Granada

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Granada
coat of arms Map of Spain
Granada coat of arms
Granada (Spain)
Finland road sign 311 (1994-2020) .svg
Basic data
Autonomous Community : Andalusia
Province : Granada
Comarca : Vega de Granada
Coordinates 37 ° 11 ′  N , 3 ° 36 ′  W Coordinates: 37 ° 11 ′  N , 3 ° 36 ′  W
Height : 738  msnm
Area : 88.02 km²
Residents : 232,462 (Jan 1, 2019)
Population density : 2,641.01 inhabitants / km²
Postal code : 18001-18019
Municipality number  ( INE ): 18087
administration
Mayor : Luis Miguel Salvador García ( Cs )
Website : www.granada.org
Location of the city
LocationGranada, Spain.png
Granada
The Science Park in Granada
In downtown Granada
Bullring

Granada is the capital of the province of Granada in Andalusia (southern Spain ) and is located in a metropolitan area of ​​the Vega de Granada . The city has 232,462 inhabitants (as of January 1, 2019), most of whom work in the processing of agricultural products or in tourism . The University of Granada is also of great economic and cultural importance; With around 60,000 students (as of June 1, 2018), it is one of the largest educational institutions in Spain.

geography

Geographical location

Granada is located at the transition from the Sierras de Huétor y la Alfaguara to the Vega (floodplain) de Granada at the confluence of the Darro and Genil rivers at an average altitude of 734 m above sea ​​level . The city covers an area of ​​87.8 km². It developed from two nuclei. From the hilltop of today's Albaicín , it first grew into the Darro Valley and eventually spread into the Vega due to the protection provided by a connecting wall (Coracha) assumed by archaeologists with the Alhambra . Today's Plaza Bibarambla (from the Maghrebian-Andalusian subsidiary form Bīb ar-Ramlah from Arabic Bāb ar-Ramlah , "(city) gate of the sandbank" or "the river bed") marks its approximate medieval western extension. The second core from which the city developed is the Realejo district . The city's Jewish origin, Ġarnāṭa al-Yahūd , is said to have been located here. The current name of this district is a hybrid of the Latin regalis ("royal") and the Arabic raḥal ("army camp"). The last 1.6 km of the route of the Darro to its confluence with the Genil have been built over since the 19th century by the Plaza Nueva, the Calle Reyes Católicos and the Acera del Darro, at the church Santa Ana y San Gil the river disappears in the underground.

Climate table

Granada Military Air Base (687 m)
Climate diagram
J F. M. A. M. J J A. S. O N D.
 
 
41
 
13
1
 
 
33
 
15th
2
 
 
35
 
18th
5
 
 
37
 
20th
7th
 
 
30th
 
24
10
 
 
11
 
30th
15th
 
 
2
 
34
18th
 
 
3
 
34
18th
 
 
23
 
29
14th
 
 
38
 
23
10
 
 
50
 
17th
5
 
 
50
 
13
3
Temperature in ° Cprecipitation in mm
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología, period 1981–2010
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Granada Military Airfield (687 m)
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Max. Temperature ( ° C ) 12.6 14.6 18.0 19.5 24.0 30.2 34.2 33.5 28.7 22.6 16.5 13.1 O 22.3
Min. Temperature (° C) 1.1 2.4 4.8 6.8 10.2 14.7 17.7 17.6 14.4 10.1 5.3 2.7 O 9
Temperature (° C) 6.8 8.5 11.4 13.1 17.1 22.5 26.0 25.5 21.6 16.3 10.9 7.9 O 15.7
Precipitation ( mm ) 41 33 35 37 30th 11 2 3 23 38 50 50 Σ 353
Hours of sunshine ( h / d ) 5.5 6.1 7.1 7.8 9.0 11.0 11.7 10.6 8.5 6.8 5.5 4.8 O 7.9
Rainy days ( d ) 5.8 5.6 5.1 6.3 4.7 1.7 0.3 0.6 2.7 5.1 6.7 7.2 Σ 51.8
Humidity ( % ) 72 68 60 57 51 43 37 41 51 62 71 75 O 57.3
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
12.6
1.1
14.6
2.4
18.0
4.8
19.5
6.8
24.0
10.2
30.2
14.7
34.2
17.7
33.5
17.6
28.7
14.4
22.6
10.1
16.5
5.3
13.1
2.7
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
N
i
e
d
e
r
s
c
h
l
a
g
41
33
35
37
30th
11
2
3
23
38
50
50
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Urban region

