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Comunidad Autónoma de Andalucía  ( Spanish )
coat of arms
flag coat of arms
Kanarische Inseln Portugal Andorra Frankreich Vereinigtes Königreich Marokko Algerien Galicien Asturien Kantabrien Baskenland Navarra La Rioja Aragonien Kastilien und León Katalonien Madrid Kastilien-La Mancha Valencianische Gemeinschaft Balearische Inseln Extremadura Andalusien Murcia Kastilien und León Ceuta Melillamap
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Basic data
Country : SpainSpain Spain
Capital : Seville
Area : 87,268  km²
Residents : 8,414,240  (January 1, 2019)
Population density : 96.4 inhabitants / km²
Expansion: North – South: approx. 251 km
West – East: approx. 535 km
ISO 3166-2 : IT ON
Website :
Anthem : Himno de Andalucía
Politics and administration
Autonomy since: January 11, 1982
President : Juan Manuel Moreno Bonilla ( PP )
Representation in the
Cortes Generales :
Congress : 62 seats
Senate : 8 seats
Structure : 8 provinces

Andalusia ( Spanish: Andalucía [ andaluˈθi.a ]) is the southernmost of the 17  autonomous communities in Spain that lies on mainland Europe. Andalusia borders on Castile-La Mancha and Extremadura in the north, Murcia in the east, the Mediterranean Sea , the British overseas territory Gibraltar and the Atlantic Ocean in the south, and Portugal in the west . The capital of Andalusia is Seville .

With around 8.44 million inhabitants, Andalusia is the most populous autonomous community in Spain and the second largest in terms of area with 87,268 km².

The most important natural areas of Andalusia are the southern slope of the Sierra Morena , the Guadalquivir basin and the Betic Cordillera , to which the Sierra Nevada belongs. The Campo de Gibraltar, with the Rock of Gibraltar, forms the southernmost part of mainland Europe. In Tarifa , the southernmost city, Europe and Africa are only 14 kilometers apart, separated by the Strait of Gibraltar .

Andalusia was often contested in the past. There were therefore diverse cultural influences, such as the Arabs or the Romans.

The region is also known for its music, flamenco .


Andalusia is divided into eight provinces with 691 municipalities.

province population Area ( km² ) Communities Districts
Almeria 716.820 8774 102 8th
Cadiz 1,240,155 7436 44 14th
Cordoba 782.979 13,771 75 12
Granada 914,678 12,647 168 9
Huelva 521.870 10.128 79 6th
Jaén 633.564 13,496 97 10
Málaga 1,661,785 7308 100 11
Seville 1,942,389 14,036 105 15th

In addition to the provincial capitals of the same name, Jerez de la Frontera and Ronda are among the most famous cities in the region.

The most densely populated are the Guadalquivir valley and the coastal strip south of the Sierra Nevada.

Landscape near Carmona in Andalusia

origin of the name

The Moors invading at the beginning of the 8th century used the name al-Andalus (الأندلس). This gave rise to the name Andalusia , in Spanish Andalucía . There are various interpretations of its origin. The only thing that is certain is that the name al-Andalus appears for the first time on a bilingual coin in 715/717 as a designation for the entire Moorish domain on the Iberian peninsula .

A popular legend , often attributed to the orientalist Reinhart Dozy , but attested long before the 19th century, which is hardly represented by historians today, traces the Arabic Al-Andalus back to the name of the vandals who were killed in the course of the migration in the 5th century Century made a stopover in the south of the Iberian Peninsula and founded a state there with the original name Vandalusien .

The Spanish historian Joaquín Vallvé attributes the name of Andalusia to an Arabization of the name Atlantis .

Al-Andalus derives a theory by the Arabist Heinz Halm from the 1980s from * landa-hlauts , the name that the Visigoths of the former Roman province (Hispania) are said to have given Baetica - “the land distributed by lot”. As evidence, Halm cites the official Latin name of Visigoth Spain: Gothica Sors , which can be roughly translated as “Gotenlos”, “Lot of the Goths”, which he in turn translates back into Gothic with * landa-hlauts . After conquering Spain, the Moors made al-Andalus out of it in the form of phonetic sound imitation .

