Upper Bavaria

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Upper Bavaria
coat of arms
coat of arms
State : Germany
State : Bavaria
Administrative headquarters : Munich
Biggest cities: 1. Munich
2. Ingolstadt
3. Rosenheim
4. Freising
Area : 17,529.10  km²
Residents : 4,710,865 (December 31, 2019)
Population density : 269 ​​inhabitants per km²
District President: Josef Mederer ( CSU )
District President: Maria Els
Website :
Locator map RB Upper Bavaria in Bavaria.svg Locator map Upper Bavaria in Germany.svg
Location in Bavaria and Germany

Upper Bavaria is both a district (third municipal level) and an administrative district of the same area in Bavaria . Upper Bavaria is located in the southeast of the Free State and borders Austria in the south and east , Lower Bavaria and the Upper Palatinate in the northeast , Middle Franconia in the northwest and Swabia in the west . The administrative seat of the district and seat of the district government is Munich .

As the third municipal level , the Bavarian districts are self-governing bodies that comprise several rural districts and urban districts. In the same area there is an administrative district of the same name , the area of ​​responsibility of the district government (often only government for short ) as the central state authority . In contrast to the district offices , which are state and municipal authorities at the same time, there are separate authorities in Bavaria with the district administrations and the governments .

Upper Bavaria is a name for an administrative unit, the boundaries of which have changed several times over the centuries and have taken no account of tribal or linguistic boundaries. In particular, there is no specifically Upper Bavarian dialect. The term "Upper Bavaria" appears for the first time in 1255 when the Bavarian state was divided. Originally, however, the expansion was different: The Chiemgau and the Bad Reichenhall area were then part of Lower Bavaria . The name refers to the relative location on the Danube and its tributaries: Downstream, Upper Bavaria is followed by Lower Bavaria , Upper Austria , and Lower Austria .

After Hamburg, Upper Bavaria is the region in Germany with the second highest gross domestic product per inhabitant. The regional centers in Upper Bavaria are (sorted by number of inhabitants) Munich, Ingolstadt , Rosenheim , Freising , Erding , Garmisch-Partenkirchen and Traunstein .

Political structure

Since 1972

The administrative region of Upper Bavaria comprises three independent cities and 20 districts :

One district cities

  1. Munich
  2. Ingolstadt
  3. Rosenheim


Notes: In the transition period from July 1, 1972 to April 30, 1973, four districts had different names:

  1. The Bad Tölz-Wolfratshausen district was called the Bad Tölz district .
  2. The district of Berchtesgadener Land was called the district of Bad Reichenhall .
  3. The district of Neuburg-Schrobenhausen was called the district of Neuburg a. d. Danube .
  4. The district of Weilheim-Schongau was called the district of Weilheim i. OB .

Until 1972

Before the district reform on July 1, 1972, the administrative district had seven cities and 26 districts:

One district cities

  1. Bad Reichenhall (today a major district town in the Berchtesgadener Land district )
  2. Freising (today a major district town in the Freising district )
  3. Ingolstadt
  4. Landsberg am Lech (today a major district town in the Landsberg am Lech district )
  5. Munich
  6. Rosenheim
  7. Traunstein (today a major district town in the Traunstein district )


Planning regions

Upper Bavaria comprises four planning regions . These are the planning region Ingolstadt , planning region Munich , planning region Oberland and planning region Southeast Upper Bavaria .


With the first division of Bavaria in 1255, an independent duchy of Upper Bavaria was created under Ludwig the Strict , which, however, was not congruent with today's administrative district. After temporary reunification in 1340, the Duchy of Bavaria was divided into three parts in 1392 : Bavaria-Munich and Bavaria-Ingolstadt emerged in Upper Bavaria, and Bavaria-Landshut in Lower Bavaria . In addition, Bavaria-Straubing existed in Lower Bavaria as the fourth duchy since 1353 . In 1505 all sub-duchies were reunited.

For administrative purposes, Bavaria was subsequently divided into pension offices . With the secularization of 1802/03, the areas of the Hochstift Freising became part of Bavaria. In 1810 the Rupertiwinkel came to Bavaria, the final border with Austria was not fixed until 1816 with the Treaty of Munich , when the Duchy of Salzburg was ceded.

