security Council, military intervention was initiated, with Chile , France , Canada and the USA sending troops. Aristide left the country - according to the opposition, the USA and France voluntarily, according to his own account as a result of a coup. In place of the first intervention troops, around 10,000 blue helmet soldiers were stationed as part of MINUSTAH in 2004 .
According to Aristide, the country was initially administered in 2004 by a transitional government under Boniface Alexandre as President and Gérard Latortue as Prime Minister, until the presidential election, which had been postponed several times, was held in February 2006. With an election result of 51.15% of the vote, it produced Préval as the winner, but the process of this election was also controversial. In May 2006, Préval nominated the politician Jacques-Édouard Alexis as Prime Minister. In early 2006, General Urano Teixeira da Matta Bacellar , the Brazilian commander of MINUSTAH, died under unexplained circumstances; suicide was suspected .
High inflation and the sharp rise in prices for staple foods such as rice and maize around the world led to popular protests in spring 2008, which culminated in serious unrest with several deaths. Although President Préval had announced that he would fight the rise in food prices, the situation did not calm down. On April 12, 2008, the Senate decided to dismiss Prime Minister Alexis.
On January 12, 2010, an earthquake in the southern part of Haiti claimed up to 316,000 deaths and destroyed the center of the capital. In terms of the number of victims, it was the worst natural disaster in Haiti's history and one of the most devastating earthquakes in the world.
Nine months after the earthquake, the government declared a nationwide sanitary emergency following the epidemic outbreak of cholera. More than 300,000 people were infected in the first year of the epidemic, and by 2013 over 8,000 people had died.
The infections initially occurred in the rural Artibonite province and spread to the capital Port-au-Prince within a few days. On August 17, 2016, the UN admitted that the cause of the outbreak was a pathogen brought in by Nepalese UN soldiers.
Since September 2019 there have been protests in Haiti against President Jovenel Moïse, who has been in office since 2017 . The protests were sparked by a report that exposed widespread corruption among the economic and political elites while most of the country's population lived in severe poverty. Social life in Haiti was affected, including schools closed. Dozens of people died in the clashes, and Amnesty International made serious allegations against the Haitian police, parts of which tried to storm the military headquarters in late February 2020 in order to obtain better working conditions.
On the night of July 6th to 7th, 2021 at around 1 a.m., a group of men broke into the private residence of incumbent President Jovenel Moïse and murdered him with several shots. The president's wife was injured by several bullets, but survived the crime. According to media reports, the perpetrators spoke English and Spanish and were labeled as foreigners.
According to the constitution of April 28, 1987, Haiti is a presidential republic . The head of state and supreme holder of executive power is the president, who is directly elected by the people for a period of five years . The state president appoints the prime minister, who has to be confirmed by parliament. The legislature lies with the bicameral parliament , consisting of the Senate ( Sénat ) with 30 senators, who are elected for six years, and the Chamber of Deputies ( Chambre des députés ) with 99 members, who are elected for four years.
After the parties and the president were unable to agree on rules for the implementation of the upcoming new elections by the end of the legislative period, President Martelly dissolved parliament on January 13, 2015 and from then on ruled by decree.
In the elections for the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate on August 9, 2015, 290,000 eligible voters were unable to vote because their polling stations were closed as a result of violent riots. The turnout was 18%, in the capital only 10%. The election results should have been announced one month after the election, on September 8, 2015. But that did not happen, among other things. as a result of quarrels among the members of the responsible electoral commission ( Conseil Électoral Provisoire ). After the round of elections on October 25, 2015 (runoff elections for the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate, first round of the presidential elections, local elections), five days after the polls closed, 2,113 records of the results of the local counts were missing. Jovenel Moïse and Jude Célestin qualified for the runoff of the presidential election . This should have been carried out on December 27, 2015, but was canceled six days earlier, postponed several times and finally scheduled for April 24, 2016. On February 14, 2016, Senate President Jocelerme Privert was elected by Parliament as the interim president, who should lead the office until the election in April. But then the runoff election for the presidential election, scheduled for April 24, 2016, was postponed again - for the fourth time. At the end of May 2016, an electoral review committee recommended that the first round of the presidential election in October 2015 be annulled and repeated, as far too many people with dubious voting rights would have voted at the time. On June 14, 2016, Privert's mandate as transitional president, which was limited to 120 days, expired without having achieved his goal of handing over office to a successor elected by the people. Two attempts by the remaining members of the Chamber of Deputies to decide whether to renew Privert's mandate as interim president until February 7, 2017, failed. Because violent demonstrators for and against Privert prevented the scheduled meetings on June 21 and June 28, 2016 from taking place. Nonetheless, Privert regarded himself as a “de facto interim president” for the time being, insofar as the Chamber of Deputies did not decree otherwise. The runoff election for the presidential election, which had been postponed several times, was finally held on November 20, 2016. According to the preliminary election result announced by the Conseil Électoral Provisoire on November 28th , Jovenel Moïse won with 55.7% of the vote, ahead of Jude Célestin (19.2%), Moïse Jean-Charles (11.0%) and Maryse Narcisse (9.0%) %). Only around 1.3 million of the 6.2 million eligible voters (= 21%) cast their votes.