As the core city, Granada is located in a metropolitan area , the urban region of Granada (Área Metropolitana de Granada) , to which the following municipalities belong:

Commune Area ( km² ) Population (2007) Density (inh / km²) Municipal Council (2011)
Albolote
Albolote 78.58 16,450 209.33 PP
Alfacar
Alfacar 16.73 5,316 317.80 PP
Alhendín
Alhendín 50.81 5,755 113.26 PP
Armilla
Armilla 4.42 20,115 4,555.27 PP
Atarfe
Atarfe 47.25 14,144 299.33 PSOE
Cájar
Cájar 1.65 4,318 2,618.36 PP
Cenes de la Vega
Cenes de la Vega 6.49 6.363 980.65 PP
Chauchina
Chauchina 21.21 4,537 213.90 PSOE
Churriana de la Vega
Churriana de la Vega 6.60 11,162 1,691.21 PP
Cijuela
Cijuela 17.92 2,455 137.01 PSOE
Cúllar Vega
Cúllar Vega 4.35 6.212 1,429.10 PSOE
Dílar
Dílar 79.28 1,638 20.66 PP
Fuente Vaqueros
Fuente Vaqueros 16.01 4.211 263.03 PSOE
Las Gabias
Las Gabias 39.06 13,950 357.12 PSOE
Gójar
Gójar 12.01 4,964 413.29 PP
Granada
Granada 88.02 236.207 2,683.52 PP
Güevéjar
Güevéjar 9.75 2.234 229.14 UPG
Huétor Vega
Huétor Vega 4.24 10,900 2,572.17 PP
Jun
Jun 3.69 2,377 644.45 PSOE
Láchar
Láchar 13.12 2,910 221.84 PSOE
Maracena
Maracena 4.89 19,659 4,020.72 PSOE
Monachil
Monachil 88.92 6,270 70.51 PP
Ogíjares
Ogíjares 6.91 12,145 1,757.97 APPO
Otura
Otura 24.34 5,883 241.68 PP
Peligros
Peligros 10.14 10,597 1,044.78 IU
Pinos Genil
Pinos Genil 13.99 1,252 89.48 PP
Pinos Puente
Pinos Puente 98.47 13,540 137.50 PSOE
Pulianas
Pulianas 6.33 4,954 782.51 PSOE
Santa Fe
Santa Fe 38.20 14,934 390.95 PSOE
Vegas del Genil
Vegas del Genil 14.15 7,224 510.43 PP
Víznar
Víznar 13.00 797 61.31 IU
La Zubia
La Zubia 20.11 16,941 842.45 PP
total 860.64 490.414 569.82

Population development

Granada has around 240,000 inhabitants, of which 14,373 are from abroad. Around 23,000 people from Granada are unemployed. As a university location with up to 80,000 students, Granada is a relatively “young” city.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Estadística
Graphic for: Wikipedia

history

1492 - Muhammad XII. hands the city over to Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragón , based on an illustration by Francisco Pradilla y Ortiz from 1882

The early history of the city of Granada is controversial, but a settlement regarded as a pre-entity of the city of Granada was first named Iliberra around 500 BC. Mentioned. Due to the sheltered location between the surrounding mountains and the exceptionally fertile soil, earlier settlement can be assumed anyway. After the conquest of the Iberian Peninsula by the Romans (see Hispania ; Latin Hispania ) a settlement with the name Illiberis is occupied. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the area initially came under the influence of the North African Empire of the Vandals , after its collapse in 534 it was under Eastern Roman rule for a few decades and then belonged to the Iberian Empire of the Visigoths from the beginning of the 7th century .

