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Coat of arms of the Dukes of Straubing-Holland

The Wittelsbach sub- duchy of Straubing-Holland (also Niederbayern-Straubing-Holland , Niederbayern-Straubing , Bayern-Straubing-Holland or Bayern-Straubing ) comprised parts of today's Lower Bavaria and the eastern Upper Palatinate (" Straubinger Ländchen ") as well as the Dutch counties of Hennegau , Holland , Zeeland and Friesland . It existed from 1353 to 1425/29 and was owned by Straubing and The Hagueruled out. The duchy arose as a result of the Wittelsbach division of inheritance after the death of the Roman-German Emperor Ludwig of Bavaria and fell apart when the Straubing line died out in the male line. Under the rule of the Dukes of Straubing-Holland, who were bound by marriage alliances with all important neighbors, the basis of the Dutch sea and trading power was laid.

Contemporary history background

Emperor Ludwig the Bavarian (grave slab in the Munich Frauenkirche )

With Ludwig the Bavarian, the progenitor of the House of Straubing-Holland, a Wittelsbacher had ascended the throne of the Holy Roman Empire for the first time in 1314. His position was anything but secure due to the simultaneous election of Habsburg Frederick the Beautiful . It was therefore all the more important for Ludwig to have a vigorous domestic power policy . He secured the Mark Brandenburg and Tyrol and acquired through his marriage to the daughter of Wilhelm III. of Avesne's claims on Hainaut, Holland and Zealand. Through this marriage he became brother-in-law of the young King of England, Edward III. who was massively involved in the empire. As the grandson of King Philip IV, Edward claimed the French crown and wanted to win partners for his war against France .

The last years of Emperor Ludwig's reign were a rocking policy between Edward and his French adversary Philip VI. embossed. Although he managed to largely stay out of the Hundred Years War that broke out between England and France in 1337 , the imperial princes were nevertheless dissatisfied and in 1346 elected Charles IV of Luxembourg as king. Ludwig's unexpected death in October of the following year decided the question of power in favor of the House of Luxembourg , which, with an interruption from Wittelsbach, was to provide the Roman-German king for the next 90 years . The year 1347 gained importance in a completely different way: The Black Death reached Europe and led to a massive population decline.



In 1345 Wilhelm von Avesnes , the last count of Hainaut, Holland, Zealand and Friesland, died fighting against the rebellious Frisians . Emperor Ludwig the Bavarian then secured the territories that were freed up for his dynasty. Without further ado he enfeoffed his second wife Margarethe , Wilhelm's oldest sister, with the counties. The Wittelsbacher passed over the inheritance claims of the other sisters and the fact that women's inheritance rights were only common in Hainaut, but not in Holland and Zealand. The English King Edward III, who was married to Margaret's sister Philippa von Hainaut , renounced the counties because he did not want to lose Ludwig's support for his war with France.

Straubing-Holland after 1353

As expected, there were difficulties. Margarethe had to appoint her only fifteen-year-old son Wilhelm I as a deputy to calm the angry classes . In 1346 Ludwig the Bavarian issued an inheritance regulation in which he stipulated that Wilhelm should take over the rule of the newly acquired territories when his mother died. In the event of his death, the lands would fall to Albrecht I , his third son with Margarethe. Ludwig the Roman, as Margaret's eldest son, renounced the Dutch inheritance. Emperor Ludwig the Bavarian died a year later while hunting near the Fürstenfeld monastery . His six sons succeeded him.

Government of Wilhelm I and Albrecht I

Ludwig's sons divided their father's inheritance among themselves in the Landsberg Treaty in 1349 . Stephan II. , Wilhelm I and Albrecht I received Lower Bavaria, Wilhelm and Albrecht also the Dutch possessions. The two younger brothers Wilhelm and Albrecht soon asked Stephan to define their Lower Bavarian heritage more precisely. This took place on June 3, 1353 in the Regensburg Treaty . Stephan II received the south of Lower Bavaria with the capital Landshut , while Wilhelm and Albrecht were assigned the so-called Straubinger Ländchen .

This area stretched as a broad band on both sides of the Danube from Kelheim in the west to Schärding in the east, and from Furth im Wald in the north to Dingolfing in the south. Compared to other territories of the time, it was characterized by an astonishing closeness. The Straubinger Ländchen was financially less profitable than the richer Landshut area, but it was about as big as it. The counties of Hainaut, Holland and Zealand were not part of this treaty because they were expressly bequeathed to Wilhelm and Albrecht by Ludwig the Bavarian in 1346. This was the hour of birth of the Duchy of Lower Bavaria-Straubing-Holland.