Since the parliamentary election planned for October 2019 was not held due to violent protests against Moïse, among other things, the term of office of 20 of the total of 30 senators has expired and the Senate has no longer had a quorum since January 2020. Nevertheless, on July 9, 2021, eight of the ten remaining members of the Senate elected the previous Senate President Joseph Lambert as the transitional successor to the murdered President Jovenel Moïse; two senators abstained. However, Lambert's election is unconstitutional. In February 2021, several opposition parties had declared Joseph Mécène Jean-Louis, a judge of the Supreme Court, as transitional president because they believed Moïse's term of office had expired.
Shortly before his murder, Moïse had appointed the neurosurgeon Ariel Henry as head of government, but he was no longer sworn in before the attack. The foreign minister and previous interim prime minister Claude Joseph then declared himself in competition with Ariel Henry as the incumbent interim head of government. On July 19, 2021, Claude Joseph Ariel admitted Henry to the office of Prime Minister and announced that he would serve in Henry's cabinet as Foreign Secretary.
The most influential political parties are:
- Fanmi Lavalas (FL)
- Mouvement Chrétien National (Mochrena)
- Organization du Peuple en Lutte (OLP), member of the Conférence permanente des partis politiques d'Amérique latine et des Caraïbes (COPPPAL)
|Name of the index||Index value||Worldwide rank||Interpretation aid||year|
|Fragile States Index||97.7 out of 120||13 of 178||Stability of the country: Alarm
0 = very sustainable / 120 = very alarming
|Democracy index||4.22 out of 10||106 of 167||Hybrid regime
0 = authoritarian regime / 10 = complete democracy
|Freedom in the World Index||38 out of 100||---||Freedom status: partially free
0 = not free / 100 = free
|Freedom of the press ranking||31.12 out of 100||87 of 180||Recognizable problems for the freedom of the press
0 = good situation / 100 = very serious situation
|Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI)||18 out of 100||170 of 180||0 = very corrupt / 100 = very clean||2020|
The domestic political situation in Haiti in recent decades has been characterized by repeated crises such as coups d'etat, foreign interventions and / or dictatorships with outbreaks of violent conflicts, violations of human rights and chronic instability. President Jean-Bertrand Aristide , who resigned on February 29, 2004, left interim President Boniface Alexandre a country in chaos. The rule of law, institutional structures and collective rules of conduct are largely absent. In addition, there is a panorama of corruption, a lack of criminal prosecution, electoral fraud, criminal gangs, drug trafficking and the willingness to resolve conflicts violently.
Another problem is the poor monitoring of the airspace . For example, Haiti has become a popular transit country for cocaine smuggling.
In the 1960s and 1970s, the Federal Republic of Germany and the United States were the only countries that gave Haiti development aid; however, the relationship between Haiti and the United States, which proved to be an unreliable partner, was severely disturbed for a long time.
Development cooperation between Haiti and the Federal Republic of Germany therefore goes back to the 1960s, but has repeatedly undergone turning points as a result of internal political disputes and the inadequate structural framework. In 2000, the election manipulation again gave Germany and other EU states the opportunity to reduce their commitment: The ongoing technical cooperation projects were continued, but no new projects were agreed.
Against the background of the extremely poor socio-economic situation and the chronic political instability, the Haitian interim government, with the support of the donor community, drafted a framework agreement for development cooperation (Cadre de Coopération Intermédiaire) for the two years until the new elections. The German government also participated in this program. This created new framework conditions for German-Haitian cooperation. Technical cooperation focuses on rural areas (communal / local development).
The 2010 earthquake made the country completely dependent on international aid. This resulted in uncoordinated actions and also in competition between a number of states for political influence on the island, which is geostrategically important for the USA. About a million potential American voters are also from Haiti.
Cuba had been supporting Haiti for a long time, especially with medical aid since Hurricane Georges in 1998, and built a health bridge after the earthquake. Brazil has led the UN Stabilization Force since 2004 and has had certain successes, including: in the fight against drug trafficking, which contributed to positive relations between the two countries. Relations with France, on the other hand, were only symbolic and strained due to demands for the return of the compensation paid to France by Haiti for the recognition of the country in the 19th century. These compensations had contributed to the long-lasting economic stagnation.
Haiti is a. Member of CELAC .