In 711 Illiberis was conquered by the Moors and the name was Arabicized to Ilbīra (Arabic البيرة). As the administrative center of the province, a new city was founded in 756 about ten kilometers in the northwest of today's Granada under the name Madīnat Ilbīra (Spanish Medina Elvira, Arabic مدينة البيرة ) ( Atarfe (Arabic الطرف) at the foot of today's Sierra Elvira; the name lives on in this toponym ). At the same time, the new name Qal'at Ġarnāṭa ( Arabic قلعة غرناطة 'Castle of Granada'), from which the modern name of the city developed. Robert Pocklington sees it as the Romanesque color adjective garnet ('red'). The medieval archaeologist Antonio Malpica Cuello ( University of Granada ) rejects the equation of Illiberis with Granada. According to him, the structures necessary for a Roman city (forum, theater, etc.) are lacking, and every repetition of the assertion that Granada is Illiberis reflects "a scientific interest that is practically zero."

After the fall of the Caliphate of Cordoba , the Berber clan chief Zāwī ibn Zīrī seized power in the province in 1012 and made Granada, easier to defend than Madīnat Ilbīra , the seat of the Zīrīd dynasty , which ruled one of the most important minor kingdoms from here for around 80 years of southern Al-Andalus ruled until it was overthrown by the Almoravids in 1090 . After the Almohads were driven out , the city became the capital of the Naṣriden Sultanate from 1238 to 1492 ; these events are related to the fall of the actual Moorish power center in Al-Andalus, Cordoba (1236); the Nasrid ruler Ibn Al-Ahmar had sided with the Christian conquerors in this conflict and is likely to have recommended himself to the people of Granada as a guarantor of peace.

In 1066 there was the Granada massacre in which a mob murdered a Jewish vizier and most of the city's Jewish population; the bloody act is seen as the first pogrom on European soil. The event is of particular importance, as such massacres in the Moorish Al-Andalus were by no means the rule at that time. Classical Arabic historiography did not deny the massacre of 1066, but it was generally justified by the culpable or amoral behavior of the Jewish vizier Yusuf ibn Nagrela. On the other hand, the number of fatalities, which is often given as around 4,000 people, is controversial, but this is viewed by historian Erika Spivakovsky, for example, as an exaggeration that is hardly unusual in historiography.

In 1246, the then ruler of Granada, Muhammad I ibn Nasr, called Ibn Al-Ahmar, handed the city of Jaen over to the Christian powers after a month-long siege; From this fact and the dispatch of Nasrid armed forces to support the Christian powers in the battle for Seville in 1248 it is often deduced that Granada was actually a vassal state of the Christian conquerors and therefore survived longer than other Moorish empires in Andalusia; however, the interpretation is controversial. After the fall of the rest of the Moorish regions, many Muslims moved into the dominion of Granada.

On January 2, 1492 , the last Naṣrid ruler Muhammad XII surrendered . (also called Boabdil ) and handed the city over to Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragón , the so-called " Catholic Kings " (Reyes Católicos) . This completed the Reconquista , the "reconquest" of the Iberian Peninsula for Christianity. According to a passage in the contract concluded at the same time, the Moorish population in Granada was allowed to continue to practice their religion freely, but the Naṣrids had to leave Granada. Boabdil initially lived for some time in a castle in the Alpujarra that was granted to him as a fief , before he moved to what is now Morocco after the death of his wife .