Albrecht I of Straubing-Holland (from Michiel Vosmeer, Principes Hollandiae et Zelandiae , Antwerp 1578)

There was no further division of the country between the two brothers Wilhelm and Albrecht. They merely agreed on a de facto separation of their areas of interest. While Wilhelm wanted to concentrate entirely on the Dutch territories, in which he had ruled for several years as his mother's governor, Albrecht Niederbayern-Straubing took over. After the end of the first phase of the hook-and-cod war , Wilhelm ruled Holland, Zealand and Friesland from 1354, his mother ruled Hainaut. With Margaret's death in 1356, Hainaut also fell to Wilhelm. In 1357, during a conflict with Bohemia, Albrecht gave the town of Schärding to the Habsburgs as a pledge, but later won it back in the Peace of Schärding .

Sole government of Albrecht I.

The young ruler Albrecht had just started to build a new, befitting ducal castle when he was recalled to the Netherlands at the end of 1357. His brother had had a stroke from which he did not recover. From then on he was considered insane and incapable of governing .

The Dutch estates turned to Albrecht, the next beneficiary, for help. He doesn't seem to have hesitated to leave his Straubing territory and headed for The Hague . He was accompanied by a group of Lower Bavarian aristocrats who were supposed to occupy high administrative posts in the north. Albrecht found conditions there to be anything but orderly. However, through a clever policy aimed at compensation and economic development, he succeeded in securing the rule of the Wittelsbachers in the north against rebellious Frisians as well as temporarily ending the party battles between the noble "Hoeken" and urban "Codfish". His brother Wilhelm, incapable of government, lived the rest of his long life in Le Quesnoy Castle in Hennegau before he died in 1389.

In terms of foreign policy, Albrecht sought neutrality and the most varied alliances possible with the neighbors of his territories. His youngest son Johann III. he was elected to the bishopric of Liège at the age of barely fifteen . Johann was elected prince for almost three decades without ever having received episcopal ordination.

Albrecht's ambitious marriage policy in particular received widespread attention. The double wedding he organized in Cambrai in 1385, at which his eldest son Wilhelm II married a daughter of the powerful Burgundian Duke Philip the Bold and his son Johann Ohnefurcht married Albrecht's daughter Margarete at the same time , was a major event of European importance. The 20,000 invited guests who crowded the streets of Cambrai celebrated for eight days. You could count on such high-ranking well-wishers as the French King Charles VI. to meet.

Albrecht's second son Albrecht II took over the governorship in Lower Bavaria-Straubing from 1387. However, he died after ten years of reign in 1397, so that the governorship of Johann III. passed over. But he stayed very rarely in Straubing because he was kept in suspense by turbulent events in the Netherlands. So Niederbayern-Straubing was ruled again by carers and victumen , some of whom gained considerable influence. When Albrecht I died in 1404 after 50 years of reign, his duchy was in a state that was both internally stable and economically prosperous.

Government of Wilhelm II and Johann III.

King Sigismund visited Straubing in 1422 and decided in 1429 about the division of Bavaria-Straubing (contemporary painting).
The division of Bavaria-Straubing in 1429

He was succeeded by Albrecht's eldest son, Wilhelm II , who inherited the counties of Hainaut, Holland and Zealand from his father, and Johann III continued to manage Niederbayern-Straubing without dividing the inheritance.

After the unexpected death of Wilhelm II in 1417, bitter power struggles broke out. Wilhelm had appointed his daughter Jakobäa as heiress of the Dutch territories. However, Johann did not recognize their claims and wanted to take over sole power in the Duchy of Straubing-Holland. Imperial law, the customs in Holland and Zealand as well as the house contracts of the Wittelsbach family were on his side, and the urban-bourgeois party of the Cod Lions supported him in the hope of more political say. After Johann had shown that he could also enforce his demands militarily, the Jacobea, who stubbornly struggled for their inheritance, had to grant him partial power over their countries. Her changing marriage alliances with France, Brabant and England had not brought the self-confident princess the help she had hoped for.

King Sigismund enfeoffed the former Liege elect, who had since given up his diocese and married the imperial niece Elisabeth von Görlitz , with the Dutch territories. He feared, with good reason, that under Jacobea they would come too much under the dominance of France and Burgundy . Johann was supposed to be the last Duke of Straubing-Holland. In the few years that remained he developed a lively activity. Johann promoted artists such as the painter Jan van Eyck and had the Straubing Palace expanded. He replaced the influential vicarage Heinrich Nothaft , who, due to his wealth, had gained control of parts of the Straubing countryside threatened by Hussite invasions, with a Dutchman.

The end of the duchy

In January 1425, Johann III. poisoned under unexplained circumstances without leaving an heir. At Johann's request, the contested counties fell not to his niece, but to her cousin Philip III. of Burgundy , against which Jacobea could again not assert itself. In the Hague Treaty of 1433, Philip received full sovereignty over Hainaut, Holland and Zealand, after extensive powers had already been assigned to him in the Treaties of Douai (1425) and Delft (1428). This ended the history of the Wittelsbach family in the Netherlands.