The HIV - prevalence in Haiti is 1.9% (1.7% -2.2%) stated (2009), however, are for the time after the January 2010 earthquake no data. Almost half (46%) of all people living with HIV / AIDS in the Caribbean live in Haiti. Since the early 1990s, HIV prevalence in Haiti has decreased from 5.9% and appears to be stabilizing at around two percent. Despite positive developments, the economic and social effects of HIV / AIDS are great because of the inadequate health system, widespread poverty and the discrimination against HIV-positive people.
In 2016, the child mortality rate in Haiti was 6.7%. Despite the country's major problems, life expectancy has been increased and child mortality has been reduced.
Development of life expectancy
|period||Life expectancy in
|period||Life expectancy in
Haiti is the poorest country in the western hemisphere . The country is a densely populated agricultural state with a per capita income of around 761 US dollars in 2016 , which is the lowest per capita income in Latin America. The gross domestic product (GDP) for 2017 is estimated at 8.6 billion US dollars. In purchasing power parity , GDP is US $ 20 billion or US $ 1,800 per inhabitant. Real growth was only 1.2% with an inflation rate of 14.7%. Despite large amounts of aid from abroad, the economic situation has barely improved in recent years.
Since July 2017, the statutory minimum wage has been 350 Gourdes per day (= € 4.85 at the exchange rate at the time).
58.5% of the population live below the relative poverty line (as of 2012). More than two thirds of the working age population do not have a regular job.
According to 2010 FAO figures, more than half of the population is undernourished: 5.5 million of Haiti's 9.4 million inhabitants. The development economist Hans-Heinrich Bass describes the displacement of small-scale production in the 1980s and 1990s through imports of subsidized US rice and sugar and the simultaneous promotion of coffee and mango plantations, also through funds from, as a major negative factor for food security in Haiti US development cooperation. Although a comparative cost advantage may actually lie in this special cultivation, the problem of agricultural underproduction in relation to the population in Haiti could not be solved in practice because the income generated in special cultivation was not sufficient for an import-based food security.
In the Global Competitiveness Index , which measures a country's competitiveness, Haiti ranks 128th out of 137 countries (as of 2017-2018). In 2017, the country was ranked 159th out of 180 countries in the Index for Economic Freedom .
A major problem in the country is the poor condition of the roads and the transport infrastructure. In the Logistics Performance Index , which is compiled by the World Bank and measures the quality of the infrastructure, Haiti ranked 153rd out of 160 countries in 2018.
Colonial Haiti was the richest country in the Caribbean at the time , although its prosperity primarily benefited the colonial power and a small local elite. Sugar and coffee were grown on plantations and exported to Europe. After the Haitian Revolution, France pressed a "ransom" from its former colony in 1825 in return for recognizing independence. Haiti was to pay 150 million francs, which were initially reduced to 120 million francs after negotiations and then to 60 million in 1838, payable in 30 annual installments until 1867. Apart from occasional payment delays, the sum was actually paid off in full by 1883. In order to service these installments, however, the country repeatedly took out loans on extremely poor terms, so that the sum was actually only paid off in 1947.
During the 19th century, the Haitian economy began to slowly decline, the causes of which were varied: the debt burden, foreign policy blockades and threats, high military spending and a lack of investment, political instability, massive social and racial conflicts, chaotic land reforms and a conversion of agriculture from the plantation economy on primitive smallholder farms ensured that Haiti was one of the less developed states in the Caribbean on the eve of the US invasion in 1915. The US occupiers expanded the infrastructure and state administration, but this did not change the structural economic problems. Today Haiti, the “poor house of America”, is the only state in America that can still be counted among the classic developing countries.
From 1990 to 2003 around four billion US dollars in aid came from the USA and Europe. At the same time, the country is suffering from a high level of talent drain as 80 percent of Haitians with higher education emigrate.
Since the fall of Jean-Bertrand Aristide , the country's economy has been in a serious crisis. But the first signs of normalization appeared on March 4, 2004, when the banks in Port-au-Prince opened again for the first time. The Haiti industry association estimates the damage caused by the unrest at more than 100 million euros. The German post office was to support a modern postal code system, the commitment to Haiti in building. A major problem facing the state is the high level of corruption . With 146th place out of 178, it is one of the lowest places in the statistics of Transparency International . Against Haiti was one of the Federal Republic of Germany fulfilled ban after total embargo imposed.
Agriculture accounts for 24.7 percent of GDP (as of 2012). About two thirds of Haiti's population make a living from agriculture. The main products are coffee, mangoes, cane sugar , sorghum and wood . Almost all other foods have to be imported on a large scale. Rice, corn, mangoes, coffee and cocoa are also exported. Around a third of the country is used for agriculture, but large areas of arable land have been lost to deforestation and erosion. Mangoes and coffee are grown primarily for export. Around half of the world's vetiver oil comes from Haiti . Caribbean Flavors and Fragrances is Haiti's largest manufacturer and exporter of the oil used in perfume making, aromatherapy and naturopathy in 2013 with 50 employees. The export of agricultural products can only be carried out via the port of Port-au-Prince, but it often fails due to inadequate transport connections from the growing areas to the port.