With the Bavarian Constitution of 1808 , the now Kingdom of Bavaria was systematically divided into districts that, as central authorities, did not correspond to today's districts, but to today's districts. In 1837 the romantically moved King Ludwig I had the French naming system for the Bavarian districts based on river names replaced by historicizing names that were supposed to reflect the history of the Bavarian regions. This created the district of Upper Bavaria from the Isar district. During the Nazi era, however, the term “district” was adjusted to the Prussian term “administrative district”. In addition, the Gau Munich-Upper Bavaria existed from 1930 to 1945 , which had political significance from 1933 during the Nazi dictatorship.

The inner Bavarian borders have changed several times as a result. In 1972, the city and the main part of the district of Neuburg ad Donau as well as the Fuchstal communities of the previous district of Kaufbeuren fell to Upper Bavaria and the main part of the previous district of Aichach to Swabia .


Gainful employment

The average unemployment rate in Upper Bavaria in 2016 was 3.3 percent. Around 1.6 million people in Upper Bavaria are employed subject to social security contributions, over a million of them in the service sector. Less than 500,000 work in manufacturing and around 11,000 in agriculture and forestry. The district runs a municipal company with the hospitals in the Upper Bavaria district .

In comparison with the GDP of the EU expressed in purchasing power standards, the administrative district achieved an index of 178 (EU-28 = 100) (2015). This makes it one of the economically strongest regions in Europe.


Upper Bavaria has always been one of the most important national and international destinations in tourism. With world-famous sights such as the castles of King Ludwig II , the attractions in the state capital Munich and many natural beauties, Upper Bavaria is a popular holiday region.

The umbrella organization of the Upper Bavarian tourist industry since its founding in 2015, the association Tourism Upper Bavaria Munich .

The gross turnover of Upper Bavarian tourism to 12.6 billion euros through overnight guests and day visitors, with the focus on the latter. The employment effect has an impact on around 200,000 people who can work in tourism and earn their living with an average primary income.


Logo of the district of Upper Bavaria

The district of Upper Bavaria , based in Munich (Prinzregentenstrasse 14), forms the third municipal level in the state with the other Bavarian districts . The core tasks of the district are in the social and cultural area. The organs of the corporation under public law are the district assembly , the district committee and the district assembly president ( Art. 21 District Code ).


The corporation is among other things a supra-local social welfare institution. This means that he is responsible for services such as care assistance for the elderly and those in need of care, as well as integration assistance for people with disabilities.


As a provider of psychiatric and neurological care, the Upper Bavaria district operates its own specialist hospitals. The " Kliniken des Bezirks Oberbayern " are present at more than 20 locations in Upper Bavaria and are operated as a municipal company.


The district of Upper Bavaria is responsible for a number of vocational and special needs schools. It also supports private educational institutions.

Cultural promotion

The cultural department supports supraregional cultural events in Upper Bavaria. The district of Upper Bavaria is also responsible for the open-air museums on the Glentleiten and in Amerang and the culture and education center in the former Seeon Abbey . In addition, the district operates a gallery in its administration building in the Lehel district of Munich and supports young musicians through a popular music officer.

Home care

The district promotes measures in the field of monument and tradition conservation through its home keeper. The district also operates a folk music archive and a costume information center.

District day

A total of 82 seats

The district assembly is elected in parallel to the Bavarian state parliament, the constituency of Upper Bavaria is made up of 60 members and 7 overhang and compensation mandates .


choice CSU SPD Green FW FDP The left ödp BP REP NPD GDP KPD Pirates AfD Animal welfare party total
2018 26th 8th 18th 10 5 3 2 2 7th 1 82
2013 30th 13 8th 6th 3 (until 2015: 2) 1 2 3 1 (until 2015: 2) 67
2008 28 13 9 7th 7th 2 1 1 68
2003 34 11 6th 2 2 1 1 57
1998 35 18th 5 2 1 1 1 2 65
1994 34 17th 6th 2 2 1 3 65
1990 34 16 6th 4th 1 1 3 65
1986 36 17th 6th 3 2 64
1982 36 22nd 3 3 64
1978 37 21st 1 5 64
1974 39 19th 4th 62
1970 31 23 3 1 1 59
1966 25th 23 3 4th 4th 59
1962 23 22nd 3 4th 2 54
1958 23 19th 2 6th 4th 54
1954 18th 17th 3 10 5 1 54
  1. ^ 1978 AUD with password Die Grünen
  2. 1954 and 1958 GB / BHE