A more detailed investigation from 2002 makes it seem plausible that Andaluz 'is the original Old Iberian , and thus still pre-Roman name of today's island Isla de Tarifa on the Strait of Gibraltar , and thus at the extreme southern tip of Spain, because the initial syllable And - as well as the final syllable -uz are extremely common in pre-Roman-Iberian place names. Two to three hundred years after the Moorish conquest of Spain, an Arab source reports for the first time from the island of al-Andalus , which since the conquest of Spain and the city of Tarifa has been named by Tariq ibn Ziyad , their conqueror from 711. According to this theory, its Arabic name would initially have been Ğazīrat al-Andalus "(half) island of Andalus", which then, as the Arabic source continues, as pars pro toto with the conquest of the Iberian mainland (beginning one year later) extended entire Arab rule in Hispania .


The language spoken is Andalusian , a Spanish dialect that is phonetically very different from the standard variety of Spanish. The dialect is also unusual for Spaniards from other regions. It is a dialect that, according to the controversial Andalucismo thesis , is said to have strongly influenced the colloquial language of Latin America . Andalusian, in Spanish andaluz , is characterized by swallowing or aspirating the letters "s" or "d" in the middle or at the end of a word. The diminutive -illo / a at the end of a name instead of the usual -ito / a is often heard. In general, the diminutive is used much more often than in the rest of Spain.


The ancient Kingdom of Tartessos existed in the western part of Andalusia in the first half of the first millennium BC . Since the beginning of the 9th century BC at the latest The Phoenicians sailed to the Andalusian coast, also beyond the Strait of Gibraltar , and traded with the local population. Many Phoenician finds from around 900 BC. BC in Huelva indicate that it could have been an early Phoenician Emporion . After the Phoenician activities were apparently limited to trade and the establishment of trading establishments in local coastal settlements, they were founded in the 8th century BC. Chr. Own settlements. An early Phoenician colony was Gades ( Gadir ), today's Cádiz, which later became the most important Phoenician or Carthaginian city ​​of Andalusia. Until the outbreak of the first Punic War in 264 BC BC Carthage gradually conquered all of Andalusia, but lost control of most of the areas again after the outbreak of war. Between the first and second Punic wars , it brought all of Andalusia under its control again at the instigation of the Barkids until it was finally conquered by the Romans towards the end of the second Punic war .

Today's Andalusia initially belonged to Hispania ulterior , is largely congruent in its area with the Roman province of Baetica established by Augustus , named after the great river Baetis (also: Betis ), the Arab later his name Guadalquivir (Arabic (al -) Wad al-kabir , 'great river') gave. The Baetica reached in the north into today's Extremadura , with the Guadiana as a boundary to the Lusitania , whereas the extreme east of Andalusia initially belonged to Hispania citerior , after Augustus to Tarraconensis and after its division to Carthaginiensis .

During the time of Roman rule in Hispania, the Andalusians quickly learned the Latin language and got along quite well with the Roman legionaries . The troops stationed in Hispania preferred to winter in this warmest part of the Iberian Peninsula . In the fertile plain of the Guadalquivir, numerous Roman settlements were finally founded, from which large cities based on the Roman model later developed. In this way, Andalusia became an urban region, and many of the inhabitants of this area even received Roman citizenship. In addition, the Romans set up shipping routes over rivers and sea ports and built and fortified national road connections to bring vegetables and fruit from here to Italy and other provinces . Also the Christianity took root here in the 4th century.

In late antiquity , when the Western Roman Empire showed signs of disintegration, Vandals and other Germanic tribes invaded Hispania at the beginning of the 5th century . After the middle of the 5th century, the Visigoths conquered Hispania and founded their own empire with the capital Toledo . In the 6th century, parts of Andalusia were occupied by the Eastern Romans, who, however, had to withdraw at the beginning of the 7th century. In 711, the Moors crossed the strait and within a few years conquered most of the Visigothic Empire (see also Al-Andalus , History of Spain , Islamic Expansion ).