Industry accounts for around 19.5 percent of GDP (as of 2012). There are industrial companies only for textiles, handicrafts, assembly of electronic items, food processing, beverages, tobacco, furniture, chemicals and steel.
Services are responsible for around 55.8 percent of GDP (as of 2012). In addition to trade, there are hotels and restaurants as well as tourism.
Haiti has 1,700 kilometers of the Caribbean coast, but there has been no foreign investment in beach hotels for many years. One of the few exceptions is a small headland in the northwest: the vast majority of the country's tourism income comes from the leasing of the port of Labadee and the adjacent beaches in the north of the country to the cruise line Royal Caribbean Cruises . Labadee is approached as a regular shore leave on the Caribbean cruises. The shipping company pays the Haitian state six US dollars per tourist. The area is strictly isolated from the rest of the country. The reason for this is the travel warnings issued by the USA and EU for years due to, among other things, targeted armed robbery against foreigners.
All GDP values are given in US dollars ( purchasing power parity ).
(purchasing power parity)
|6.39 billion||8.05 billion||9.29 billion||9.58 billion||11.79 billion||12.88 billion||13.58 billion||14.41 billion||14.81 billion||15.38 billion||14.72 billion||15.85 billion||16.61 billion||17.59 billion||18.41 billion||18.83 billion||19.35 billion||19.93 billion|
GDP per capita
(purchasing power parity)
(as a percentage of GDP)
- Exports (goods): US $ 1.11 billion (2016): Mainly textiles
- Imports (goods): US $ 2.95 billion (2016)
The country has been unilaterally dependent on the United States for many years: it exports around 80 percent there and imports around half from there.
The national debt was 33.5% of GDP in 2016.
In 2006 the share of government expenditure (as a percentage of GDP) was in the following areas:
- Health : 8.4%
- Education : 1.4% (1991)
- Military : 0.4% (The armed forces were disarmed, an international peacekeeping force was stationed in the country from the 2004 coup until 2017.)
There are two universities, the state university Université d'État d'Haïti with around 20,000 students and the Catholic Université Notre Dame d'Haïti . Both are badly affected by the 2010 earthquake.
Haitian culture is very different from that of the surrounding countries of the Caribbean and the Americas. It is particularly strongly influenced by French and West African influences. In addition, remnants of the Spanish or Taino culture can be identified.
Carnival (known by the population as Kanaval or Mardi Gras ) is an important festival . This is celebrated to a far greater extent than in Germany. The Rara Festival is celebrated shortly before Easter with Rara music.
The mixture of cultures typical of Haiti can be found, for example, in Haitian painting, which combines African, French, Spanish and Indian roots. Bright colors, mythical tales, the paradise of the jungle, rituals, dances and the gods of voodoo characterize the motifs of Haitian painting, which serve to remember the Haitian past. For this mixture high prices are obtained on the markets of the international art scene.
Many artists divide Haitian objects into 'art schools', such as the Cap Haiti school, which specializes in everyday life in the cities, the Jacmel school, which depicts the deep valleys and mountains of the coasts, or the Saint-Soleil -School characterized by abstract human forms and the symbolism of Vodou.
The most famous Haitian music genre is the “Kompa”, a genre in which Spanish and French musical elements are combined with African rhythms and Creole chants. Other typical Haitian music styles are Rara, Mizik Rasin, Compas and Mini-Jazz. Rap music is popular in Haiti and it has developed its own style (Haitian Rap) .
The internationally best known Haitian is probably Wyclef Jean , who made a career with his cousin Pras Michel (Prakazrel Michel) and with Lauryn Hill as The Fugees , as well as as a solo artist and in collaboration with artists like Santana (“Maria Maria” on the album “Supernatural ", 1999) or Sarah Connor (" One Nite Stand ", 2002).
The best-known German with Haitian descent is the rapper Torch , a founding member of the band Advanced Chemistry , who is considered a co-founder of the German hip-hop scene and is known worldwide under the pseudonym DJ Haitian Star.
The family roots of the multi-instrumentalist Régine Chassagne ( The Arcade Fire ) also go back to Haiti. She and her parents fled to Chicago in the 1970s to escape the regime of dictator Duvalier. Arcade Fire's album “Funeral” includes a song called “Haiti”, which describes the situation under Duvalier's dictatorship.
Early Haitian literature was mainly characterized by the essay writing by historians such as Joseph Saint-Rémy (1818–1856), who tried to establish the world-historical mission of the founding of the Haitian state, oscillating between the pathos of the Enlightenment and racial theory.