Also the "Straubinger Ländchen" was after the murder of Johann III. Subject of violent disputes among the Bavarian Wittelsbachers, in which the later Roman King Albrecht of Austria took part as Johann's nephew. The Straubing estates , who feared a civil war between the Wittelsbach lines, finally called King Sigismund for help. In 1429, in the Pressburg arbitration award, he ordered the division of the Lower Bavarian territories between Ludwig VII the Bearded of Bavaria-Ingolstadt , Heinrich the Rich from Bavaria-Landshut, and Ernst and Wilhelm III. from Bayern-Munich . The capital Straubing fell to Bayern-Munich. Ernst put his son, who later became Duke Albrecht III. , as governor in Straubing. The Duchy of Straubing-Holland ceased to exist.

Socio-cultural floor plan


The territorial fragmentation of the duchy led to an increased mobility of the population, which was needed in all parts of the country because of their skills. This included the artists and craftsmen who were needed for the design of the ducal residences and the construction of churches, monasteries and public buildings. Prominent examples were the cathedral builders Hans von Burghausen and Hans Krumenauer . A number of other craftsmen are known from the dukes' letters and documents, who often worked far from home. A goldsmith named Hans von Seeland settled in Straubing. Musicians and singers also traveled extensively to show their skills. As governor in Straubing, Albrecht II notes the visit of his father's Dutch whistler and the singer of the Roman king.

Joan's journey to her husband in Prague 1370

For the administration of the duchy it was necessary that the dukes were kept up to date on what was going on in all parts of the country. There were always messengers and administrators on the move. So that they could travel undisturbed, a good understanding with the masters of the territories lying on the way was necessary. The Duke's letters of introduction protected important personalities such as Johann von Leuchtenberg and Heinrich Nothaft, who ruled the Straubinger Ländchen in his absence and had to travel regularly to Holland. These trips can now be reconstructed quite well, as all expenses for food and accommodation for guests are recorded in detail in the ducal account books. It can also be seen from them that occasionally even ordinary citizens traveled to the distant duke on their own.

The dukes themselves also traveled a lot. The capture of young Albrecht I by Count von Jülich in 1355 makes it clear that this was not always entirely harmless. The trip of the ducal couple and their daughter Johanna in late summer 1370 to Nuremberg , where Johanna was handed over to the representatives of her future father-in-law Charles IV , is particularly well documented . The route led from The Hague via Rotterdam, Eindhoven, Cologne, Bingen, Mainz, Frankfurt and Würzburg to Nuremberg. The parents spent the winter in Straubing, while the daughter traveled on to Prague . In addition to such politically motivated trips, the last crusades also ensured mobility. The later Duke Wilhelm II took part in a Prussian crusade of the Teutonic Order in 1386 and the participants in the crusade against the Ottomans stopped in Straubing in 1396.


Jan van Eyck was by Duke Johann III. sponsored by Straubing-Holland (self-portrait from 1433).

Especially in The Hague, but also in Straubing under Albrecht II (1387–1397), cultural life flourished. Important artists came from far and wide to the court of the Dukes of Straubing-Holland, which was influenced by Dutch, Bavarian, French and Burgundian influences. Musicians and heralds performed there, including Claes Heynen , who, under the stage name “Herold Bayern”, was one of the most famous representatives of his guild. Court poetry also experienced an upswing. The ducal chancellor Dirc Potter and Willem van Hildegaersberch wrote about love, virtue and honor. Many of these poems are contained in the Hague song manuscript , which was written around 1400 . The texts, often written in a mixed Dutch-German language, were apparently still understood throughout the duchy at that time.

The Dukes of Straubing-Holland were committed to promoting knight culture. Albrecht I even founded an order of knights, the Order of St. Anthony . Heralds like Claes Heynen praised chivalric deeds and monitored compliance with the knightly code of conduct. The dukes organized large tournaments or took part in the carnival tournaments of the European aristocracy. Even the parrot shooting enjoyed widespread popularity. It was initially only known in the Netherlands and was also introduced in Bavaria by Albrecht I and his son of the same name. The large ballroom in the Straubing Ducal Palace is still called the Knight's Hall today . Participation in the Prussian Crusade also fits into this pattern. Wilhelm II wanted not only to gain combat experience in the east, but also to gain honor as a knight.

Above all, the last duke, Wilhelm's brother Johann III., Also made an outstanding contribution to painting. Johann had already become aware of the young painter Jan van Eyck when he was Prince Elector of Liège and hired him as court painter. Van Eyck is attested between 1422 and 1424 in the ducal account books. Johann commissioned his court painter to paint the ducal residence in The Hague. In addition, van Eyck probably also fulfilled the usual tasks associated with this office, such as painting banners and shields or designing dishes and tombs. It is possible that he designed the grave of Ulrich Kastenmayr, a citizen of Straubing , who stayed at Johann's court in 1424 in his function as ducal chamberlain.