Of all the Spanish regions, Andalusia was the longest under Islamic rule. This reached its heyday under the Emirate of Cordoba , the Caliphate of Cordoba and the Nasrids in the Emirate of Granada . The influences of the Muslims can be seen above all in the architecture: the most important examples are the Alhambra in Granada , the Mezquita in Córdoba and the Giralda in Seville . The rule of the Moors in Spain was ended by the Reconquista in Granada in 1492 (see also: History of Spain ).

The economic heyday was reached in the 19th century, for example with the Altos Hornos de Marbella .

Until 1995 the cities of Ceuta (until then part of the province of Cádiz ) and Melilla (until then part of the province of Málaga ) belonged to Andalusia. Since then, however, they have had their own autonomous statute.


houses of Parliament

Since the Statute of Autonomy came into force in 1982, eleven elections to the Andalusian regional parliament have taken place. By 2008, the social democratic PSOE was the strongest party in all elections, with five times the absolute majority in the 109-member chamber. In 2012, the conservative PP became the strongest force for the first time. The only regional party of any importance is the left-wing Partido Andalucista (PA), which was represented in parliament from the 1st to the VIIth legislature, but failed to enter the chamber for the first time in the elections in 2008. Since then, the party has not played a major role in Andalusia.

In the early elections in 2015, the PSOE was again the strongest force, but again failed to gain an absolute majority. For the first time, the two protest parties Podemos and Ciudadanos made it into the Andalusian parliament. After the 2018 election , there was the first government without the participation of the PSOE. Both these and the PP recorded significant losses , but right-wing populist Vox , who entered parliament for the first time with 11 percent, supports a minority government made up of the PP and Ciudadanos.

The results in detail:

Distribution of seats in the regional parliament (1982-2012)
elections PSOE PP IU PA Podemos Ciudadanos UCD VOX
Total seats
be right Seats be right Seats be right Seats be right Seats be right Seats be right Seats be right Seats be right Seats
I. 1982 52.56% 66 17.03% 17th 8.53% 8th 5.38% 3 13.05% 15th 109
II 1986 47.22% 60 22.26% 28 17.88% 19th 5.88% 2 109
III 1990 50.12% 62 22.40% 26th 12.80% 11 10.86% 10 109
IV 1994 38.71% 45 34.36% 41 19.14% 20th 5.79% 3 109
V 1996 44.05% 52 33.96% 40 13.97% 13 6.66% 4th 109
VI 2000 44.32% 52 38.02% 46 8.11% 6th 7.43% 5 109
VII 2004 50.36% 61 31.78% 37 7.51% 6th 6.16% 5 109
VIII 2008 48.41% 56 38.45% 47 7.06% 6th 2.76% 0 109
IX 2012 39.56% 47 40.67% 50 11.35% 12 2.50% 0 109
X 2015 35.43% 47 26.76% 33 6.89% 5 1.53% 0 14.84% 15th 9.28% 9 0.46% 0 109
XI 2018 27.94% 33 20.75% 26th 16.19% 17th 18.28% 21st 10.96% 12 109


From 1982 to 2019 all Prime Ministers ( Presidente de la Junta ) came from the ranks of the PSOE, whereby there was a coalition with the PA from 1996 to 2004 and a coalition with the IU from 2012 to 2015, and it ruled alone in the remaining legislative periods.