Romanticism was represented by Oswald Durand (1840–1906). Justin Lhérisson (1873-1907) founded the novel nationally at the beginning of the 20th century as a form of social satire in the oral-Creole narrative style.
A Haitian indigénisme developed since 1930, combining resistance against the United States with a reassessment of black cultural heritage. One of the authors of this movement was Jean Price-Mars (1876–1969). A socially critical to socialist perspective has dominated since the 1950s, as in the work of Jacques Stephen Alexis (1922–1961). After that, especially since the late 1960s, the intellectual elite of Haiti was driven into exile under Duvalier; the self-written literature in Haiti dried up until the 1990s. Marie-Célie Agnant (* 1953) emigrated to French-speaking Canada, as did Jacqueline Beaugé-Rosier (* 1932), Gary Klang (* 1941), Claude C. Pierre (* 1941), Liliane Devieux-Dehoux (* 1942) and the poet Serge Legagneur (* 1937). Reginald Crosley (* 1937), doctor and voodoo practitioner and researcher, emigrated to the USA, as did Josaphat-Robert Large (1942–2017). René Depestre (* 1926) had to go into French exile in the 1940s. Jean Métellus (1937–2014) followed to France in 1959.
There have always been controversies about the literacy of the Creole language, which severely limits the range of the books. On the other hand, 80 percent of the population cannot read French books. Writing in Creole thus contributes to self-marginalization and exoticization; but it is also a moment of combative self-assertion. The poet, composer and theater maker Jean Jacques Clark Parent (* 1951) writes in both languages; also Frankétienne (* 1936), whose masterpiece Dézafi , Haiti's first Creole novel, appeared in 1975.
Important contemporary Haitian authors are Faubert Bolivar (* 1979), Webert Charles (* 1988), Maggy de Coster (* 1962), Louis-Philippe Dalembert (* 1962), Edwidge Danticat (* 1969), Jean-Claude Fignolé (* 1941), Dany Laferrière (* 1953), Fred Edson Lafortune (* 1982), Yanick Lahens (* 1953), Jean-Robert Léonidas (* 1946), Kettly Mars (* 1958), Marie-Sœurette Mathieu (* 1949), James Noël (* 1978), Makenzy Orcel (* 1983), Thélyson Orélien (* 1988), Stanley Pean (* 1966), the poet Anthony Phelps (* 1928), Emmelie Prophète (* 1971), Rodney Saint-Éloi (* 1963), Evelyne Trouillot (* 1954), Lyonel Trouillot (* 1956), Gary Victor (* 1958), Marvin Victor (* 1981). Many of the younger authors also live abroad.
Haiti as a setting in literature:
- Heinrich von Kleist : The Engagement in St. Domingo (1811)
- Graham Greene : The Comedians' Hour (1966)
In 1974, Haiti surprisingly qualified for the soccer World Cup in Germany . Sensationally, the “football dwarf” took the lead in the first game against vice world champions Italy with a goal from Emmanuel Sanon , but lost in the end and could not survive the first round. The goalkeeper of the Haitians, Henri Françillon , was signed for the Second Bundesliga by TSV 1860 Munich after the tournament for the 1974/75 season .
- Philippe Girard: Haiti. The Tumultuous History - From Pearl of the Caribbean to Broken Nation. Palgrave Macmillan, New York 2010. ISBN 0-230-10661-7 .
- Paul Edward Farmer: The Uses of Haiti. Common Courage Press, Monroe 2005, ISBN 1-56751-344-1 .
- Holger Schrader: The Latin American Policy of the USA under President Clinton: Claim and Reality. Studies on the history, politics and society of North America. Vol. 25. LIT, Berlin / Hamburg / Münster 2007, ISBN 3-8258-0334-1 .
- Peter Hallward: Damming the Flood: Haiti, Aristide and the Politics of Containment. Verso, London / New York 2008, ISBN 1-84467-106-2 .
- Werner Pieper : Understand Haiti better - mix of past, present and tremor. Pieper & The Grüne Kraft, Löhrbach 2010, ISBN 3-930442-42-6 .
- Yanick Lahens : And suddenly the ground opens up: Haiti, January 12th. Rotpunktverlag, Zurich 2011, ISBN 3-85869-439-8 .
- Hans Christoph Buch : Haiti. Obituary for a failed state. Wagenbach, Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-8031-2648-1 .
- Werner Golder: Crazy Love: Haiti - Irritation and Fascination. Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2009, ISBN 3-8260-4251-4 .
- Database of indexed literature on the social, political and economic situation in Haiti
- History, english
- Country information from the Federal Foreign Office on Haiti
- Website of the Haitian Embassy in the USA
- Geology of Haiti Part 1 (English, PDF, 403 KiB)
- Geology of Haiti Part 2 (English, PDF, 316 KiB)
- Official website of the Haiti Tourist Board (French)
- Official website of the Ministry of Tourism (French)
- The Louverture Project History of the Haitian Revolution - Wiki
- Oliver Gliech: Haiti - The "first black republic" and its colonial legacy. Federal Agency for Civic Education , July 5, 2010, accessed on January 30, 2021 .