The district assembly presidents and their forerunners in office

President of the District Administrator (1828 to 1919)
  • Georg Ludwig Maurer , 1829, 1830
  • Maximilian von Freyberg-Eisenberg , 1832, 1834–36
  • Maximilian Graf von Hundt, 1833
  • Theobald, Earl of Butler-Clonebough, 1837, 1839
  • Karl August Röckel zu Lauterbach, 1840, 1841, 1842, 1844
  • Kaspar von Steinsdorf , 1844, 1846–1848, 1858
  • Friedrich von Hofstetten, 1850
  • Erasmus Freiher von Malsen, 1852, 1853
  • Franz Seraph Dobler, 1854–1857
  • Franz Xaver von Badhauser, 1859–1881
  • Friedrich von Schultes, 1882–1899
  • Josef von Seuffert, 1900–1913
  • Philipp von Brunner , 1914–1918
District President (1919 to 1945)
District President

Josef Mederer (CSU) has been the district council president since October 2008 . His deputies are Rainer Schneider (FW) and Michael Asam ( SPD ) in the legislative period from 2018 .

District budget

District budget 2016
in million euros
Administrative budget 1558.1
Property budget 0023.1
Unmet need (= district levy ) 1247.7
Assessment rate of the district levy 0019.5%
Total debt
as of December 31, 2015

Protected areas

In Upper Bavaria there are 133 nature reserves , 248 landscape protection areas , 148 FFH areas , 27 EU bird protection areas and at least 580 geotopes (as of August 2016). The largest nature reserve is the Ammergau Alps .

See also:

Administrative district

The administrative district of Upper Bavaria is geographically identical to the district of Upper Bavaria. He is the area of ​​responsibility of the state middle authority government of Upper Bavaria .

District President


  • Franz X. Bogner : Upper Bavaria from the air , Stürtz-Verlag, Würzburg 2010, ISBN 978-3-8003-4094-1 .
  • Michael W. Weithmann: Little history of Upper Bavaria , Pustet, Regensburg, 3rd edition from 2016, ISBN 978-3-7917-2848-3
  • Georg Friedrich Kramer: Statistics of the government district of Upper Bavaria , Augsburg 1847 ( e-copy ).

Web links

Commons : Oberbayern  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikivoyage: Upper Bavaria  - Travel Guide

Individual evidence

  1. "Data 2" sheet, Statistical Report A1200C 202041 Population of the municipalities, districts and administrative districts 1st quarter 2020 (population based on the 2011 census) ( help ).
  2. Economic power in an EU comparison on destatis.de - Federal Statistical Office
  3. ^ Regierung.oberbayern.bayern.de: Unemployed annual average 2016
  4. Eurostat. (PDF) Retrieved August 22, 2018 .
  5. ^ Bavarian State Office for Statistics and Data Processing (Ed.): Tourism in Bavaria. Statistical reports 2010 , Munich 2010.
  6. Upper Bavaria brochure "Together we are strong" Tourism in Upper Bavaria 2009 .
  7. Summary / District of Upper Bavaria. Retrieved on October 23, 2018 (German).
  8. ^ Election results for the 2013 district parliamentary elections. Accessed March 5, 2014.
  9. District Day: Members Accessed on January 13, 2018
  10. ^ Michael W. Weithmann: Small history of Upper Bavaria. Blow, 2016.
  11. district budget. In: bekreis-oberbayern.de. Retrieved May 25, 2016 .
  12. Green List, Nature Reserves , accessed on January 2, 2015.

Coordinates: 48 ° 7 '  N , 11 ° 48'  E