In the surrender treaty of Granada of 1492, the last Muslim king made various demands on the new rulers. Among other things, no Jew should be allowed to rule over a Muslim or to collect taxes from him. Furthermore, Christians should be forbidden from entering a Muslim's house or a mosque, in order not to humiliate the Muslims. The new Christian rulers did not find any Christians when they arrived in the city, as they were due to oppression, public executions and crucifixions for behavior contrary to Sharia law and not least because of the exorbitantly high jizya poll tax for the dhimmi (Jews and Christians) to the north fled or bowed to pressure and embraced Islam. In addition, most of the Christians were resettled to North Africa in 1126.

In 1499, at the behest of Archbishop Jiménez de Cisneros of Toledo, a pyre was set up in the market square of Granada to burn books on Islamic theology , philosophy , historiography and science . In the course of these events there was a one-day pogrom against all non-Christians, to which Jews in particular fell victim. The quarter of the Jewish community, which had existed for several centuries, was probably largely destroyed at this time.

After the uprisings of the Muslims who remained in Spain , the so-called Moriscos (Spanish: Moriscos ), against the oppression (prohibition of religious practice, expropriation) by the new rulers, they were only forcibly relocated to other parts of the Iberian Peninsula in 1569–1571 and 1609– Expelled to Africa in 1611. Many settled in what is now Tunisia and Algeria and shaped the culture there. At the same time Granada became economically irrelevant. For example, silk production , for which Granada was a center in the Middle Ages, went completely under.

In 1500 the city offered the prelude to the division of Italy between Spain and France: The Partagetraktat of Granada confirmed the rights of the crown of France to the Kingdom of Naples. The Crown Aragón turned against their own relatives, against the side line of the bastard Ferdinand enfeoffed with Naples by the Pope in 1459 . The agreement did not last beyond the common victory.

In the Spanish Civil War , Granada fell into the hands of the Spanish nationalists right from the start, and the socialist mayor Manuel Fernández-Montesinos Lustau, a brother-in-law of the poet Federico García Lorca , was shot - like the poet - in August 1936. General Miguel Campins , stationed in Granada, was also shot by quick order ( sumarisimo ) because of his refusal to join the Francoist seizure of power at the start of the coup .

Since 1492, Granada has been the seat of an archdiocese . The University of Granada was built between 1526 and 1531 and was one of Granada's main sources of income, especially in the 20th century; After the end of the Franco dictatorship , tourism gained increasing importance.

Today around 15,000 Muslims live in Granada, 1,000 to 1,500 of whom are Spanish converts .

In 2015, Granada hosted the Winter Universiade .

See also: History of Spain

Infrastructure and traffic

The urban area is crossed by the A-44 ( Bailén - La Gorgoracha Motril ) and A-92 ( Seville - Almería ) motorways, which form an interchange to the north of Granada . Just off the A-92 in Chauchina the Granada-Jaén Airport . This was completed in 1972 and fundamentally expanded for the Alpine World Ski Championships planned for 1995 in the Sierra Nevada (which was then postponed to 1996 due to lack of snow). Around 13,000 aircraft movements occur every year. Domestic flights are primarily operated, with Ryanair and FlyMonarch serving the airport from Great Britain and Italy .

From 1904 to 1971 there were several tram lines in Granada, all of which started at Plaza Nueva. Construction of a new public rail system, the Granada Light Rail, began in 2007. The construction work was only completed in 2016 due to delays due to the financial crisis. The opening took place on September 21, 2017. The bus service is carried out by the company Transportes Rober .

Granada currently only has one rail connection to Almería. Because of the work for the connection to the AVE network (high-speed network in Spain), which was completed on June 25, 2019, there was only temporary bus replacement for all other connections to the nearest AVE stop in Antequera -Santa Ana. AVE traffic to and from Granada started on June 5, 2019.

Culture and sights

Granada is famous for its many important historical buildings from the Moorish period as well as from the Gothic and Renaissance periods . The city ​​is also world-famous for its numerous guitar makers .