In detail:

Legislature Period Prime Minister Political party Remarks
I. 1982-1984 Rafael Escuredo Rodríguez PSOE
1984-1986 José Rodríguez de la Borbolla PSOE
II 1986-1990 José Rodríguez de la Borbolla PSOE
III 1990-1994 Manuel Chaves González PSOE
IV 1994-1996 Manuel Chaves González PSOE Minority government
V 1996-2000 Manuel Chaves González PSOE PSOE / PA coalition
VI 2000-2004 Manuel Chaves González PSOE PSOE / PA coalition
VII 2004-2008 Manuel Chaves González PSOE
VIII 2008-2009 Manuel Chaves González PSOE
2009–2012 José Antonio Griñán Martínez PSOE
IX 2012-2013 José Antonio Griñán Martínez PSOE Coalition PSOE / IU
2013-2015 Susana Díaz Pacheco PSOE
X 2015-2019 Susana Díaz Pacheco PSOE
XI 2019– Juan Manuel Moreno Bonilla PP PP / Ciudadanos

coat of arms

The coat of arms of Andalusia shows the figure of the young Heracles between the two pillars of Heracles, which according to tradition form the Strait of Gibraltar. At his feet he bears an inscription that reads: "Andalucía por sí, para España y la Humanidad" (German: "Andalusia for itself, for Spain and humanity"). Both columns are closed with an arch on which is written: "Dominator Hercules Fundator" (Eng. "Ruler Hercules the Founder").


In comparison with the gross domestic product of the European Union expressed in purchasing power standards , Andalusia achieved an index of 66 in 2015 (EU-27: 100). Overall, a gross domestic product of 143.8 billion euros was generated. Some branches of the economy, in particular agriculture and construction (upgrading roads and other investments in the transport network) are highly subsidized. In three decades (Spain joined the EU in 1986), more than 85 billion euros in subsidies and transfers from the EU and the Spanish state flowed into Andalusia.

With a value of 0.853, Andalusia ranks 14th among the 17 autonomous communities in Spain in the Human Development Index .

The unemployment rate in the first quarter of 2013 was 36.8 percent. In 2017 the unemployment rate was 25.5%.

Agriculture, ranching, hunting and forestry

The society of Andalusia has been mainly agrarian for generations. 45.64 percent of the territory of Andalusia is used for agriculture.

The cultures of the dry land shape the landscape for large parts of the country: Grains and sunflowers are grown particularly in the large arable lands of the Guadalquivir valley and in the plateaus of Granada and Almería .

Pasture (Huelva)
Farm in Andalusia

The olive tree , which is preferred in Cordoba and Jaén , plays a major role in wood cultures . In contrast, the almond tree can be found in the plateaus of Granada and Almería. The vine is cultivated extensively in some areas such as Marco de Jerez, El Condado de Huelva, Montilla-Moriles and in Málaga . Fig cultures are less common than in Castile .

Irrigation management is preferred in the Guadalquivir and Genil floodplains . Corn, rice, vegetables and flowers are grown on irrigated fields in Andalusia, and strawberries in Huelva. Plantations provide citrus fruits and cotton.

In terms of turnover, the most productive and competitive agriculture in Andalusia can be found on the coastal or river areas and on sandy soils, such as in Almería and Huelva.

At the same time, ecological agriculture is experiencing a broad development through exports to European countries and an incipient demand in Spain itself.

Cattle breeding has a long tradition, although it is currently mainly limited to mountain pastures. Therefore, the livestock sector has a rather marginal place in the economy of Andalusia. It contributes only 15 percent to the total agricultural production of Andalusia compared to an average of 30 percent in Spain.

Hunting is no longer mainly used to obtain meat, but has become a leisure activity in the mountain regions, where it has become a complementary activity to cattle breeding.

50% of the territory of Andalusia consists of forest, and accordingly forest areas have a special meaning. Above all, they are important for binding the soil, for water regulation and for the preservation of flora and fauna. The tree varieties for economic use of wood are mainly the eucalyptus in Huelva, the poplar in Granada and the cork oak in Sierra Morena.

Andalusia has most of the nature reserves in Europe.


Algeciras fishing port .

Fishing is a traditional activity on the coasts of Andalusia that contributes to the nutrition of Andalusians. This includes the gastronomy culture with, for example, fried fish (pescaito frito), white shrimp and tuna . The fishing fleet of Andalusia is the second largest in Spain after that of Galicia and number one in number of ports at 38.