Duke John of Burgundy was one of Albrecht I's sons-in-law.

In their government activities, the Dukes of Straubing-Holland had to show consideration not only for their neighbors, but increasingly also for their subjects. In Holland and Zealand, for example, they had to mediate between two parties, the Hoeken, who were mainly recruited from the nobility, and the Cod Lions, who were on the side of the emerging cities, who always sided with one or the other member of the House of Straubing-Holland. In the whole of the duchy, the influence of the cities grew with their economic rise, and especially in the Straubinger Ländchen the estates demanded a say.

The estates had developed in the 14th century and consisted of the prelates as representatives of the church, the cities and markets and the nobles who lived there. In the Straubinger Ländchen they included the cities of Straubing, Cham , Deggendorf , Dingolfing , Kelheim , Landau and Vilshofen and the markets of Geiselhöring , Hengersberg , Kötzting and Plattling . The clergy were represented by monasteries such as Aldersbach , Mallersdorf , Metten , Niederalteich , Oberalteich , Weltenburg and Windberg . The relatively young monasteries of the mendicant orders such as the Carmelites or Franciscans were not members of the estates . The most important group in the Straubinger Ländchen, however, were aristocratic families such as the Kammerauer , Nussberger or Puchberger . At the end of the duchy, 96 nobles known by name were members of the estates.

The dukes were mostly employed in the northern counties, Friesland in particular was a constant source of trouble. It was all the more important to have a skillful foreign policy that kept their backs free. Albrecht I achieved this goal by marrying his seven children with powerful neighbors. He concluded marriage alliances with Burgundy , Habsburg , the Luxemburgers and Jülich . The occupation of the bishopric of Liège with his son Johann also served this goal. Albrecht's sons, however, did not have the political sensitivity of their father. Domestically, the Frisians, Hoeken and Codfish caused difficulties again and again, while the Straubinger Ländchen in particular suffered from the consequences of the Hussite Wars . The dispute between Jacobea and John III. around the Netherlands also caused unrest.


Philip the Good ended the tradition of ornate account books (contemporary painting by Rogier van der Weyden).

The greatest weight among the members of the estates were the ducal councils, which, under the chairmanship of the vicarage , directed the fortunes of the Lower Bavarian part of the country in the absence of the duke. In addition, the head of the ducal chancellery and the land clerk were important. The clergyman Rabno von Mauren held the offices of protonotary, chancellor and land clerk in personal union from 1368 and thus gained considerable political influence. As a rule, however, the last word was given to the governor like Johann von Leuchtenberg. Since the dukes rarely stayed in Straubing, the keepers and victume were able to rule relatively independently. However, they had to expect to be summoned to The Hague in the event of misconduct.

The administration of the duchy was mainly determined in the first decades of its existence by experts from Lower Bavaria, including Rabno von Mauren and Peter Kammerauer. The Bavarian influence is particularly evident in the design of the accounting books. Before Albrecht I arrived in Holland, these were sober lists without any adornment. Albrecht's subordinates now began to decorate the invoices with small drawings. Kammerauer preferred animals and plants, his successor Conrad von Silice dogs and hunting scenes. Heinrich Nothaft still followed this tradition, which with the death of the last Duke Johann III. 1425 ended abruptly. Apparently the new strong man Philip the Good was more interested in the bare figures than in their presentation.

In the administration of Straubing-Holland, non-nobles were also strongly represented. Free citizens worked as tax collectors, foresters or renters, some even rose to the nobility, like the poetic treasurer Dirc Potter. Only the area of ​​jurisdiction was reserved for the old nobility. In the coastal areas of the duchy, the office of dikemaster was also of particular importance. The water authorities were absolutely vital here. Albrecht I therefore promoted the Hooghemraadschap, which is responsible for coastal protection, to the best of his ability. It still bears the coat of arms of the Dukes of Straubing-Holland. In the Bavarian part of the duchy, which was divided into regional courts, the Danube was the most important waterway. Here the three Danube bridges and the Danube ferries were the neuralgic points. The operation and maintenance of the Straubing Bridge was left to the citizens of the city.


The economic development of the duchy was extremely positive. In the beginning, agriculture, cattle breeding and hunting were still dominant, but soon trade, fishing and shipbuilding flourished in Holland and Zealand. The invention of salting herring in around 1400 became of decisive importance. Herring could now be made more easily durable. This made longer journeys possible. The operators of shipping companies and fishing fleets thus achieved great wealth, which they also wanted to convert into a political say. Many of them were also involved in the new breweries and brickworks that emerged as the cities grew and expanded. The dukes supported the cities through privileges and were able to establish trade and textile industries in the counties.