View of the Alhambra

Alhambra

The most important buildings from the Islamic-Arab period belong to the Alhambra fortress (from al-Ḥamra'-u "the red"; Arabic الحمراء). It is a collection of palaces and the largest secular complex of its kind in Spain. It was built on older structures in the 13th and 14th centuries as the residence of the Muslim kings of the Naṣrid dynasty . The Alhambra is famous for its stucco ceilings and the lion fountain . King Charles V had a palace built in this area, which destroyed large areas of the original palace. As this is one of the most important Renaissance buildings in Spain, no excavations are carried out here. In the Alhambra there is a hotel in the building of a 16th century monastery dedicated to Francis of Assisi . Above the Alhambra lies the Generalife (from Ğannat al-'ārif "garden or paradise of the [God] discerner"; Arabic جنات العريف), the summer residence of the emir . The Palacio de Carlos V is now home to the Museo de Bellas Artes de Granada (the collection institutionalized in 1839 is one of the oldest still existing picture galleries in Spain) and the Museo de la Alhambra .

Albaicín and Sacromonte

Albaicín
Panorama Alhambra in front of the Sierra Nevada. View from the Mirador San Nicolás

Alhambra, Generalife and Albaicín , the old Moorish quarter, are World Heritage of UNESCO . On the north side of the Albaicín there is still a broken remnant of the city wall of the Zīrīden from the 11th century. It starts at Puerta Elvira on the street of the same name and runs along the entire north side of the Albaicín. Particularly noteworthy are the restored Puerta de Monaita, the fortification interesting Puerta Nueva and another city gate, which today houses a chapel consecrated to Caecilius of Illiberis . This wall has only formed the inner wall since the 14th century. The outer wall ring also stretches around the north of the Albaicín and leads over the mountain San Miguel with the church of San Miguel Alto, also known as La Ermita, embedded in the wall, also known as La Ermita, and bends there to the south, making the Albaicín also from East is enclosed. The Sacromonte district is divided by this wall into an intra- and an extramural part. The Cármenes are typical of the Albaicín . Carmen is a term specifically used in Granada for a hillside villa with a garden. The term was derived from the Arabic karm , which means 'vineyard'. From the reign of the Naṣrids, numerous palaces have survived in the Albaicín, such as the Casa de Zafra, which survived the times as a nunnery, or the Casa del Chapiz, today the seat of the Escuela de Estudios Árabes, a subdivision of the CSIC . Closely connected with the fall of the Naṣrid dynasty is the Palacio Dar al-Horra, the residence of the mother of the last Sulṭān Boabdil . In addition, Granada has an archaeological museum, which is located in the Casa del Castril. There is also an ancient Ḥammām nearby , known as El Bañuelo .
Some of the churches on the Albaicín are also worth mentioning. The churches of San Nicolás and San Cristóbal are famous because they are the godfathers of viewpoints (miradores) . Next to San Nicolás is the new Granada's mosque , completed in 2003 . San Cristóbal is a testimony to how the Moriscan population of Granada was treated at the time of the Catholic Kings : Contrary to the guarantees given in the surrender of Granada , Islamic tombstones were used for the construction of the church, which are still visible in the masonry.
The Ṣaḥn ('inner courtyard of a mosque') has been preserved from the old main mosque from the 11th century . It now belongs to the Church of the Redeemer (San Salvador).
In neighboring Sacromonte you can also find the cuevas, the famous gypsy dwellings in caves. Some of them in and around Granada are still inhabited to this day. The Abadía del Sacromonte is located at the end of the Sacromonte quarter out of town . The facility, which dates back to the 17th century, houses an important historical library; the collection of religious works of art and part of the building can be visited with a guide.

Around the cathedral

In the center is the cathedral from the Renaissance. Adjacent to it is the Capilla Real, completed in 1521, with the tombs of the Catholic Kings . Isabella and Ferdinand were convicted in 1521, Johanna the Mad and Philip the Beautiful are also buried there.

Around the cathedral there are still recognizable evidence of Moorish Granada in today's cityscape, such as the former Corral de Carbón caravanserai , which now houses the tourist information , the former Koran school or Madraza de Granada (entrance directly opposite the Capilla Real ) and the Alcaicería , the old silk market . Directly opposite the cathedral is the Centro José Guerrero , which owns an extensive collection of the eponymous artist and hosts changing exhibitions of modern art.