The fishing sector contributes only 0.52% to Andalusia's agricultural production. However, fishing is of great local importance. For example, in Punta Umbría, 70% of the population is engaged in fishing. In the cities on the Costa de la Luz , tuna fishing with the traditional almadraba is still an important part of fishing culture. Annual activities such as the Ruta del Atún, where restaurants from Conil de la Frontera , Barbate and Tarifa offer their best tuna tapas, promote local specialties across the community.

Failure to comply with the regulations against trawl fishing, pollution of urban coastal areas, the destruction of the habitat through construction measures (e.g. construction of sports ports, changes in the course of the estuaries of rivers) and the lack of fish due to overfishing have led to a permanent crisis in the fishing industry in Andalusia . That is why aquaculture and fish farming are developing at great speed in the interior of Andalusia.

The Alhambra in Granada


Andalusia is one of the regions of Spain where tourism is of particularly great economic importance. Most tourists arrive by plane. The largest airport in Andalusia is in Málaga . Beach holidaymakers prefer the Costa del Sol on the Mediterranean , windsurfers the Costa de la Luz on the Atlantic . The main destinations for sightseeing tourists are the Moorish buildings in Córdoba and the Alhambra in Granada , the White Villages near Ronda and the tomb of Christopher Columbus and the many sights in Seville . Also worth seeing is the Las Alpujarras National Park in the Sierra Nevada , the second highest mountain range in Europe.

Energy production

As one of the southernmost regions of Europe, Andalusia has great potential for using solar energy . The Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA) solar plant is Europe's largest solar power plant. A large solar system is also in operation near Seville .

Around Tarifa , wind farms use the Poniente and Levante winds, which are popular with surfers . The provinces of Málaga and Almería also have a large share of the electricity generated by wind farms. In 2016, Andalusia was Spain's third largest producer of wind energy after Castilla y León and Castilla-La Mancha with 153 wind farms and an installed capacity of around 3.3 gigawatts.



The most successful club in Andalusia is FC Sevilla , which won a Spanish championship , five times in the national cup competition, the Copa del Rey , and five times at European level, and thus more often than any other club, the UEFA Cup or the Europa League won. Also once Spanish champion was Betis Sevilla , in addition, the club twice won the Copa del Rey and qualified several times for European competitions . The duels of both clubs from Seville are also known as Derbi sevillano . Also, the FC Malaga was playing in the European Cup. In addition to these three clubs, a further eight clubs were more or less long represented in the Primera División , the highest Spanish league, and thus Andalusia is the region of Spain from which most of the different clubs have so far participated in the top division of Spanish football. In the 2019/20 season, the two clubs from Seville and Granada CF will play three clubs in the Primera División, and another three are represented in the second-rate Segunda División .

The Spanish national team has played numerous international matches in Andalusia in its history, mostly in Seville. The Andalusian capital is only surpassed by Madrid in the number of home games played by the national team .

At the 1982 World Cup in Spain , several games were played in Andalusia. The venues were the stadiums of the two clubs from Seville and Malaga.


Benefiting from the year-round pleasant climate , Andalusia plays an outstanding role in Spanish golf. The Costa del Sol is next to the region around the capital Madrid the area with the largest golf course in Spain. There are more than 60 golf courses between Málaga and Gibraltar alone, and there are more than 100 courses throughout Andalusia. This golf heavyweight is expressed by the Andalusian Golf Association, Real Federación Andaluza de Golf, which is subordinate to the Spanish Golf Association, Real Federación Española de Golf.

The Costa del Sol has hosted several tournaments on the PGA European Tour , the highest European golf tour for professional players. The undisputed highlight was the hosting of the Ryder Cup , the continental comparison between Europe and the USA, in Valderrama (see Valderrama Golf Club ), near Gibraltar , in 1997 . In the first decade of the 21st century, Valderrama also hosted the Volvo Masters several times, the annual European PGA tournament for which only the 60 best golfers on the European prize money list qualify.