Agriculture remained more important in fertile Lower Bavaria than in the north. The Jews living here were not allowed to work in this sector and therefore turned to trade and banking. Towards the end of the duchy they lived in Dietfurt , Kelheim, Abbach , Plattling, Straubing and Vilshofen. Some of them made considerable fortunes. Fifteen Jews known by name paid 93 guilders more taxes than cities like Dingolfing or Landau. However, the cities, which, as in the north, were the special focus of the dukes, also developed quite well economically. This development was threatened by the Hussite Wars that began in 1419 . Again and again soldiers from nearby Bohemia invaded the Bavarian Forest and robbed the cattle and the movable belongings of the people. Even after the end of the duchy, its heirs Ernst and Albrecht III. to fight with the Hussites.


The New Church in Delft was built under the Dukes of Straubing-Holland.

The Dukes of Straubing-Holland, above all Albrecht I during his reign for more than fifty years, took great care of the development of the cities and markets under their control. In Holland and Zealand there were already a number of smaller towns which, thanks to the privileges granted to them, gained economic importance. Examples of this are Dordrecht , which was granted stacking rights, and Middelburg , which developed into the outer port of Antwerp . The textile industry flourished in Leiden and The Hague , while numerous breweries were established in Delft , Haarlem and Gouda . The increasing economic power of the cities went hand in hand with an increased willingness to participate in government. Albrecht I was only able to enforce rule over Delft and Dordrecht by besieging the two cities.

In Lower Bavaria, too, the dukes found around thirty towns and markets, some of which had been founded by their Wittelsbach ancestors. The cities of Straubing and Landau , for example, went back to Ludwig den Kelheimer . Only Dietfurt in the Altmühltal was not elevated to a town until 1416. The lesser importance of the new city of Dietfurt is shown by the fact that its income was only around 50 pounds Regensburg pfennigs , while that of the royal seat of Straubing was around 1000 pounds. The convenient location of the cities and markets is striking: almost all of them were at crossings between navigable waterways and important land-based trade routes. For the dukes, they were administrative headquarters, resting and trading places and, especially in the north, also part of border security.

In the Lower Bavarian part of the duchy, in addition to Straubing, the city of Deggendorf also enjoyed special funding. Albrecht I visited the city personally in 1353 and, in addition to some tax breaks, granted the September market to be moved to an economically favorable date in October. He also assisted in fortifying the city and paving its streets. In 1381 he gave the city as security for the dowry of his youngest daughter Johanna Sophie . In 1410 a nursing court was set up in Deggendorf . The city of Dingolfing received a ducal castle, the Regen market a box office and the Plattling market was even completely redesigned at a flood-proof location. The promotion of these places was by no means unselfish. If the places prospered, the dukes could meet part of their enormous financial needs by borrowing money from them.

Residential cities


The Straubing City Tower was built under the Dukes of Straubing-Holland. The copper roof was added later, however.

The town of Straubing had been sponsored by the Wittelsbach family since the beginning of the 13th century. Duke Ludwig the Kelheimer had the Straubing Neustadt built in 1218. The Dukes of Straubing-Holland continued this policy. Even if after 1358 they were mostly in the north, Straubing remained a cornerstone of their policy as an important traffic junction and starting point for ducal interventions with the emperor and the pope. Not only the dukes themselves stayed in Straubing again and again, the participants in the Battle of Nicopolis also stopped here in 1396. In 1422 even King Sigismund came to Straubing with his wife and a large retinue. There was also a lot of traffic between Straubing and The Hague, the northern residence. So the dukes were always informed about what was going on in the Straubinger Ländchen.

Straubing itself was promoted in many ways. Privileges were confirmed, annual fairs approved, taxes lowered and, last but not least, numerous new buildings erected, which still shape the cityscape today. In 1356 Albrecht I laid the foundation stone for a representative new ducal palace , which his son Johann III. still had to be expanded. The knight's hall built by Johann is one of the largest festival rooms of the German Middle Ages. The settlement of the Shod Carmelites and the construction of the Carmelite Church also go back to the initiative of Albrecht I. The tomb of Albrecht II in the church choir is the only surviving grave of a Duke of Straubing-Holland. In addition, the streets of the city were paved, the city ​​tower completed and the town hall , which was badly damaged in a fire at the end of November 2016, as well as the churches of St. Jakob and St. Veit were built.

The hague

The Hague had been the residence of the Counts of Holland since 1229, but had lost much of its importance under the House of Avesnes . Margarethe and her son Wilhelm I still attached greater importance to Hainaut. It was not until Wilhelm's brother Albrecht I, who came to the north as regent in 1358, again chosen The Hague as his seat of power.

The Binnenhof

The ascent to the residence was not least reflected in brisk construction activity. In particular, the formerly count and now ducal palace, the Binnenhof , built from 1250 , was significantly expanded by Albrecht and supplemented by a chapel and a number of farm buildings. Shortly before his death, he and his second wife Margarethe von Kleve founded a Dominican monastery , which later developed into one of the most popular burial places in The Hague.