In the neoclassical Palacio de las Columnas from the 18th century , the Faculty of Translation and Interpretation of the University of the city is now home to. Nearby is the 16th century Colegio de San Pablo . This building was used by the Jesuits to train missionaries for the Moriski population. After the dissolution of the Jesuit order in Spain in 1767, the law faculty moved here, which is still located in the building today. The Jardín Botánico is attached to the building . A little further away is the monastery of St. Jerome . This monastery, built in the Isabelline style, is the first monastery to be built after the city was handed over to the Catholic Kings . It serves as the burial place of the Gran Capitán .

Other sights

Just west of the Alhambra, on the other side of the Rio Darro embankment, is the Archaeological Museum of Granada . North of the center is the richly decorated Carthusian monastery of La Cartuja , which also houses an art collection with works by the baroque artist Juan Sánchez Cotán u. a. can be visited. The Granada's observatory is located on the university campus named after the monastery. Nearby is the new Plaza de Toros from the 1920s, built in neo Mudejar style.
Next to the Jardines del Triunfo is the Capuchin Church of Granada with the crypt of Fray Leopoldo , widely venerated in the Granada region; in fact, due to the high number of visiting believers, it is the second most visited monument in the city. In the south of the city, on the other side of the Genil , are the Congress Palace, the Science Park and the Almohad hunting lodge , the Alcázar del Genil.

Festivals and celebrations

The Abadía del Sacromonte as seen from Cerro del Sol. It is the destination of the Romería de San Cecilio and the procession of the Gitanos during Semana Santa.

Like other cities in Spain, Granada celebrates its own festivals in addition to the general festivals. Most are of religious origin.

  • January 2nd: Día de la Toma . The 'day of the capture of Granada' commemorates the handover of the city by Boabdil to the Catholic Monarchs in 1492. The day is traditionally accompanied by marches by nationalist and falanguist groups, and in recent years there have been more and more left-wing counter-demonstrations.
  • February 1st: San Cecilio . Feast day of St. Caecilius of Iliberris is February 1st. Usually, however, the day is celebrated on the following first Sunday in February with a pilgrimage ( Romería ) to the Abadía del Sacromonte.
  • End of March: Fiesta de la Primavera . The 'Spring Festival' is a relatively new invention, stimulated by the communication possibilities of social networks . It is seen by many as an excuse for the officially banned botellón , the excessive consumption of alcohol in public. In the Spanish media , the term Macrobotellón was coined for this botellón, which was allowed in a narrowly defined area, and up to 25,000 young people are said to have gathered in 2011 .
  • The Semana Santa , which begins Palm Sunday and ends at Easter , is celebrated in Granada, as in many other cities in Spain, with many processions of the various Cofradías or Hermandades . It is less famous than the Semana Santa in Seville , but there are several processions every day on different routes. The best known is the procession of the Gitanos to the Abadía del Sacromonte.
  • May 3: Fiesta de la Cruces or Cruz de Mayo . This festival is also celebrated throughout the Spanish-speaking world. However, Granada is known for the competition between the individual districts to set up the most beautiful flower-adorned cross or the most beautiful religious scene.
  • The Feria del Corpus, i.e. the Corpus Christi holiday , is the largest feria in the city, which traditionally takes place on the days before Corpus Christi on the holiday area in the north of the city. Institutions and political parties have marquees here, and the fairground rides are next to them.
  • The Fiesta del Agua ('Festival of Water'), which is actually celebrated as Fiesta del Agua y del Jamón ('Festival of Water and Ham') in the mountain village of Lanjarón in the Alpujarras . It is also celebrated privately on various dates on the streets and squares of Granada. This includes jumping over fire as well as water battles. The largest water fight, which has been taking place regularly for years, takes place in the Realejo district around August 1st.