From 2009 to 2012 the Volvo World Match Play Championship was held in the new mode at Finca Cortesín Golf Club near Málaga.



As in most regions of Spain, the RENFE railway network is not very dense, but it connects all major cities. The standard gauge (1435 mm) high-speed line Madrid – Seville has been in operation since 1992 . This line was built for the Expo 92 in Seville and was the first line for high-speed trains in all of Spain. The high-speed line Córdoba – Málaga has been in operation since the end of 2007 .


In 2014 Andalusia had six airports, five of which were international airports. There is a plan to build another airport in Huelva. It will be called Antequera Airport and will primarily serve as a private airport.

Air traffic is concentrated in Malaga airport with approximately 61% of the total passenger volume of Andalusia. The two airports of Malaga and Seville together account for around 82% of the total passenger volume in Andalusia. The passenger numbers for 2013 break down as follows:

  • Almeria Airport . It is mainly served by Spanish domestic Iberia flights (to Madrid, Seville, Barcelona) and low-cost airlines to England. The modern airport was barely occupied in 2016 with a passenger volume of 919,808  PAX .
  • Cordoba airport . It is currently being remodeled in line with Cordoba's application as European Capital of Culture. 6,955 passengers.
  • Granada-Jaen Airport . It is mainly served by low-cost airlines. It is popular with tourists visiting Granada and the Sierra Nevada . The airport has a passenger volume of 638,289.
  • Jerez Airport . It is located eight kilometers northeast of Jerez de la Frontera . It has a passenger volume of 811,554.
  • Málaga Airport is the largest in Andalusia (number 3 in mainland Spain) with more than 12.9 million passengers. The expansion with a second runway and a third terminal went into operation in March 2010. In 2012 it was renamed “Málaga - Costa del Sol”.
  • Seville Airport , around 3.69 million passengers. The airport was rebuilt for the 1992 World Exhibition .


With the La Agencia Pública Empresarial de la Radio y Televisión de Andalucía (RTVA), the autonomous community has a public broadcasting group that broadcasts the following regional television and radio programs under the name Canal Sur.

  • Canal Sur
  • Canal Sur 2
  • Andalucía Televisión
  • Canal Sur 4K


The melody of the Andalusian anthem was composed by José del Castillo Díaz to the text of Blas Infante . It has been the official anthem of Andalusia since 1981.

Original text:

 La bandera blanca y verde,
 vuelve tras siglos de guerra.
 A decir Paz y Esperanza,
 bajo el sol de nuestra tierra.
 ¡Andaluces, levantaos!
 ¡Pedid tierra y libertad!
Sea por Andalucía libre,
 España y la Humanidad.
 Los andaluces queremos
 volver a ser lo que fuimos.
 Hombres de luz que a los hombres,
 Alma de hombres les dimos.
 ¡Andaluces, levantaos!
 ¡Pedid tierra y libertad!
 Sea por Andalucía libre,
 España y la Humanidad.

German translation:

 The white and green flag
 returns after centuries of war
 and tells us: Peace and hope
 under the sun of our country.
 Andalusians, get up!
 Desire for land and freedom!
 For free Andalusia,
 Spain and all of humanity.
 We Andalusians want to be
 what we were again:
 people of light who gave people
 human spirit.
 Andalusians, get up!
 Desire for land and freedom!
 For free Andalusia,
 Spain and all of humanity.

By Andalusian nationalists will España (Spain) like by pueblos los replaced (the people).


  • André Clot : Moorish Spain. 800 years of high Islamic culture in Al Andalus. Patmos, Düsseldorf 2004, ISBN 3-491-96116-5 .
  • Willy Puchner , Walter Haubrich: Andalusia. Bucher, Munich 1983, ISBN 3-7658-0420-7 .
  • Arnold Hottinger (Photos: Hans W. Silvester): Andalusia: Between Fron and Feria . In: Geo-Magazin. Hamburg 1978, 8, pp. 42-70. ("Since Franco's death, the power of the large landowners has been dwindling ...") ISSN  0342-8311
  • Brigitte Hintzen-Bohlen: Andalusia: Art & Culture . Publishing house Köneman, Cologne 1999, ISBN 3-8290-2654-4 .