At that time The Hague was still relatively small and not yet elevated to a city, so the influence of the citizens was less than in other places in the counties. So the Duke could do whatever he wanted. The farm and the numerous building measures soon drew craftsmen and merchants from far away to the Hague. The tomb of Albrecht's first wife Margarethe von Liegnitz, for example, was designed by Johann dem Bayern and Jakob von München. The residence became a place of international exchange thanks to workers and civil servants from their native Bavaria and, above all, ambassadors from the European royal houses. Despite the position of the Dukes of Straubing-Holland, which was initially of little importance in terms of power politics, their residence in The Hague gained European importance.


Jakobäa (from Michiel Vosmeer, Principes Hollandiae et Zelandiae , Antwerp 1578)


The line of the Dukes of Straubing-Holland goes back to Emperor Ludwig IV and his second wife Margarethe von Avesnes . Her son Wilhelm I was the first duke. However, Wilhelm suffered a mental breakdown in 1357 and remained childless. He was succeeded by his brother Albrecht I . Albrecht I had numerous children, including three legitimate sons, Wilhelm II , Albrecht II and Johann III . He also had four legitimate daughters, of whom Katharina was married to Wilhelm von Jülich , Johanna to Wenzel von Böhmen , Margarete to Johann von Burgund and Johanna Sophie to Albrecht von Österreich . Albrecht I had at least seven other children from several illegitimate connections.

Despite the many children he had brought into the world, the Straubing-Holland House was only to survive Albrecht I by two generations. Wilhelm II had only one daughter from his marriage to Margaret of Burgundy , and his four illegitimate sons were not entitled to succeed him. His brothers Albrecht II and Johann III. had no children. Albrecht II died before he could enter into marriage, and Johann had to remain unmarried as Bishop of Liège for a long time. With Johann III. the last male member of the dynasty died in 1425, which finally died out in 1436 with the death of Jacobea, the daughter of Wilhelm II. The territories ruled by her fell to Burgundy and the other Bavarian sub-duchies.

List of dukes

Surname Reign ancestry
Wilhelm I. 1347–1389 Duke of Straubing-Holland, incapable of government since 1357 due to a mental illness Son of Ludwig IV.
Albrecht I. 1347–1404 Duke of Straubing-Holland, 1347–1358 Duke in Straubing, 1358–1389 Regent of the Netherlands Brother Wilhelm I.
Albrecht II. 1387–1397 governor in Straubing Son of Albrecht I.
Wilhelm II. 1404–1417 Duke of Straubing-Holland, Duke in the Netherlands Son of Albrecht I.
Johann III. 1404–1425 Duke of Straubing-Holland, 1404–1417 Duke in Straubing Son of Albrecht I.
Jacobea 1417–1433 heiress of the Netherlands, from Johann III. Stripped of power in 1420 Daughter of Wilhelm II.


Seal of Johann III. from 1422 (Straubing City Archives, Document Collection 322)

The source situation, especially for the later years, is relatively good, since the land recorder accounts of the Duchy of Straubing-Holland for the years 1421–1427 have been passed down throughout. The large distance between the Dutch parts of the country and the Straubing Ländchen forced the administration to be extensively written down even earlier. The most important and probably best researched source for the administration of the duchy is the land clerk Hans Kastenmayr , who took over this office in October 1421. Kastenmayr's invoices were discovered by chance in the Regensburg city archive at the beginning of the 19th century and have been the subject of two academic papers in recent years. The accounts for the years 1411–1421 have not been preserved, but they can be partly derived from a list of claims made by his vicar Heinrich Nothaft to Johann III. to be developed.

Other important sources are the documents stored in the Bavarian Main State Archives in Munich and the German Reichstag files published by Dietrich Kerle and Hermann Herre . Also of importance are the documents and regestas on Straubing's city history compiled by Johannes Mondschein , Fridolin Solleder and Adalbert Scherl, as well as the Regesta Imperii and the Neuburg copial books . The works of the Augustinian canon Andreas von Regensburg , who is considered the most important Bavarian historian of his time, are of decisive importance for the history of the event . The Duchy of Straubing-Holland is mentioned above all in the Diarium sexennale and the Chronica Husitarum .


The Duchy of Straubing-Holland has come back into the focus of research due to the 650th anniversary celebrations held in 2003. The current literature given below is limited to two works on Hans Kastenmayr's land clerk calculations, but mainly to overview presentations. The biographies of individual dukes of Straubing-Holland - apart from fiction works on Jakobäa - have unfortunately not emerged in the last few years. The Dutch historian Dick de Boer dealt with more specific questions, but his works are mostly only available in Dutch, as well as a few smaller writings on architectural history topics.