Town twinning

Granada has partnered with the following cities :

Granada is also a member of the Federation of European Napoleonic Cities .

sons and daughters of the town

See also

Web links

Wiktionary: Granada  - Explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Commons : Granada  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Cifras oficiales de población resultantes de la revisión del Padrón municipal a 1 de enero . Population statistics from the Instituto Nacional de Estadística (population update).
  2. http://www.juntadeandalucia.es:9002/sima/htm/sm18087.htm
  3. See the key words in the Diccionario de la Real Academia Española realejo , real ² and real ³ http://buscon.rae.es/draeI/SrvltConsulta?TIPO_BUS=3&LEMA=realejo
    http://buscon.rae.es/draeI/SrvltConsulta ? TIPO_BUS = 3 & LEMA = real
  4. As of July 29, 2010, http://www.juntadeandalucia.es:9002/sima/htm/sm18087.htm
  5. ^ Robert Pocklington: La etimología del topónimo Granada. In: Al-Qantara, 9: 2 (1988), pp. 380-401. Analogous to the Romanesque granado / a , he refers u. a. to the Alhambra, whose name is derived from the Arabic color adjective for red, aḥmar, and to translations of the city name into Arabic: Ḥiṣn ar-Rummān - 'pomegranate castle '.
  6. ^ Antonio Malpica Cuello: Granada, ciudad islámica. Mitos y realidades. Liberbolsillo, Granada 2000, ISBN 84-89685-26-6 (PDF; 14.3 MB).
  7. Antonio Malpica Cuello: ¿Sirve la arqueología urbana para el conocimiento histórico? El ejemplo de Granada. In: Lorenzo Cara (ed.): Ciudad y territorio en al-Andalus. Granada 2000, pp. 21-59, here p. 50.
  8. ^ Richard Gottheil, Meyer Kayserling:  Granada. In: Isidore Singer (Ed.): Jewish Encyclopedia . Funk and Wagnalls, New York 1901-1906.
  9. Alejandro García Sanjuán: Violencia contra los judíos: El pogromo de Granada del año 459 H / 1066. In: Maribel Fierro (ed.): De muerte violenta. Politica, religious y violencia en al-Andalus. Consejo superior de investigaciones cientificas, Madrid 2004, pp. 167-206 (stored on Academia.edu ).
  10. Erika Spivakovsky: The Jewish presence in Granada. In: Journal of Medieval History. 1971, pp. 215-238.
  11. ^ Hugh Kennedy: Muslim Spain and Portugal. P. 276 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
  12. Serafin Fanjul: Al-Andalus versus Espana . Siglo XXI, 2005, p. 248 .
  13. Vincent Lagardère: Communautés mozarabes et pouvoir almoravide en al-Andalus . In: Studia Islamica 67 . 1988, p. 99-119 .
  14. Bartolomé Bennassar, Jean-Pierre Amalric, Jacques Beyrie, Lucienne Domergue: Histoire des Espagnols XVIIIe – XXe siècle . In: Marguerite de Marcillac (ed.): Tempus . 2nd Edition. tape 2 , no. 378 . Editions Perrin, Paris 2011, ISBN 978-2-262-03441-2 , pp. 445 .
  15. Keith Barrow: Granada opens first light rail line. In: railjournal.com. September 21, 2017 (English), accessed September 29, 2017.
  16. ^ Spain: Granada with a connection to the high-speed rail network. In: eurailpass.de. June 26, 2019, accessed July 10, 2019 .
  17. where: AVE arrives in Granada . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , p. 372.
  18. Carmen. In: Diccionario de la lengua española. Real Academia Española .
  19. Juan Ramón Olmos: Fiesta de la Primavera de Granada: 25,000 jóvenes. In: ideal.es. March 18, 2011.
  20. ^ Ciudades hermanadas ( Memento of April 28, 2012 in the Internet Archive ). In: Granada tu favorita.