  • Itineraries Andalusia - The Land of the White Villages. Documentation, 45 minutes, script and direction: Barbara Dickenberger, production: SR , first broadcast: March 28, 2007

See also

Wiktionary: Andalusia  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Web links

Commons : Andalusia  - album with pictures, videos and audio files
Wikivoyage: Andalusia  - Travel Guide

Individual evidence

  1. Cifras oficiales de población resultantes de la revisión del Padrón municipal a 1 de enero . Population statistics from the Instituto Nacional de Estadística (population update).
  2. Other names of the island are Isla de las Palomas and Isla Paloma .
  3. Georg Bossong: The name 'Al-Andalus': New considerations on an old problem. (PDF; 1.0 MB) In: David Restle, Dietmar Zaefferer (Ed.): Sounds and Systems. Studies in Structure and Change. A Festschrift for Theo Vennemann. Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin 2002, ISBN 3-11-017569-X , pp. 149-164.
  4. Katharina Bonhaus: The Andalucismo thesis. (Microsoft Word; 180 kB) March 14, 1999, accessed October 15, 2008 .
  5. ^ F. González de Canales, L. Serrano, J. Llompart: El Emporio Fenicio-Precolonial de Huelva, approx. 900-770 aC , BABesch 81, 2006, pp. 13-29. - online version
  6. after Sebastián Celestino, Carolina López-Ruiz: Tartessos and the Phoenicians in Iberia. Oxford University Press, 2016, pp. 140 f. the earliest finds so far discovered in Cadiz date from around 800 BC. Chr.
  7. Spain - PSOE wins regional election in Andalusia. In: March 22, 2015, accessed November 12, 2018 .
  8. 1982 and 1986: Alianza Popular
  9. 1982: Partido Comunista de España
  10. 1982: Partido Socialista de Andalucía (PSA), renamed Partido Andalucista (PA) in 1984 ; 1986/1990: PA; 1994: electoral alliance of PA and Partido Andaluz del Progreso (PAP); 1996/2000/2004: PA; 2008: Election alliance of various Andalusian regional parties under the leadership of the PA with the designation "Coalición Andalucista"
  11. a b c d Joint candidacy of Podemos and IU; Numbers at Podemos
  12. 2015 GDP per capita in 276 EU regions. (PDF; 609 KB) News Release 52/2017. In: Eurostat, March 30, 2017, accessed June 4, 2020 .
  13. Leo Wieland: Europe's billions seep away in the south of Spain, Andalusia, despite all efforts, is more like the Mezzogiorno than California. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, March 24, 2015, p. 17.
  14. ^ Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab. Retrieved August 12, 2018 .
  15. Encuesta de Población Activa. (PDF; 293 kB) April 25, 2013, accessed on August 26, 2013 (Spanish).
  16. File: Regions with highest and lowest unemployment rates in 2017,% .PNG - Statistics Explained. Retrieved on August 14, 2018 .
  17. ^ Sierra Nevada National Park. In: Retrieved August 23, 2020 .
  18. Eólica 2017. (PDF; 7.1 MB) see table I.01 .: Potencia eólica instalada por comunidades autónomas en 2016 . Asociación Empresarial Eólica, p. 10 , accessed on February 2, 2019 (Spanish).
  19. For other already operated or planned systems on the associated campus, see solar thermal power plant .
  20. Tráfico de pasajeros, operaciones y carga en los aeropuertos Españoles. (PDF; 53 KB) Statistics for 2013. In: Archived from the original on January 16, 2014 ; Retrieved May 9, 2018 (Spanish).

Coordinates: 37 ° 28 ′  N , 4 ° 34 ′  W