- Article 4 of the 1987 Constitution.
- Qui est Ariel Henry, le nouveau premier ministre de Jovenel Moïse? Le Nouvelliste , Port-au-Prince, July 5, 2021, accessed July 29, 2021.
- population, total. In: World Economic Outlook Database. World Bank , 2020, accessed January 30, 2021 .
- Population growth (annual%). In: World Economic Outlook Database. World Bank , 2020, accessed January 30, 2021 .
- World Economic Outlook Database October 2020. In: World Economic Outlook Database. International Monetary Fund , 2020, accessed January 30, 2021 .
- Table: Human Development Index and its components . In: United Nations Development Program (ed.): Human Development Report 2020 . United Nations Development Program, New York 2020, ISBN 978-92-1126442-5 , pp. 346 (English, undp.org [PDF]).
- EnviroSociety: Haiti Is Covered with Trees - EnviroSociety. In: envirosociety.org. May 19, 2016, accessed April 24, 2021 .
- Country information on Haiti, SOS Children's Villages ( Memento from January 6, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
- Institut Haïtien de Statistique et d'Informatique: Population totale par sexe et population de 18 ans et plus, ménages et densités, estimées en 2015 . Port-au-Prince 2015, table Population totale par sexe et population de 18 ans et plus, estimées en 2015, au niveau des différentes unités géographiques (Arrondissements, Communes, Sections Communales) , pp. 21-22, accessed on November 22 2018.
- Population totale par sexe et population de 18 ans et plus, ménages et densités, estimées en 2015 . Institut Haïtien de Statistique et d'Informatique, Port-au-Prince 2015, pp. 77-78, accessed on November 22, 2018.
- Haiti - Major Cities
- Population of Haiti , Library of Congress Country Studies , accessed August 8, 2011
- Figures from the World Health Organization , as of 2018.
- The World Factbook. CIA data on Haiti (as of 2017; access: 2018).
- The History of the Haiti Conflict. Retrieved August 4, 2017 .
- Sara B. Miller: Haiti's chaos reverberates for expatriates in American cities , online edition of the Christian Science Monitor of March 3, 2004, accessed on August 8, 2011.
- Nick Davies, Bahamas outlook clouds for Haitians , BBC News, September 20, 2011, accessed August 8, 2011
- Nicolás Rojas Pedemonte et al .: Migración haitiana en Chile (PDF; 16.2 MB). Published by the Chilean Immigration Service, Santiago de Chile 2015, p. 8.
- population, total. In: World Economic Outlook Database. World Bank , 2020, accessed May 1, 2021 .
- International Religious Freedom Report 2007 , documented on the US State Department website.
- International Religious Freedom Report 2003 ( memento of January 13, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) , documented on the website of the US State Department.
- The god descends into the mud hole ( Memento from September 5, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
- http://www.br-online.de/wissen-bildung/collegeradio/medien/religion/voodoo/arbeitsblaetter/voodoo_ab3.pdf ( Memento from May 16, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
- Haiti. In: Encyclopaedia Britannica 2013. Ultimate edition. 2012, ISBN 978-3-8032-6629-3 ( online ), accessed April 15, 2021.
- Walter Adolphe Roberts: The French in the West Indies. Bobbs-Merrill, Indianapolis 1942, p. 125.
- Declaration of independence Le Général en Chef, Au Peuple d'Hayti of January 1, 1804 , accessed on June 2, 2014 (French; PDF; 4.47 MB).
- J. Verschueren: La République d'Haïti . Volume 1: Panorama d'Haïti . Éditions Scaldis, Wetteren 1948, p. 60.
- Export goods according to Meyers Handlexikon 1912, when the country still had less than 100 km of railway lines.
- Alfred Vagts : Germany and the United States in world politics . Macmillan, London and New York 1935, Vol. 2, Chapter The “Panther's Leap” to Haiti , pp. 1788–1806, here pp. 1794–1795.
- How to wipe away a head of state with a handful of paper - the amazing story of Gérard Chenet , NZZ, August 31, 2018
- Felix Galle: Haiti. In: Dieter Nohlen (Ed.): Handbook of the election data of Latin America and the Caribbean (= political organization and representation in America. Volume 1). Leske + Budrich, Opladen 1993, ISBN 3-8100-1028-6 , pp. 401-421, p. 404.
- Mart Martin: The Almanac of Women and Minorities in World Politics. Westview Press Boulder, Colorado, 2000, p. 168.