A selection of secondary literature:

  • Boris Blahak: The account book of the Straubing land clerk Hans Kastenmayr (1424/25) . Master's thesis, University of Regensburg 1997.
  • Laetitia Boehm : The Wittelsbach House in the Netherlands . In: Journal for Bavarian State History . tape 44 , 1981, pp. 93-130 ( online ).
  • Michaela Bleicher: The Duchy of Lower Bavaria-Straubing in the Hussite Wars. Everyday life and warfare as reflected in the land clerk's accounts . Dissertation, University of Regensburg 2006 ( online ).
  • Alfons Huber, Johannes Prammer (ed.): 650 years of the Duchy of Lower Bavaria-Straubing-Holland. Lecture series by the historical association for Straubing and the surrounding area . Historical association for Straubing and the surrounding area, Straubing 2005, ISBN 3-00-014600-8 .
  • Dorit-Maria Krenn, Joachim Wild : “princes in the distance”. The Duchy of Lower Bavaria-Straubing-Holland 1353–1425 (=  booklets on Bavarian history and culture . Volume 28 ). House of Bavarian History, Augsburg 2003, ISBN 3-927233-86-2 .
  • Markus Retzer: The administration of the Duchy of Lower Bavaria-Straubing-Holland (=  Regensburg contributions to regional history . Volume 26 ). edition vulpes, Regensburg 2020, ISBN 3-939112-88-7 (also dissertation, University of Regensburg, 2017).
  • Theodor Straub : The Niederbayern-Straubing-Holland sideline . In: Max Spindler , Andreas Kraus (Ed.): Das Alte Bayern. The territorial state from the end of the 12th century to the end of the 18th century (=  Handbook of Bavarian History . Volume II ). 2nd Edition. CH Beck, Munich 1988, ISBN 3-406-32320-0 , p. 217-222 .
  • Joachim Wild: The dukes of Straubing and Ingolstadt. Temporary residence cities . In: Alois Schmid , Katharina Weigand (ed.): The rulers of Bavaria. 25 historical portraits of Tassilo III. until Ludwig III . 2nd Edition. CH Beck, Munich 2006, ISBN 3-406-54468-1 , p. 118-129 , especially 118-123 .
  • Joachim Wild: Holland. The Wittelsbacher on the North Sea (1346–1436) . In: Alois Schmid, Katharina Weigand (Hrsg.): Bavaria in the middle of Europe. From the early Middle Ages to the 20th century . CH Beck, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-406-52898-8 , p. 92-106 .

Web links

Portal: Middle Ages / Straubing-Holland  - Overview of Wikipedia content on the subject of Straubing-Holland


  1. ↑ In detail on the origins of the Duchy Alois Schmid, The emergence of the Teilherzogtums Straubing-Holland , in: Huber / Prammer, 650 Jahre Herzogtum Niederbayern-Straubing-Holland , pp. 7–39.
  2. ↑ In detail on Albrecht and his foreign policy Dick de Boer, Person und Neutralitätsppolitik Albrechts I , in: Huber / Prammer, 650 Jahre Herzogtum Niederbayern-Straubing-Holland , pp. 91–126.
  3. On van Eyck and Straubing-Holland see above all Till-Holger Borchert, Jan van Eyck, Lambert van Eyck and the House of Bavaria-Straubing in Holland , in: Krenn / Wild, princes in the distance , Augsburg 2003
  4. ↑ In detail on this Wim P. Blockmans, The wrestling of Bavaria and Burgundy for the Netherlands , in: Huber / Prammer, 650 Jahre Herzogtum Niederbayern-Straubing-Holland , pp. 321–345.
  5. ↑ In detail Dorit-Maria Krenn, Das Ende des Herzogtums Niederbayern-Straubing-Holland , in: Huber / Prammer, 650 Jahre Herzogtum Niederbayern-Straubing-Holland , pp. 347-375. See also Krenn's Dorit-Maria Krenn: Article . In: Historical Lexicon of Bavaria .
  6. See Krenn / Wild, princes in the distance , p. 14.
  7. ↑ In detail, Wim van Anrooij, Bavaria, Herolde und Literatur im Late Medieval Empire , in: Huber / Prammer, 650 Jahre Herzogtum Niederbayern-Straubing-Holland , pp. 235–275.
  8. This is what Eyck expert Till-Holger Borchert suspects in Krenn / Wild, princes in the distance , p. 41. Rainer Alexander Gimmel is against this : “Vivit et non vivit”. The tomb for Ulrich Kastenmayr in the St. Jakob parish church in Straubing. In: Annual report of the historical association for Straubing and the surrounding area. 116th year, 2014, pp. 137–182, in particular 152–159, assumes that the tomb comes from the same master as the grave of Duke Albrecht II in the Straubing Carmelite Church. On the person of Kastenmayr Franz Fuchs, Ulrich and Hans Kastenmayr , in: Huber / Prammer, 650 years of the Duchy of Lower Bavaria-Straubing-Holland , pp. 127–172.
  9. For the background, see the article Hook-and-Cod War .
  10. On the importance of the estates Joachim Wild, Niederbayern-Straubing and his estates , in: Huber / Prammer, 650 Years Duchy of Niederbayern-Straubing-Holland , pp. 41-69. In it excerpts from the Neuburg Copial Book No. 1 with the Straubinger Landtafel from 1425.
  11. Neuburg Copial Book No. 1, fol. 25r.
  12. Neuburg Copial Book No. 1, fol. 23r.
  13. Neuburg Copial Book No. 1, fol. 24r.
  14. ↑ In detail, Michaela Bleicher, The Duchy of Bavaria-Straubing in the Hussite Wars , Regensburg 2004.
  15. Neuburg Copial Book No. 1, fol. 25v.
  16. See Krenn / Wild, Fürste in der ferne , p. 20.
  17. ↑ In detail Lutz-Dieter Behrendt, Cities and Markets in the Duchy of Straubing-Holland , in: Huber / Prammer, 650 Years Duchy of Niederbayern-Straubing-Holland , pp. 173–233.
  18. Illustration in the Historical Lexicon of Bavaria . Rainer Alexander Gimmel, Ewiges Herzogsamt - ephemeral Erdenleben , in: Huber / Prammer, 650 Years Duchy of Lower Bavaria-Straubing-Holland , pp. 277–319. It also contains numerous photos of the grave.
  19. For a family tree, see Krenn / Wild, princes in der ferne , p. 46.
  20. The account books are now in the Bavarian Main State Archives in Munich, where they are filed under the signature of Ämterrechnungen bis 1506, No. 3–10 . Boris Blahak dealt with the accounting books for the years 1424/25 in his master's thesis in 1997, Michaela Bleicher evaluated the accounting books in her dissertation published in 2006, particularly with regard to the Hussite Wars.
  21. These are kept in the Bavarian Main State Archives under the signature Fürstensachen 1322 1/3 .
  22. The German Reichstag files under Emperor Sigmund (Reprint Göttingen 1956 f.) Are of particular importance here.
  23. Johannes Mondschein, Princely Documents for the History of the City of Straubing , 1903; ders., Straubing documents 1. Documents of the Straubing Regional Court , 1907; Fridolin Solleder, Straubing document book , 1911–1918; Adalbert Scherl, Document and Regestenbuch der Stadt Straubing , undated
  24. Friedrich J. Böhmer (Ed.): Regesta Imperii XI. The documents of Emperor Sigmund (1410–37) , reprinted in Hildesheim 1968.
  25. ^ Georg Leidinger (ed.): Andreas von Regensburg. Complete works , Munich 1903.
  26. For a more detailed account of the history of research see Bleicher, Das Herzogtum Niederbayern-Straubing in the Hussitenkriegen , pp. 9-14.
  27. The last more extensive biography in German was Friedrich Schneider: Herzog Johann von Baiern. Elected Bishop of Liège and Count of Holland (1373–1425). A prince of the church and statesman at the beginning of the XV. Century . Vaduz 1965 (reprint of the Berlin 1913 edition). Dorit-Maria Krenn contains short biographies of Albrecht I and Ulrich Kastenmayr: Straubinger! 23 short portraits . Attenkofer, Straubing 2007, ISBN 3-936511-39-X . The New German Biography so far contains short biographies of Albrecht I, Jakobäas and Johann III.
  28. The following are available in German:
    • Dick EH de Boer person and neutrality policy Albrecht I . In: Alfons Huber, Johannes Prammer (ed.): 650 years of the Duchy of Lower Bavaria-Straubing-Holland . S. 91-126 .
    • Ders .: center in the distance. Straubing's role in the Dutch-Bavarian administration around 1390 . In: Alfons Huber, Johannes Prammer (ed.): 1100 Years Straubing 897–1997. Lecture series by the historical association for Straubing and the surrounding area . Historical association for Straubing and the surrounding area, Straubing 1998, ISBN 3-00-002752-1 , p. 119-148 .
    • Ders .: A triangle is stretched. The departure of Albrecht from Bavaria – Straubing to the Netherlands in the light of the formation of territories . In: Yearbook of the Historical Association for Straubing and the surrounding area . tape 89 , 1987, pp. 33-56 .
  29. In particular:
    • Hans Agsteiner: History and stories about the Straubing Ducal Castle . For the renovation of the tax office building in the gate tower, south and east wing . Tax office Straubing, Straubing 1995.
    • Cornelia Harrer: The ducal castle of Straubing at the time of the late Gothic. Documentation on the creation, misappropriation and rediscovery . In: Yearbook of the Historical Association for Straubing and the surrounding area . tape 92 , 1990, pp. 313-381 .
    • Dorit-Maria Krenn: The town hall of Straubing. History, buildings, shapes . Stadtarchiv, Straubing 2007, ISBN 978-3-931578-18-3 .