- Christine Pintat: Women's Representation in Parliaments and Political Parties in Europe and North America In: Christine Fauré (Ed.): Political and Historical Encyclopedia of Women: Routledge New York, London, 2003, pp. 481-502, p. 488.
- - New Parline: the IPU's Open Data Platform (beta). In: data.ipu.org. December 6, 1950, accessed November 16, 2018 .
- Holger Schrader, The Latin American Policy of the USA under President Clinton: Claim and Reality , LIT Verlag, Berlin / Hamburg / Münster 2007, ISBN 978-3-8258-0334-6 , p. 197.
- Noam Chomsky (1993): The Tragedy of Haiti ( Memento of May 17, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
- "The Christian fundamentalist Aristide as a problem for US politics", Los Angeles Times, October 1, 1994, p. 5. ( Memento of September 10, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
- Amnesty International: Haiti 2000 Annual Report (PDF; 254 kB)
- World Council of Churches: Manipulation in the 2000 parliamentary elections in Haiti ( Memento from July 6, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
- Berliner Zeitung: Haiti after the presidential election in 2000
- Institute for Ibero America customer: Haiti after the presidential election of 2000 (PDF; 125 kB)
- Die ZEIT (2004): military intervention in Haiti desired
- UN authorizes the temporary deployment of foreign troops to Haiti ( memento of October 28, 2011 in the Internet Archive ), February 2004 (PDF; 31 kB)
- US intervention 2004 in Haiti Operation Secure Tomorrow
- zeit.de: Unrest: Haiti faces the chaos of April 8, 2008.
- tagesschau.de: Haiti's government overturns over hunger revolt ( memento from December 2, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) from April 13, 2008.
- Haití eleva a 316,000 el número oficial de fallecidos por el terremoto , europapress, January 12, 2011, accessed on May 16, 2015.
- haitielections2010.com: Haïti Elections 2010: Toutes les infos sur les élections haïtiennes de 2010 ( Memento of February 11, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) , accessed on April 5, 2011
- Spiegel Online : Cholera epidemic reaches the capital Port-au-Prince , November 9, 2010.
- Haiti is experiencing a revolution
- Protest in Haiti: The Continuity of Ignorance
- UN confirms 42 dead in Haiti, Amnesty criticizes the police
- DER SPIEGEL: Haiti: Police officers protesting attack army headquarters - DER SPIEGEL - politics. Retrieved February 24, 2020 .
- President of Haiti shot dead by unknown persons
- tagesschau.de: Haiti's President Moïse shot dead by strangers. Retrieved July 7, 2021 .
- Werner Marti: Haiti without parliament . In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung, January 14, 2015, international edition, p. 2.
- Matthias Rüb : Dead in the election in Haiti. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, August 11, 2015, p. 5.
- Frantz Duval: Répétition ratée, préliminaires prolongés . In: Le Nouvelliste (Port-au-Prince), August 21, 2015.
- La société civile plaide pour des consultations dans le cadre des contestations . In: Le Nouvelliste , 8 September 2015.
- Elections: La publication des résultats, entre contraintes et prudence . Le Nouvelliste, October 30, 2015.
- Publication des résultats préliminaires de la présidentielle . Le Nouvelliste, 5th November 2015.
- Peter Gaupp: Elections in Haiti postponed . In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung, December 23, 2015, p. 5.
- Transitional government in Haiti. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, February 8, 2016, p. 5.
- President elected for Haiti , Neue Zürcher Zeitung , February 14, 2016.
- Elections: 2nd round, Privert now speaks of end October 2016 .
- Commission wants to cancel election in Haiti . In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung, June 1, 2016, p. 2.
- Haïti: fin du mandat du président provisoire sans solution de sortie de crise , France Télévisions, June 15, 2016, accessed on June 17, 2016.
- Assemblée Nationale reportée “sine die” pour cause de violence , HaïtiLibre, June 22, 2016, accessed on July 11, 2016.
- Privert promet d'appliquer la "feuille de route" de l'Assemblée nationale ( Memento of July 11, 2016 in the Internet Archive ). Le Nouvelliste , July 4, 2016, accessed July 11, 2016.
- Results préliminaires de la présidentielle. Jovenel Moïse aux portes du palais national . Le Nouvelliste , November 28, 2016.
- "Claude Joseph n'est pas Premier ministre, il fait partie de mon gouvernement", affirme Ariel Henry . In: Le Nouvelliste , July 7, 2021, accessed July 8, 2021.
- Claude Joseph confirmó que renunciará y Ariel Henry será el nuevo primer ministro de Haití a dos semanas del asesinato del presidente Jovenel Moise , July 19, 2021, accessed on July 20, 2021.
- Foreign Policy: Failed states (english)
- Fragile States Index: Global Data. Fund for Peace , 2020, accessed January 30, 2021 .
- The Economist Intelligence Unit's Democracy Index. The Economist Intelligence Unit, accessed February 6, 2021 .
- Countries and Territories. Freedom House , 2020, accessed January 30, 2021 .
- 2021 World Press Freedom Index. Reporters Without Borders , 2021, accessed May 1, 2021 .
- Transparency International (Ed.): Corruption Perceptions Index . Transparency International, Berlin 2021, ISBN 978-3-96076-157-0 (English, transparencycdn.org [PDF]).
- A land on the ground , Süddeutsche Zeitung of January 13, 2010
- Mechthild Lindemann et al. (Ed.): Files on the Foreign Policy of the Federal Republic of Germany: 1962. Munich 2010, p. 368.
- Sandra Weiss: Self-serving help. Time online, January 15, 2010
- Haiti ( Memento from June 6, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
- World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations. Retrieved July 16, 2017 .
- Moïse fixe le salaire minimum journalier à 350 gdes . In: Haiti Libre, July 28, 2017, accessed June 11, 2018.
- Quoted together with further data on the nutritional situation in Hans-Heinrich Bass, Finanzmärkte als Hungerburacher? , Study for Deutsche Welthungerhilfe e. V., 2011, p. 57
- Hans-Heinrich Bass, Financial Markets Cause Hunger? , Study for Deutsche Welthungerhilfe e. V., 2011, pp. 58-62
- At a Glance: Global Competitiveness Index 2017–2018 Rankings . In: Global Competitiveness Index 2017-2018 . ( weforum.org [accessed December 6, 2017]).
- Country Rankings: World & Global Economy Rankings on Economic Freedom. Retrieved December 19, 2017 .
- Global Rankings 2018 | Logistics Performance Index. Accessed January 30, 2019 .
- Simon Henochsberg: Public Debt and Slavery. The Case of Haiti (1760-1915) . Paris School of Economics, 2016 ([PDF file, 2.4 MB]).
- Simon Henochsberg: Public Debt and Slavery. The Case of Haiti (1760-1915) . Paris School of Economics, 2016 ([PDF file, 2.4 MB]).
- Anastasia Moloney: Q + A-Haiti's aid controversy , Reuters , September 28, 2011, accessed August 8, 2011
- Latin America Shouldn't Bet Everything On Remittances. World Bank , October 31, 2006, archived from the original on March 3, 2011 ; Retrieved August 20, 2011 .
- http://www.transparency.org/policy_research/surveys_indices/cpi/2010/results Index 2010
- zoll.de: List of all currently embargoed countries ( Memento from August 7, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
- CIA Factbook , accessed January 13, 2014
- Sabrina Axster, Jürgen Kaiser: Haiti in the debt relief initiative , December 11, 2009 (accessed on January 17, 2010)
- Company in the Handelsblatt, accessed on July 7, 2013
- Helene Zuber: Haiti, a battered country , Spiegel Online (accessed on January 16, 2010)
- Interview with the head of the UN troops ( memento from August 4, 2012 in the web archive archive.today ), Frankfurter Rundschau online from November 24, 2010, accessed on August 8, 2011
- csmonitor.com: Could this paradise really be poor, desperate Haiti?
- Swiss television travelogue
- Haiti: Travel and Security Advice from the Foreign Office
- Report for Selected Countries and Subjects. Retrieved September 7, 2018 (American English).
- Observatory of Economic Complexity (OEC): Haiti: Exports / Imports , accessed July 20, 2018.
- Information from the Federal Foreign Office , accessed on August 8, 2011
- Report for Selected Countries and Subjects. Retrieved July 15, 2017 (American English).
- The Fischer World Almanac 2010: Figures Data Facts, Fischer, Frankfurt, September 8, 2009, ISBN 978-3-596-72910-4
- Ulrich Fleischmann, Eckard Breitinger: Literatures of the Caribbean. In: Kindler's new literary lexicon. Munich 1996, vol. 19, p. 1052 ff.
- Donald E. Herdeck, Maurice Lubin, John Figueroa et al. (Ed.): Caribbean Writers: A Bio-Bibliographical Critical Encyclopedia , Washington, DC, 1979.
- Fleischmann / Breitinger 1996, p. 1058.
- Belinda Elizabeth Jack : Francophone Literatures. An Introductory Survey . Oxford University Press, Oxford 1996. ISBN 0-19-871507-2 . Therein Chapter 5: Haiti (pp. 130-143)
- Pascal Mougin (Ed.): Dictionnaire mondial des littératures . Larousse, Paris 2002, ISBN 2-03-505120-7 . In it the chapter "Haiti".
- Peter Klaus: Crossings. Topics, titles and tendencies in Haitian literature . In: Latin America News . No. 309 , March 2000, ISSN 0174-6342 , p. 29-33 ( lateinamerika-nachrichten.de ).